ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

ELECTRIC CURRENT SERVES US IN A THOUSAND WAYS



LESSON 1

Read and translate the text.

LESSON 2

Read and translate the text.

ENERGY

In the language of science energy is the ability to do work. There are various forms of energy, such as heat, me­chanical, electrical, chemical, atomic and so on. One might also mention the two kinds of mechanical energy—poten­tial and kinetic, potential energy being the energy of position while kinetic energy is the energy of motion.

It is well known that one form of energy can be changed into another. A waterfall may serve as an example. Water falling from its raised position, energy changes from po­tential to kinetic energy. The energy of falling water is generally used to turn the turbines of hydroelectric stations. The turbines in their turn drive the electric generators, the latter producing electric energy. Thus, the mechanical energy of falling water is turned into electric energy. The electric energy, in its turn, may be transformed into any other necessary form.

When an object loses its potential energy, that energy is turned into kinetic energy. Thus, in the above-mentioned example when water is falling from its raised position, it certainly loses its potential energy, that energy is changed into kinetic energy.

We have already seen that energy of some kind must be employed to generate the electric current. Generally speak­ing, the sources of energy usually employed to produce current are either chemical, as in the battery, or mechani­cal, as in the electromagnetic generator. Chemical sources of current having a limited application, the great quanti­ties of electric energy generated today come from various forms of mechanical energy.

The rising standards of modern civilization and grow­ing industrial application of the electric current result in an increasing need of energy. Every year we need more and more energy. We need it to do a lot of useful things that are done by electricity. However, the energy sources of the world are decreasing while the energy needs of the world are increasing. These needs will continue to grow as more motors and melted metals are used in industry and more electric current is employed in everyday life. As a result, it is necessary to find new sources of energy.

The sun is an unlimited source of energy. However, at present, only a little part of solar energy is being used directly. How can we employ solar energy directly to produce useful energy? This is a question which has interested scientists and inventors for a long time. Lavoisier and other great scientists of the past melted metals with the help of solar furnaces. Today, solar furnaces illustrate just one of the numerous ways to harness the sun. Using semiconduc­tors, scientists, for example, have transformed solar energy intoelectric energy.

Exercises

I. Learn the following words, groups of words. Translate the sentences.

1.battery— батарея. Volta made the first battery.

2. to change — изменять, преобразовывать. Electrical energy can be changed into mechanical energy.

3. chemical— химический. Chemical energy can be transformed into work or into electrical energy.

4. to drive— приводить в движение. Electrical current drives various machines at factories and mills.

5. to employ— использовать, применять. Electrical cranes are employed in industry.

6.generally— обычно. The pyrometer is generally used to measure high temperatures.

7. to harness— использовать энергию (воды, ветра, солнца). The scientists try to harness the wind.

8. generator — генератор. Generators generate electri­cal energy.

9. inone's turn— в свою очередь. The motor transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy; mechanical energy in its turn drives the machines.

10. kind — вид, род. There are all kinds of machines in our laboratory.

11. to produce — производить, создавать, выпускать. Where are these vacuum cleaners produced?

12. source— источник. There are different sources of energy

13. solar— солнечный. Solar energy can find various applications.

14.semiconductor— полупроводник. Semiconductors are widely used in industry.

15. to turn— превращать. The motor turns electrical energy into mechanical energy.

16. waterfall— водопад. The energy of a waterfall can be used to produce electricity.

II. Learn the following international words.

Moment, electricity, operation, laboratory, metal, theatre, industrial, motor, crane, ton, pyrometer, tempera­ture, mass, illustrate, industry.

III. Give short answers to the following questions.

1. Can one form of energy be changed into another form? 2. Does a generator produce mechanical energy? 3. Is the sun an unlimited source of energy? 4. Can we employ solar energy directly? 5. Have scientists transformed solar energy into electric energy? 6. Is potential energy the energy of motion? 7. Do we need more and more elec­tric energy every year? 8. Are there various forms of energy? 9. Do you use electric energy every day? 10. Can the energy of falling water be used to drive turbines? 11. Is kinetic energy the energy of position?

IV. Find the correct term out of the three given below.

1. The motor changes electrical energy into a) heat energy, b) chemical energy, c) mechanical energy.

2. The generator changes mechanical energy into a) chemical energy, b) electrical energy, c) light energy.

3. The battery changes chemical energy into a) solar energy, b) heat energy, c) electric energy.

4. The electric furnace changes electric energy into a) heat energy, b) chemical energy, c) mechanical energy.

5. The vacuum cleaner changes electrical energy into a) light energy, b) mechanical energy, c) solar energy.

V. For the words given in (a) find the Russian equivalents in (b).

a) 1. to transform; 2. device; 3. application; 4. chem­ical; 5. potential; 6. source; 7. station; 8. to produce; 9. to drive; 10. to serve; 11. to do without; 12. to make use of; 13. as for; 14. to play a part; 15. semiconductor.

b) 1. служить; 3. приспособление; 4. прибор; 5. использовать; 6. источник; 7. что касается; 8. потенциальный; 9. применение; 10. преобразовывать; 11. станция; 12. вырабатывать; 13. химический; 14. обходиться без чего-л.; 15. приводить в действие.

 

VI. Make up the annotation of the text and retell it.

 

LESSON 3

Read and translate the text.

ATOMIC ENERGY

A man trying to see a single atom is like a man trying to see a single drop of water in the sea while he is flying high above it. He will see the sea made up of a great many drops of water but he certainly will not be able to see a single drop. By the way, there are so many atoms in the drop of water that if one could count one atom a second, day and night, it would take one hundred milliard years. But that is certainly impossible.

Man has, however, learned the secret of the atom. He has learned to split atoms in order to get great quantities of energy. At present, coal is one of the most important fuels and our basic source of energy. It is quite possible that some day coal and other fuel may be replaced by atom­ic energy. Atomic energy replacing the present sources of energy, the latter will find various new applications.

The nuclear reactor is one of the most reliable "furnaces" producing atomic energy. Being used to produce energy, the reactor produces it in the form of heat. In other words, atoms splitting in the reactor, heat is developed. Gas, water, melted metals, and some other liquids circulating through the reactor carry that heat away. The heat may be carried to pipes of the steam generator containing water. The resulting steam drives a turbine, the turbine in its turn drives an electric generator. So we see that a nuclear power station is like any other power station but the fa­miliar coal-burning furnace is replaced by a nuclear one that is the reactor supplies energy to the turbines. By the way, a ton of uranium (nuclear fuel) can give us as much energy as 2.5 million tons of coal.

The first industrial nuclear power station in the world was constructed in Obninsk not far from Moscow in 1954. It is of high capacity and has already been working for many years. One may mention here that the station in question was put into operation two years earlier than the British one and three and a half years earlier than the American nuclear power stations.

A number of nuclear power stations have been put into operation since 1954. The Beloyarskaya nuclear power station named after academician Kurchatov may serve as an example of the peaceful use of atomic energy.

Russian scientists and engineers achieved a nuclear su­perheating of steam directly in the reactor itself before steam is carried into the turbine. It is certainly an impor­tant contribution to nuclear engineering achieved for the first time in the world.

We might mention here another important achieve­ment, that is, the first nuclear installation where thermal energy generated in the reactor is transformed directly into electrical energy.

Speaking of the peaceful use of atomic energy it is also necessary to mention our nuclear ice-breakers. "Lenin" is the world's first ice-breaker with a nuclear installation. Its machine installation is of a steam turbine type, the steam being produced by three reactors and six steam gener­ators. This ice-breaker was followed by many others.

The importance of atomic energy will grow still more when fast neutron reactors are used on a large scale. These reactors can produce much more secondary nuclear fuel than the fuel they consume.

Exercises

I. Learn the following words, groups of words. Translate the sentences.

1. achievement— достижение. The invention of the gener­ator was a great achievement.

2. capacity— мощность; способность; емкость. The capacity of Krasnoyarskaya hydroelectric station is six million kW.

3. coal— уголь. Coal is a source of energy.

4.to construct— строить, создавать. Many new houses are constructed in Moscow.

5 to contain— содержать. This magazine contains many useful articles.

8. contribution— вклад. Russian scientists make a great contribution to world science.

7. engineering— техника. The students study electrical engineering at our institute.

8 in question— обсуждаемый, о котором идет речь. The generators in question were constructed in Lenin­grad.

9. installation— установка. There are various electri­cal installations in our laboratory.

10.nuclear— ядерный, атомный. Nuclear fuel is used in the reactor.

11.peaceful— мирный. Peaceful use of nuclear energy began soon after the World War II.

12.in the form— в виде. We use solar energy in the form of heat.

13.power station (plant)— электростанция. The nuclear power station can produce not only electric energy but also heat.

14.to put into operation— вводить в действие. Several large power-stations were put into operation last year.

15. reliable— надежный. Soviet refrigerators are reliable in operation.

16. steam— nap. Steam is used to produce electricity.

17. to supply— снабжать, доставлять, поставлять. Coal is supplied to the power plants.

 

II. Learn to recognize the following international words.

Mechanical, form, potential, generator, kinetic, turbine, limit, battery, standard, hydroelectric, interest, engineer, type, reactor.

 

III. Translate the following groups of words.

to construct power stations, reliable installations, to put into operation, to supply energy, an important achieve­ment, nuclear power stations

содержать воду, большой вклад, в виде энергии, строить электростанции, мирный атом, обсуждаемые проблемы

 

IV. Arrange the words given in (a) and (b) in pairs of antonyms.

a) 1. possible; 2. useful; 3. to construct; 4. present; 5. largest; 6. unlimited; 7. to increase; 8. to lose

б) 1. past; 2. impossible; 3. to find; 4. useless; 5. lim­ited; 6. smallest; 7. to destroy; 8. to decrease

 

V. Fill in the blanks with prepositions.

1. Electricity plays an important] part ... everyday life. 2. It is difficult to imagine now how people could do ... electricity. 3. As my friend lives near the institute he usu­ally goes there … foot. 4. I often go ... bed late ... night. 5. One form ... energy can be changed ... another form. 6. Only a little part of solar energy is used direct­ly ... present. 7. Russian scientists made a great contribu­tion ... nuclear engineering.

 

VI. Put all possible questions to the following sentences:

1. Useful energy can be got from a nuclear reactor. 2. The first nuclear power station was constructed in the USSR.

 

VII. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type.

1. Modern civilization needs more and more electricity. 2. You needn'tgo to the laboratory today. 3. The energy needs in industry are increasing day by day. 4. There is no needto use kerosene lamps today. 5. What do we needelectric energy for? 6. Cold turnswater into ice. 7. The sun, in its turn, turnsice into water. 8. The turbines are turnedby steam, gas and water. 9. In their turn,turbines turngenerators. 10. The teacher says: "It is your turnto read." 11. When you enter a dark room, turnthe light on,and leaving it turnthe light off. 12. It is possible to turnsolar energy intoelectric energy owing to semiconductors.

 

VIII. Ask your group mate the following questions. Let him/her answer them.

1. if it is possible to see a single drop of water in the sea. 2. if the steam generator of a nuclear reactor contains water. 3. if man has learned to split atoms. 4. if atomic energy finds any new application in industry. 5. if the Soviet Union constructed the first nuclear power plant inthe world.

 

IX. Answer the following questions.

1. What is the difference between potential energy and kinetic energy? 2. What sources of energy do you know? 3. What form of energy can be changed into another form? 4. What are the industrial uses of electricity? 5. Can you name the device which changes chemical energy into electrical energy? 6. What is the difference between a battery and a generator? 7. What may coal be replaced by in future? 8. When was the first industrial nuclear power station put into operation? 9. What contribution to nuclear engineering did Russian scientists make? 10. What electrical devices do you use at home? 11. What forms of energy do you know? 12. What is the world's first nuclear ice-breaker?

 

X. Speak on:

1. The operation of a nuclear reactor. 2. The first in­dustrial nuclear power-station. 3. The peaceful uses of atomic energy.

 

XI. Make up the annotation of the text and retell it.

 

 

LESSON FOUR

Read and translate the text.

LIGHTNING

 

The lightning flash is certainly the earliest manifesta­tion of electricity known to man, although for a long time nobody knew that lightning and atmospheric electricity are one and the same thing. Indeed, for thousands of years people knew nothing about thunderstorms. However, they saw long sparks falling from the dark sky and heard thunder. They knew that these sparks could kill people or strike their houses and destroy them. Trying to understand dangerous phenomenon, they imagined things and invented numerous stories.

Take the early Scandinavians as an example! They thought that thunderstorms were produced by Thor, the god of thunder. Besides his throwing both thunder and lightning at some people, he was a hammer-thrower. According to the story, his powerful hammer had the property of always coming back to his hands after it had been thrown. The fifth day of the week, that is Thursday, was named after him. A story like that invented by those early Scandina­vians could be also heard from other peoples.

However, time flies. Thunderstorms have long stopped being a problem that scientists tried to solve. Now every­body knows that lightning is a very great flash of light resulting from a discharge of atmospheric electricity either between a charged cloud and the earth or between charged clouds.

Even now some people do not like being out during a thunderstorm. Dark clouds cover the sky, turning day into night. There are lightning flashes followed by thund­er which can be heard for kilometers around. Needless to say, there is always some danger in a thunderstorm for a very high building or a man standing in the open field.

Many years ago people learned to protect their houses from thunderstorms. Coming down from a charged cloud to the earth, lightning usually strikes the nearest conductor. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an easy path along which electrons are conducted to the earth. That Benja­min Franklin invented the lightning conductor is a well-known fact. The lightning conductor, familiar to everybody at present, is a metal device protecting buildings from strokes of lightning by conducting the electrical charges to the earth.

Franklin's achievements in the field of electricity were known to M.V. Lomonosov who, in his turn, made experiments of his own. Along with other scientific problems that M.V. Lomonosov studied was that of atmospheric electricity. Both Lomonosov and his friend Professor Rihman took great interest in it. Both of them tried to solve the problem in question. They made numerous experiments and observations without thinking of the possible danger. The first electrical measuring device in the world was constructed by Rihman. Making experiments of that kind was dangerous and Professor Rihman was killed by a stroke of lightning while he was making one of his experiments.

Exercises

 

I. Learn the following words, groups of words. Translate the sentences.

1. to charge — заряжать. What kinds of batteries can be charged?

2. to conduct — проводить. All metals conduct the elec­tric current.

3. dangerous— опасный. Electricity may be dangerous.

4. to destroy — разрушать. Atoms can serve the people and they can also destroy the world.

5. to discharge — разряжать. When the battery operates it discharges.

6. to invent — изобретать. Radio was invented by the Russian scientist A.S. Popov.

7. lightning — молния. Lightning is a discharge of electricity.

8. like — подобный, похожий, как. A nuclear power station is like any other power station. The melted metals flow like water.

9. to name after — называть в честь. Moscow University is named after M.V. Lomonosov.

10. observation — наблюдение. Observation is very impor­tant for any experiment.

11. path — путь; контур электрической цепи. Can you see the path travelled by the electrons?

12. phenomenon — явление. The scientists observed the unknown phenomenon.

13. property— свойство. What are the properties of sem­iconductors?

14. to provide — снабжать, обеспечивать. The nuclear power stations are provided with nuclear fuel.

15. scientific — научный. Our students take part in sci­entific work.

16. to solve a problem — решать задачу, проблему. It is difficult to solve this problem without the teacher's help.

 

II. Learn to recognize the following international words.

atmospheric, Scandinavians, laboratory, electricity, experiment, kilometer, conductor, problem, professor, fact

 

III. Translate the following groups of words.

electrical charges, invented devices, known phenome­non, useful property, scientific study, to solve a difficult problem, to destroy houses, to conduct current, to name after the inventor

проводить наблюдения, заряжать батарею, научная статья, подобные свойства, снабжать топливом, разру­шать дома

 

IV. Put questions to the words in bold type.

1. For thousands of years peopleknew nothing about thunderstorms.2. The fifth day of the week was named after Thor. 3. Lightningis a discharge of atmospheric electricity. 4. The lightning conductorprovides an easy pathfor conducting electric charges to the earth. 5. Rih­manconstructed the first electrical measuring device. 6. Experimentson atmospheric electricity were made by M.V. Lomonosov.7. Many years ago peoplelearned to protect their houses from thunderstorms.8. We use atomic energy for peacefulpurposes.

V. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type.

a) 1. My friend's son looks likehis father. 2. You may takeany device you like.3. Some liquids have likeproper­ties. 4. Steel likeiron is widely used in industry. 5. A steam turbine is likeany other turbine but it is turned by steam. 6. We did not likethe film that we saw yesterday. 7. Did you likethe story that you heard at the lesson yesterday?

б) 1. Lightning is an atmospheric phenomenon thatgreatly interested some scientists of the past. 2. Thatthe Earth revolves about the Sun is known to everybody. 3. It is quite possible thatin future coal may be replaced by nuclear fuel. 4. Atomic energy can serve people but we must never forget that thatenergy can also destroy the world. 5. When an object loses its potential energy that energy is turned into kinetic energy. 6. The operation of the motor is quite different from thatof the generator. 7. Everybody knows thatthe Earth is round. 8. The climate in Moscow is better than thatin London. 9. The film thatwe saw yesterday was very interesting.

 

VI. Answer the following questions.

1. What is the earliest manifestation of electricity? 2. Are lightning and atmospheric electricity one and the same thing? 3. What did the early Scandinavians think about thunderstorms? 4. What is lightning? 5. Do you like tobe out during a thunderstorm? 6. Is it dangerous to be in the open field during a thunderstorm? 7. Do people protect their houses from thunderstorms? 8. What does lightning usually strike? 9. Who invented the lightning conductor? 10. Who constructed the first electrical measur­ing device in the world?

 

VII. Put 5 questions to text beginning with the word what.

 

VIII. Speak on the story told by the early Scandinavians.

 

IX. Make up the annotation of the text and retell it.

 

 

LESSON FIVE

Read and translate the text.

ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY

Electricity plays such an important part in modern life that in order to get it, men have been burning millions of tons of coal. Coal is burned instead of its being mainly used as a source of valuable chemical substances which it contains. Therefore, finding new sources of electric energy is a most important problem that scientists and engineers try to solve. In this connection one might ask: "Is it possi­ble to develop methods of harnessing lightning?" In other words, could atmospheric electricity be transformed into useful energy?

Indeed, hundreds of millions of volts are required for a lightning spark about one and a half kilometer long. However, this does not represent very much energy because of the intervals between single thunderstorms. As for the power spent in producing lightning flashes all over the world, it is only about 1/10,000 of the power got by man­kind from the sun, both in the form of light and heat. Thus, the source in question may interest only the scientists of the future.

It has already been mentioned that atmospheric electri­city is the earliest manifestation of electricity known to man. However, nobody understood that phenomenon and its properties until Benjamin Franklin made his kite ex­periment. On studying the Leyden jar (for long years the only known condenser), Franklin began thinking that light­ning was a strong spark of electricity. He began experiment­ing in order to draw electricity from the clouds to the earth. The story about his famous kite is known all over the world.

On a stormy day Franklin and his son went into the countrytaking with them some necessary things such as: a kite with a long string, a key and so on. The key was connected to the lower end of the string. "If lightning is the same as electricity," Franklin thought, "then some of its sparks must come down the kite string to the key." Soon the kite was flying high among the clouds where light­ning flashed. However, the kite having been raised, some time passed before there was any proof of its being electri­fied. Then the rain fell and wetted the string. The wet string conducted the electricity from the clouds down the string to the key. Franklin and his son both saw electric sparks which grew bigger and stronger. Thus, it was proved that lightning is a discharge of electricity like that got from the batteries of Leyden jars.

Trying to develop a method of protecting buildings during thunderstorms, Franklin continued studying that problem and invented the lightning conductor. He wrote necessary instructions for the installation of his invention, the principle of his lightning conductor being in use until now. Thus, protecting buildings from strokes of lightning was the first discovery in the field of electricity employed for the good of mankind.

Exercises

I. Learn the following words, groups of words and sen­tences. Translate the sentences.

1. all over the world— во всем мире. Yuri Gagarin is known all over the world.

2. because of— из-за, вследствие. Uranium is dangerous because of its radioactivity.

3. to burn— сжигать. We burn coal to get energy.

4. to connect— соединять, связывать. All the batter­ies are connected. My work is connected with semicon­ductors.

5. to develop— развивать, разрабатывать. Franklin de­veloped a new theory of electricity.

6. discovery— открытие. Faraday made his famous dis­covery in 1831.

7. to electrify— электрифицировать; электризовать. Our country is electrified. These objects are electrified.

8. engineer — инженер. We shall become engineers.

9. field— поле; область (науки, техники). In autumn our students worked in the fields. In what field of science did Volta work?

10. instead of— вместо. What fuel can be used instead of coal?

11. to mention— упоминать. Speaking about continuous current we can mention the name of Volta.

12.power— энергия; держава. The reactor supplies pow­er to the turbine. The Russian Federation is a great power.

13. to protect— защищать. Workers of the nuclear pow­er station are protected from radiation.

14. substance— вещество; материя. Many chemical sub­stances can be produced from coal.

15. valuable— ценный. Coal is the source of valuable substances.

 

II. Learn to recognize the following international words.

secret, atom, to circulate, station, thermal, problem, electron, conductor, professor, experiment, at­mospheric, method, academician, interval, condenser.

 

III. Translate the following groups of words.

to burn coal, because of water power, to electrify met­al, useful substance, in the field of radio, to develop new devices, instead of chemical sources, to power the motor

новое открытие, во всем мире, полезные свойства, известные инженеры, защищать дома, наэлект­ризованный предмет.

 

IV. Fill in the blanks with suitable verbs, if necessary. Answer the following questions.

1. What ... the earliest manifestation of electricity? 2. What…electricity? 3. What ... the early Scandina­vians think about thunderstorms? 4. Who ... burning millions of tons of coal? 5. What property ... Thor's hammer possess? 6. Who ... invented the lightning con­ductor? 7. What experiments ... Lomonosov and Rihman make? 8. What device ... constructed by Rihman? 9. Who…constructed the first measuring device?

 

V. Put questions to the words in bold type.

1. Benjamin Franklin made his kite experiment. 2. No­bodyunderstood that phenomenon. 3. The story of his kite is known all over the world. 4. On a stormy dayFranklin and his son went into the country.5. The key was connected to the lower end of the string. 6. Soon the kitewas flying high among the clouds.7. The electric sparks proved that lightning is a discharge of electricity.8. The wetstring conducted the electricity. 9. Franklininvented the light­ning conductor.

 

VI. For the words given in (a) find the Russian equivalents in (b).

a) 1. to connect; 2. scientific; 3. because of; 4. charge; 5. power; 6. to destroy; 7. to protect; 8. phenomenon; 9. to name after; 10. to develop; 11. observation; 12. discovery; 13. property; 14. to electrify; 15. substance; 16. to solve a problem

b) 1. называть в честь; 2. вещество; 3. защищать; 4. свойство; 5. научный; 6. наблюдение; 7. решать проб­лему; 8. из-за; 9. открытие; 10. соединять; 11. сила, энергия; 12. заряд; 13. явление; 14. разрушать; 15. раз­рабатывать; 16. электризовать.

 

VII. Fill in the blanks with prepositions.

1. It is dangerous to go … … a stormy day. 2. Light­ning is a very great flash ... light resulting ... a discharge... atmospheric electricity. 3. Protecting buildings ... light­ning was the first discovery ... the field ... electricity used ... the good ... mankind. 4. ... thousands ... years people knew nothing ... thunderstorms. 5. Lightning flashes are followed ... thunder which can be heard ... kilometers around. 6. There is always some danger ... a thunderstorm ... a very high building or a man standing ... the open field. 7. It is difficult to see a single drop ... water ... the sea. 8. Some scientists ... the past melted metals ... the help ... solar furnaces. 9. Modern civili­zation cannot do ... electrical appliances. 10. Electric current is necessary ... the operation ... trolley-buses, buses, and modern trains.

 

VIII. Form five sentences combining suitable parts of the sentences given in columns I and II.

I II

1. The generator 1. measures the temperature

of hot melted metals.

2. The lightning conductor 2. lifts objects

weighing thousands of tons.

3. The motor 3. turns electrical energy

into mechanical energy

4. The electric crane 4. protects buildings from

lightning strokes.

5. The pyrometer 5. converts mechanical

energy into electrical

energy.

 

IX. Describe Franklin's kite experiment.

 

X. Make up the annotation of the text and retell it.

LESSON SIX

Read and translate the text.

MAGNETISM

In studying the electric current, we observe the follow­ing relation between magnetism and the electric current: on the one hand magnetism is produced by the current and on the other hand the current is produced from magnetism.

Magnetism is mentioned in the oldest writings of man. Romans, for example, knew that an object looking like a small dark stone had the property of attracting iron. However, nobody knew who discovered magnetism or where and when the discovery was made. Of course, people could not help repeating the stories that they had heard from their fathers who, in their turn, heard them from their own fathers and so on.

One story tells us of a man called Magnus whose iron staff was pulled to a stone and held there. He had great difficulty in pulling his staff away. Magnus carried the stone away with him in order to demonstrate its attracting ability among his friends. This unfamiliar substance was called Magnus after its discoverer, this name having come down to us as "Magnet".

According to another story, a great mountain by the sea possessed so much magnetism that all passing ships were destroyed because all their iron parts fell out. They were pulled out because of the magnetic force of that mountain.

The earliest practical application of magnetism was connected with the use of a simple compass consisting of one small magnet pointing north and south.

A great step forward in the scientific study of magnet­ism was made by Gilbert, the well-known English physicist (1540-1603). He carried out various important ex­periments on electricity and magnetism and wrote a book where he put together all that was known about magnetism. He proved that the earth itself was a great magnet.

Reference must be made here to Galileo, the famous Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician. He took great interest in Gilbert's achievements and also studied the properties of mag­netic materials. He ex­perimented with them trying to increase their attracting power. One of his magnets, for example, could lift objects weighing 25 times more than its own weight.

At present, even a schoolboy is quite familiar with the fact that in magnetic materials, such as iron and steel, the molecules themselves are minute magnets, each of them having a north pole and a south pole. When iron and steel are magnetized, the molecules arrange themselves in a new orderly way instead of the disarrangement in which they neutralize each other.

Dividing a bar magnet into two parts, one finds that each of the two parts is a magnet having both a north pole and a south pole. Thus, we obtain two magnets of a smaller size instead of having a single one of a larger size. Divid­ing one of these two smaller magnets into two will give us the same result. Thus, we could continue this process, al­ways getting similar results.

On placing an unmagnified iron bar near a strong mag­net, we magnetize it. Rubbing the magnet is not required for that process. In other words, our iron bar has been magnetized by the strong magnet without rubbing it.

Exercises

I. Learn the following words, groups of words. Translate the sentences.

1. ability— способность. Energy is the ability to do work.

2. to attract— притягивать. What substances attract each other?

3. to carry out— проводить. When will you carry out your experiment?

4. to consist of— состоять из. All substances consist of atoms.

5.force— сила. Atmospheric electricity is a dangerous force that can kill people.

6. iron— железо. Iron conducts electricity.

7. magnetism— магнетизм. Who discovered magnetism?

8.to make reference to— ссылаться на, упоминать. In his article the scientist makes reference to the prop­erties of iron.

9. to obtain— получать. The students obtained valuable results of their experiment.

10. on the one hand— с одной стороны; on the other hand— с другой стороны. On the one hand atoms can serve people and on the other hand they can destroy the world.

11. to possess— обладать. Uranium possesses radioactivity.

12. to prove — доказывать. Franklin proved that light­ning is an electrical phenomenon.

13. physicist — физик. Physicists study the properties of semiconductors.

14. relation — связь; отношение. Who observed the rela­tion between magnetism and the electric current?

15. single — один. In 1954 there was a single nuclear power station in the world.

16. steel — сталь. Steel and iron melt at high tempera­tures.

17. weight — вес. What is the atomic weight of uranium?

 

II. Learn to recognize the following international words.

to transform, volt, kilometer, form, process, magnet, magnetism, to demonstrate, compass, astronomer, mole­cule, to neutralize, material

 

III. Translate the following groups of words.

 

the ability to attract, to carry out an experiment, to possess the property, a single device, a famous physicist, to make reference to the problem

показать отношение, плавить сталь в печи, с одной стороны, с другой стороны, большая сила, состоять из веществ

 

IV. Use the following expressions in sentences of your own.

all over the world, as well as, in this connection, in the form of, needless to say, to pay attention to, on the other hand

 

V. Translate the following questions and answer them.

1. Существует ли связь между электричеством и маг­нетизмом? 2. Знаете ли вы, кто открыл магнетизм? 3. Что вы знаете об атмосферном электричестве? 4. Кто дока­зал, что наша Земля является большим магнитом? 5. Что вы знаете о магнетизме? 6. Каковы свойства магнита? 7. Кто интересовался достижениями Гильберта? 8. Ка­кие опыты проводил Франклин? 9. Какие магнитные материалы вы знаете? 10. Какие свойства материалов изучал Галилей?

 

VI. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type.

1. These electrical devices are very large. Who can help me to carry them to another laboratory? 2. After the experiment had been carried outthe students carriedthe devices away. 3. What were the students doing when the teacher came into the classroom? They were doingexercises. 4. Why can't you do withoutthe thermometer? The temperature of this metal is known. 5. He could not goto the cinema yesterday. 6. Do not turnthe light off,I shall go on working. 7. I see nothing, turnthe light on,please. 8. On heating ice turnsinto water. 9. Water, in its turn, turnsinto ice on freezing. 10. Let us turn our attentionto the history of electricity. 11. Water turnsthe turbines at the hydropower station.

 

VII. Rearrange the sentences to make up a story of Franklin's kite experiment.

1. The key was connected to the lower end of the string. 2. The story about Franklin's famous kite is known all over theworld. 3. They took some necessary things such as: akite with a long string, a key, and so on. 4. It was proved that lightning is a discharge of electricity. 5. It was astormy day. 6. The electricity was conducted from the clouds down the string to the key. 7. The kite was flying high among the clouds. 8. The rain wetted the string. 9. Atmospheric electricity greatly interested Franklin. 10. The rain fell.

 

VIII. Compare:

1. A generator and a motor. 2. Potential energy andkinetic energy. 3. Chemical energy and mechanical energy. 4. A nuclear power station and a steam power station.

IX. Speak on magnetism.

X. Make up the annotation of the text and retell it.

LESSON SEVEN

Read and translate the text.

Exercises

I. Learn the following words, groups of words and sen­tences. Translate the sentences.

1. as a matter of fact — действительно, на самом деле. As a matter of fact there is a relation between elec­tricity and magnetism.

2. at least — по крайней мере. Electrical devices were invented at least 100 years ago.

3. to come into contact — соприкасаться. It is danger­ous to come into contact with high voltage.

4. due to — благодаря, вследствие, из-за. We can watch TV due to electricity.

5. famous — известный. Famous scientists work at our institute.

6. to generate — производить, вырабатывать, генериро­вать. The first nuclear power plant generated current in 1954.

7. in spite of— несмотря на. We burn coal in spite of its being a source of chemical products.

8. knowledge — знания. Students get knowledge at the institute.

9. to mean— значить, означать. The words 'atmospher­ic electricity' and 'lightning' mean one and the same thing.

10. more or less — более или менее. All metals have more or less similar properties.

11. needless to say — нечего и говорить. Needless to say, we need more and more electrical energy.

12. research — исследование. Russian scientists contribute greatly to scientific research.

13. to take time — занимать время. Learning English words takes much time.

14. that is to say— то есть, иными словами. Nuclear fu­el, that is to say, uranium is used in reactors.

15. to turn one's attention to— обращать внимание. Gal­ileo turned his attention to the properties of mag­netic materials.

16. various— различный. Gilbert made various experi­ments on electricity and magnetism.

17. under consideration — рассматриваемый, обсуждае­мый. The instructions under consideration were written for the new installation.

 

II. Learn to recognize the following international words.

strange, history, to start, effect, shock, period, philos­opher, object, systematic

 

III. Translate the following groups of words.

famous mathematician, to generate electric energy, due to various applications, in spite of difficulties, the example under consideration

несмотря на большие достижения, известные наблю­дения, благодаря громоотводу, различные установки, на самом деле, по крайней мере, в лаборатории

IV.For the word combinations given in (a) find the English equivalents in (b).

a) 1. пока что; 2. несмотря на; 3. на самом деле; 4. благодаря; 5. то есть; 6. между прочим; 7. в резуль­тате; 8. по крайней мере; 9. вместо; 10. более или менее; 11. в свою очередь; 12. рассматриваемый

b) 1. at least; 2. as a matter of fact; 3. that is to say; 4. in one's turn; 5. in question; 6. so far; 7. instead of; 8. more or less; 9. in spite of; 10. thanks to; 11. as a result; 12. by the way

V. Fill in the blanks with the following words and expressions.

in the form of, because, because of, to be interested in, to put into operation, as for, to be named after, in question, to turn one's attention to

1. The discovery ... was made by a well-known Russian scientist. 2. Moscow University ... M.V. Lomonosov. 3. Frank­lin ... making experiments with atmospheric electricity. 4. ... the electric current, it is used both in industry and in our homes. 5. The first atomic power plant in the world ... in the USSR in June 1954. 6. Professor Rihman was killed by a stroke of lightning ... he did not think of possi­ble danger. 7. Atom finds a wide application ... its ability of producing heat and energy. 8. The scientists of Russia ... the use of nuclear power for peaceful purposes.

 

VI. 1) For the names of the countries given in (a) find the names of the nations given in (b).

a) 1. England; 2. France; 3. Russia; 4. Greece; 5. Italy; 6. Germany; 7. America

b) 1. The Italians; 2. The Greeks; 3. The Russians; 4. The Englishmen; 5. The Frenchmen; 6. The Germans; 7. The Americans

 

VII. Give short answers to the following questions.

1. Is magnetism and electricity one and the same thing? 2. Do magnets possess the property of attracting iron? 3. Do you know who discovered magnetism? 4. Was the phe­nomenon of electricity known to people in the past? 5. Did Gilbert work in the field of electricity? 6. Do you carry out experiments on lightning? 7. Is lightning a strong spark of electricity? 8. Can atomic energy be used for the good of mankind? 9. Do you know the history of electricity? 10. Was Phales a German philosopher? 11. Did you study the history of electricity? 12. Have you ever come into contact with an electric fish? 13. Can you do without electricity?

 

VIII. Define the following terms.

lightning, lightning conductor, magnetism, refrigera­tor, generator, motor, turbine

 

IX. Speak on:

1. Three electrical phenomena known to the people of the past.

2. Everyday use of electricity.

 

X. Make up the annotation of the text and retell it.

 

 

LESSON EIGHT

Read and translate the text.

HISTORY OF THERMOMETERS

Placing a kettle full of cold water on the fire is quite an ordinary thing. This time we shall do it to carry out a simple experiment. Placing a finger into the kettle from time to time, we find that the water is gradually becoming hotter and hotter, until it boils at last. In scientific lan­guage we describe this phenomenon by saying that the tem­perature of the water is rising.

However, we need some more exact means of measuring the difference of temperature than our finger. In effect, the finger can give us neither exact information, nor nu­merical data.

As a matter of fact, the very first step in the develop­ment of heat engineering made it necessary to find a de­vice for indicating temperature and for measuring its changes. As it is well known, the thermometer is the very instrument that serves this purpose.

As early as 1602, Galileo invented an air thermometer. It consisted of a glass bulb containing air and connected to a glass tube, the latter being immersed into a coloured liquid. Galileo's air thermometer was sensitive not only to temperature changes but also to changes of atmospheric pressure.

The type of thermometer familiar to everyone at pre­sent was first put into general use as early as 1654. Making the first measuring instruments was not an easy thing at all. Needless to say, the most difficult problem of all was that of marking the degrees on the thermometer, in other words, of graduating the scale. It was decided, at last, to take two fixed points and to divide the interval between them into small equal parts or degrees. And then, in 1701, Isaak Newton, the famous English scientist, whose name is

known all over the world, constructed a scale in which the freezing point of water was taken as zero and the temperature of the human body as 12°.

Some time later the German physicist Fahren­heit proved that the temperature of boiling water was always the same at the same atmospheric pressure. It might therefore be used as a second fixed point instead of the temperature of the human body. As for the liq­uid used, it was mercury which has been mostly em­ployed since that time.

On the Fahrenheit scale the boiling point of water is taken as 212° and the freezing point as 32°, the interval being divided into 180 equal parts. The scale under consideration is indi­cated by writing the letter F after the temperature, as for example, 212°F. This scale is mainly used in English speaking countries.

On the Centigrade scale the freezing point of water is marked 0°C and the boiling point is marked 100°C, the let­ter С indicating this scale. This temperature scale is em­ployed in Russia as well as in most other countries of the world.

 

Exercises

I. Learn the following words, groups of words. Translate the sentences.

1. body— тело. It is very important to know the quan­tity of energy present in a body.

2. to boil— кипеть. We boil water to produce steam.

3. boiling point — точка кипения. The boiling point of water depends on atmospheric pressure.

4. degree— градус; степень. Steel melts at 1300 de­grees.

5. data — данные. These data were used in research work.

6. difference — разность, разница. What is the differ­ence between potential and kinetic energy?

7. freezing point — точка замерзания. What is the freez­ing point of water?

8. to indicate — показывать, указывать. The capacity of the generator is indicated in the instruction.

9. the latter— последний из упомянутых. Coal and ura­nium are fuels; the latter is used in nuclear reactors.

10. liquid — жидкость. At what temperature does this liquid boil?

11. means — средство. A lightning conductor is a means of protecting houses from lightning.

12. mercury — ртуть. Mercury is a metal.

13. pressure — давление. What is the atmospheric pres­sure today?

14. purpose— цель, намерение. What is the purpose of this laboratory work?

15. to put into use — вводить в действие, запускать. A new reactor was put into use.

16. to rise — подниматься, возрастать. When the body is heated its temperature rises.

 

II. Translate the following groups of words.

high pressure, temperature difference, freezing point of water, scientific data, to indicate degrees, useful means

указывать давление, точка кипения, последний из упомянутых, ввести станцию в действие, кипятить воду, жидкое топливо

 

III. Fill in the blanks with suitable words and word combinations given below.

1.A thermometer is employed for ... temperature and for ... its changes. 2. The glass tube was immersed into a ... liquid. 3. As early as 1602 Galileo invented an ... . 4. The ... scale is employed in Russia. 5. ... looks like a yellow stone. 6. The Fahrenheit scale is mainly used in ... . 7. Galileo's air thermometer was sensitive to ... . 8. The scientists worked out the plan of their ... research.

coloured, Centigrade, amber, measuring, English speak­ing countries, air thermometer, indicating, changes of atmospheric pressure, scientific

 

IV. 1) For the verbs in (a) find suitable nouns in (b).

a).1. to carry out; 2. to put into; 3. to contribute to; 4. to solve; 5. to deliver; 6. to take part in; 7. to go

b) 1. research; 2. a problem; 3. on foot; 4. an experi­ment; 5. operation; 6. science; 7. a lecture

2) For the nouns in (a) find suitable attributes in (b).

a) 1. famous; 2. boiling; 3. glass; 4. cold; 5. scientif­ic; 6. electrical; 7. mercury

b) 1. water; 2. problem; 3. thermometer; 4. device; 5. bulb; 6. scientist; 7. point

 

V. 1) Translate the following word combinations.

temperature scale, lightning conductor, freezing point, human body, German speaking countries, measuring in­strument, temperature difference, boiling point, atmospher­ic pressure, numerical data, mercury thermometer, elec­trical device

2) Use these word combinations in sentences of your own.

 

VI. Give synonyms for the following words.

to use, big, learned man, owing to, instrument, various

 

VII. Translate the following sentences paying special attention to the words in bold type.

1. You are the onlyengineer who speaks both English and German. 2. This is theonly book by I.S. Turgenev that I haven't read. 3. All countries should use nuclear power for peaceful purposes only.4. This phenomenon was studied first by Sokolov and thenby Novikov. 5. Novikov's re­sult was certainly better thanthat of his friend. 6. Ga­lileo constructed an air thermometer, some years latera French scientist constructed another one, in which water was used instead of air. 7. Both M.V. Lomonosov and G. W. Rikhman studied atmospheric electricity, the latter being Lomonosov's friend. 8. There are 26letters in the English language. 9. The last letter of the English alphabet is "z". 10. Somestudents work and study at the same time. 11. This engineer carried on some experiments on the properties of semiconductors.

 

VIII. Find the wrong statements and correct them.

1. We can do without the thermometer when we need exact data on the temperature of the body. 2. The thermom­eter is the very instrument for protecting buildings from thunderstorms. 3. As early as 1602 Galileo invented the Centigrade scale. 4. An air thermometer consisted of a metal bulb containing mercury and connected to a glass tube. 5. The glass tube in the air thermometer was immersed into water. 6. Water is the very liquid that is used in ther­mometers. 7. The Fahrenheit scale is widely employed all over the world. 8. Water temperature falls when a kettle is put on the fire. 9. Mercury is not used in thermometers at present.

 

IX. Answer the following questions.

1. What is this text about? 2. What do you do if you want to boil water? 3. What is the temperature of boil­ing water? 4. What instrument is used for measuring temperature? 5. What did Galileo invent? 6. What do you know about the air thermometer? 7. What is the difference between the Fahrenheit and the Centigrade scales? 8. What instrument measures the temperature of hot metals? 9. What is the difference between the mercury thermometer and the pyrometer? 10. When does water freeze?

 

X. Make up the annotation of the text and retell it.

 

LESSON NINE

Read and translate the text.

 

LOMONOSOV

The great Russian scientist, outstanding poet and enlightener, M.V. Lomonosov, was born in the village of Denisovka (now Lomonosovo), far off in the North, on November 19, 1711. He was very young when he easily mastered reading and writing. The boy longed for knowledge, he longed to master science. That longing was so great that at the age of 19 he left his father's home and started on foot for Moscow in spite of the long distance and the cold winter.

He experienced great want and countless hardships during his student years both in Moscow and later on in Germany where he had been sent to complete his education. Studying at the academy, he got only 3 copecks a day, that scholarship being his only means of living.

He mastered natural science as well as history, philoso­phy and engineering. In addition to the Russian language, he had a good knowledge of foreign languages, namely German, French, Greek and, last but not least, Latin which was the international language of science at that time. At the age of 35 M.V. Lomonosov was already an experienced professor and an academician.

It is quite impossible to name a scientific problem he did not turn his attention to. Nevertheless, theory alone left him dissatisfied. He knew by experience that it was useless and unreliable if it did not find practical applica­tion and could not, therefore, serve the good of his people and his country. He always tried to find practical applica­tion for the phenomena studied.

M.V. Lomonosov possessed an unusual capacity for work. He carried out an extraordinary amount of useful, educational work in various fields of scientific and cultur­al life. He carried on scientific research in natural science and made numerous reports on the results of his achieve­ments. He lectured to students and translated the works of various foreign scientists into Russian for he 'wanted to educate "our own Newtons". For this very purpose he founded Moscow University and wrote his odes as well as numerous books on the Russian language and literature, on physics and so on.

For many years the great scientist carried on systematic experimental laboratory work both in physics and chemistry for, according to his opinion, without observation and experi­ment there could be no progress in science. In this connec­tion, one might ask: "Do you know that Lomonosov or­ganized the first chemical laboratory in our country?" One more question: "Who built the first glass-making fac­tory in Russia?" It was Lomonosov, of course!

As a materialist, M.V. Lomonosov studied physical properties of bodies on the basis of the molecular and atomic theory. He developed the kinetic theory of gases, the molecular kinetic theory of heat and first discovered the law of conser­vation of matter and momentum. He also found that light, heat and electricity are different forms of motion. As a result, many of his discoveries became invaluable contri­bution to world science.

From the very first and to the last days of his life he struggled alone for Russian science and the enlightenment ofthe Russian people.

 

Exercises

I. Learn the following words, groups of words. Translate the sentences.

1. amount — количество. A large amount of work was done by the students in summer.

2. at a result — в результате. The discovery was made as a result of a long research work.

3. chemistry — химия. Chemistry is my favorite sub­ject.

4.to experience— испытывать; претерпевать. M.V. Lomonosov experienced great difficulties when he was a stu­dent.

5. heat— тепло, теплота. Heat is a form of energy.

6.in addition to— вдобавок, в дополнение. Electricity is used in every home in addition to its industrial ap­plications.

7. to last— длиться, продолжаться. How long will the lecture last?

8. law— закон, право. What laws did Newton discover?

9. light— свет; светлый. This lamp gives little light.

10. matter—вещество, материя. What kind of matter is used in your experiment?

11.motion— движение. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.

12. natural— естественный. Natural sciences are studied at the university.





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