II. Read and translate the dialogue given below.



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II. Read and translate the dialogue given below.



UNIT 1

TEXT 1

What is business?

Business is not an easy thing. It's rather a difficult kind of human activity. It has many important elements such as money, taxes, customers, transport, banks and others. There are two general types of business: small business and big business.

Why do people do business? Why do they like small business? People do business by producing goods or providing services. They buy and sell goods. They do business for a profit. There is no business without a profit.

Production of goods is very profitable, provision of different services is profitable too. Communications are a good business too, for example, telephone, telegraph and mail services. Financial services, for example, banking and insurance, work very well, too.

So, people do different types of business for a profit. Doing business has become very popular everywhere. For example, the whole families in America run small businesses now. At present it is very popular to be a businessman or a businesswoman. It should be noted that women, like men, successfully run a firm or a company, they prove to be good bank managers or shop keepers.

Briefly speaking, doing business is a comparatively new and perspective tendency in modern life.

There are three main types of business: a sole trader (you alone have responsibility for the business and you take all profits after paying income tax on them); a partnership (a group of between two or twenty people trade, as one firm, and share responsibility for debts, decision-making and the profits); a limited company/Ltd./ (a company formed by two or more shareholders who put money into the business in return for a share of the profits).

Vocabulary

to do business – заниматься бизнесом

to produce goods – производить товары

to provide services – предлагать услуги

production of goods – производство товаров

to run a business – руководить, заведовать, управлять предприятием

to run a firm – управлять фирмой

shop keeper – владелец магазином

sole trader – единоличный предприниматель

income tax – подоходный налог

partnership – партнерство

to trade – торговать

to share – разделять

debt [det] – долг

decision - making – принятие решения

limited company –компания с ограниченной ответственностью

shareholder – акционер

to put money into –вкладывать деньги

in return for – в обмен на

share – акция; доля

I. Answer the questions.

1. Is business an easy or a difficult kind of human activity? 2. What types of business do you know? 3. Why do people like small business? 4. For what purpose do people do business? 5. In what two forms do people do business? 6. What business do you think is good? 7. What main services do you know? 8. Are production of goods and provision of services profitable? 9. Has doing business become very popular everywhere nowadays? 10. Do women, like men, successfully run a firm or a company? 11. Do women prove to be good bank managers or shop keepers? 12. Is doing business a new and perspective tendency in modern life? 13. Do you prefer to work as a sole trader, a partnership or a limited company?

II. Read and translate the dialogue given below.

Partnership

(Two friends, Martin and Barbara, are having lunch together in a restaurant)

Martin: Well, it's been a long time, Barbara. What have you been doing?

Barbara: I've been pretty busy. You know, I went into business with my friend, Jean.

Martin: Oh, yes. How's it going?

Barbara: Pretty well. We get along quite well and the shop is beginning to attract more customers.

Martin: Good. Are you two a partnership?

Barbara: Yes. I'm very pleased about it. We seem to have the right combination. Jean's background is in accounting. She's the one who's good at keeping the books and ordering stock.

Martin: And you?

Barbara: Well, you know, I've always liked talking a lot. I guess I'm rather good with customers. I enjoy selling.

Martin: Sounds interesting. I guess it's not too risky a business.

Barbara: We haven't had any problems, although I suppose all business can be risky. Being partners, we're both liable.

Martin: Did you both put the same amount of money into the business? Or do you mind my asking?

Barbara: To tell you the truth, we didn't invest the same amount of capital. But we've combined our resources very well, I think. It seems to be a good deal for both of us.

Martin: It sounds like it. That is one advantage of a general partnership. One partner can invest less capital than the other - in fact, no money at all - but a partner can contribute important services or skills, sometimes just a name or reputation.

Barbara: Exactly.

Martin: What kind of arrangement do you have for distribution of profits and losses?

Barbara: They're equally shared. We hope to be in business for a long time.

Martin: Good for you. You've really become very knowledgeable about business.

Barbara: Believe me, I'm still learning. The subject becomes quite technical.

Martin: But I'm glad to hear you're doing so well. Next time you'll take me to lunch.

Vocabulary

to go into business - заняться бизнесом

to get along well - ладить; находиться в хороших взаимоотношениях

to be pleased about- быть довольным чем-то, кем-то

to be good at – быть способным

to keep the books - вести бухгалтерский учет

stock - зд. ассортимент товаров; акции, основной капитал

to enjoy doing smth. - получить удовольствие, делая что-то

to be liable - нести ответственность

skills - умения, навыки, квалифицированность

arrangement - договоренность

distribution – распределение

They're equally shared. – Они делятся поровну.

Good for you! – Молодец!

TEXT 2

My business

Not long ago I decided to set up a small business. As I had no experience in business activities it was difficult for me to choose an appropriate business. So I went to the lawyer's for consultation.

After clarifying all the details of my project and my financial possibilities he recommended me to set up a small business in the field of services. According to the lawyer anyone who wants to set up a small business is to make sure that he/she is choosing one which will work and yield big profit. This requires a thorough investigation into the customers' needs. So, the first step I had to take was to study my future customers' needs and wants.

I knew there were many car owners in my neighbourhood. Why not open a car service station? - said I to myself, and got down to business. One of the difficulties I was faced with (I encountered) was lack of money, and I had to borrow it from the bank. The next day I made a loan of 2 mln. pounds, and I was "on the seventh heaven" because now I could put my project into practice.

Now, at the prime of my business life I still remember my lawyer's words; when choosing a business weigh all pros and cons and ask yourself the questions: what kind of customers am I going to serve upon? How many potential customers are there in my district? How shall I attract customers? What products or services shall I offer?

Vocabulary

to set up a business – учредить торговое предприятие

lawyer – юрист; адвокат

to clarify – разъяснить, пролить свет (на что-либо)

to make sure – убеждаться; удостовериться

to yield a profit – приносить прибыль, давать доход

to require a thorough investigation into – требовать тщательного изучения

to study customers' needs and wants – изучить потребности и желания покупателей

to get down to business – взяться за дело

to be faced with smth. – столкнуться с чем-либо

lack of money – недостаток денег

to borrow money from the bank – занимать деньги в банке

to make a loan – взять ссуду

in the prime of – в расцвете

to weigh all pros and cons – взвесить все "за" и "против"

potential customer – потенциальный потребитель, покупатель

to attract customers – привлекать покупателей

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:

to have no experience in business activities; lawyer; to clarify all the details; financial possibilities; to make sure; to yield a profit; to be faced with smth; to borrow money from the bank; in the prime of; potential customer.

II. Give English equivalents to the following word combinations:

учредить торговое предприятие; требовать тщательного изучения; изучить потребности и желания покупателей; взяться за дело; недостаток денег; взять ссуду; взвесить все "за" и "против"; привлекать покупателей.

Dialogue

- What's the news, Mr. White? How is business?

- Pretty good, thank you. And how are things with you?

- Well, not too good, I'm afraid, and going from bad to worse. In fact, it's the worst year we've had for a long time.

- I'm sorry to hear that. I hope things will improve.

- Yes, let's hope for the better, though to tell the truth, there's no ground for optimism.

- What's troubling you in particular?

- The financial affairs of my business. Profits are becoming smaller and smaller, I've built up many debts, and it'll come as no surprise if once I go bust.

- Oh, be calm. I'm sure things won't go as bad as that.

VI. Study the instructions.

Instructions

Choosing a business abide by the following rules:

1. Never start a new venture if you haven't got enough capital.

2. Don't hurry to settle on the premises if you are not sure they are suitable for you.

3. Get your priorities right, and don't spend much money on nonproductive items.

4. Always research the market before you enter it; remember: it includes taking a long and a serious look at the competition.

5. Be sure that you have a distribution system ready before you start producing anything.

6. Be sure that you've got the right equipment, a suitable workforce, and a supply of raw materials.

7. Always control the product, and keep a close check on prices and customers' credits.

While making a plan of your future business ask yourself the following questions:

1. What kind of customers am I going to serve (householders, or business people, young or old, rich or not so rich)?

2. How many potential customers are there in the area I am going to cover?

3. How will I attract customers?

4. What products or services will I offer?

Vocabulary

to abide by – придерживаться, руководствоваться чем-то

rule – правило, норма

to start a venture – основать, открыть дело

to settle on premises – занимать помещение

to get priorities right – правильно определить приоритеты

non-productive items – непроизводительные виды работы, объекты

to research the market – исследовать рынок сбыта

to enter the market – выйти, выходить на рынок

competition – конкуренция

to be sure – быть уверенным; убеждаться

right equipment – нужное, соответствующее оборудование

suitable workforce – подходящая рабочая сила

supply of raw materials – поставка сырья

to keep a close check on prices – строго контролировать цены

TEXT 3

UNIT 2

TEXT 1

Vocabulary

to fail in business – потерпеть крах в бизнесе

recession – регресс, спад; снижение, падение

industrial action – забастовочное движение

strike – забастовка, стачка

to contribute to the rapid disappearance of many little enterprises – способствовать быстрому исчезновению многих малых предприятий

to account for – являться причиной

failure – неудавшееся дело, неудача, провал

to be undercapitalized – не иметь достаточного капитала

available – доступный; имеющийся в распоряжении, наличный

to be in trouble – быть в беде, в неприятной ситуации

therefore – поэтому, следовательно

to attempt – пытаться, стараться, стремиться

to succeed in business – добиться успеха в бизнесе

facilities – оборудование; здания (заводов, фирм и т.п.)

office furniture – офисная мебель

fittings – оборудование; оснащение

to meet expenses – покрывать расходы

to carry out the research of the market – проводить изучение конъюнктуры, возможностей рынка

to be in demand – пользоваться спросом

to take into account – принимать во внимание, в расчет

to install the right equipment – устанавливать необходимое оборудование

to hire a suitable workforce – нанимать подходящую рабочую силу

to ensure a supply of raw materials – обеспечивать поставку сырья

to make haste – спешить, торопиться

haste makes waste – поспешишь – людей насмешишь

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:

recession; strike; failure; available; to give a real chance to succeed; to be in trouble; to attempt to start a new venture; facilities; expensive office furniture; fittings; to meet expenses; to carry out the research of the market; to take into account; to keep a close check on prices and customer credit; to make haste.

II. Give English equivalents to the following word combinations:

потерпеть крах в бизнесе; забастовочное движение; способствовать быстрому исчезновению многих малых предприятий; являться причиной; не иметь достаточного капитала; пользоваться спросом; устанавливать нужное оборудование; нанимать подходящую рабочую силу; обеспечивать поставку сырья.

TEXT 2

Bankruptcy

If your business is going badly, you don't make enough money and build up many debts which you can’t pay off, it's the first indication (sign) that you should take urgent steps to improve your financial position, otherwise you'll go bust and your business will go into liquidation.

It's common knowledge that the director of the company which has run bankrupt must make a statement of the company's affairs, listing its assets and liabilities, and giving reasons why it is in debt.

One of the biggest bankruptcy cases was that of William Rainbow in the U.S. in 1950s. His company dealt with buying, developing and selling property. The company was doing very well until mid-50s when the price of property fell sharply, and his company suffered enormous financial losses. Little by little Mr. Rainbow's debts amounted to a huge sum which he failed to pay off however hard he tried.

All bankers and other influential people with whom Mr. Rainbow was once on friendly terms refused to stretch a helping hand to him. William was in despair. Even his best friends turned their backs to him. At last the most dramatic time came when his creditors decided to bring an action against him (to sue him).

The court agreed that Mr. Rainbow could be discharged in 3 months' time if he paid half the sum of his debt. But William failed to do so, and soon was imprisoned. While in prison his nervous strain was so great that once in the morning he was found dead in his cell. "Committing suicide", was the conclusion of the prison's doctor. That was the end of once prospering business and its unlucky director.

Vocabulary

to take urgent steps (measures) - принять срочные меры

otherwise - иначе, в противном случае

to go bust – вылететь в трубу, обанкротиться

to go into liquidation (to run bankrupt) – обанкротиться

to make a statement - сделать заявление

to list assets and liabilities – перечислить активы и задолженность

property – собственность; имущество

until mid-50s - до середины 50-х

to suffer losses - потерпеть убытки

to amount to a huge sum – составлять огромную сумму

to stretch a helping hand - протянуть руку помощи

to be in despair - быть в отчаянии

to bring an action against (to sue smb. for) - возбудить судебное дело

court [ko:t] - суд (организация)

to discharge – освобождать (от долга; заключенного)

to be imprisoned - быть заключенным в тюрьму

nervous strain - нервное напряжение

cell - камера

to commit suicide - совершить самоубийство

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:

to go into liquidation; to pay all debts; to apply to the court; to run bankrupt; to make a full statement of the company's affairs; to be in despair; to discharge; to be imprisoned; cell; to commit suicide.

II. Give English equivalents to the following word combinations:

принять срочные меры; обанкротиться; перечислить активы и задолженность; собственность; потерпеть убытки; составлять огромную сумму; протянуть руку помощи; возбудить судебное дело; нервное напряжение.

UNIT 1

TEXT 1

What is business?

Business is not an easy thing. It's rather a difficult kind of human activity. It has many important elements such as money, taxes, customers, transport, banks and others. There are two general types of business: small business and big business.

Why do people do business? Why do they like small business? People do business by producing goods or providing services. They buy and sell goods. They do business for a profit. There is no business without a profit.

Production of goods is very profitable, provision of different services is profitable too. Communications are a good business too, for example, telephone, telegraph and mail services. Financial services, for example, banking and insurance, work very well, too.

So, people do different types of business for a profit. Doing business has become very popular everywhere. For example, the whole families in America run small businesses now. At present it is very popular to be a businessman or a businesswoman. It should be noted that women, like men, successfully run a firm or a company, they prove to be good bank managers or shop keepers.

Briefly speaking, doing business is a comparatively new and perspective tendency in modern life.

There are three main types of business: a sole trader (you alone have responsibility for the business and you take all profits after paying income tax on them); a partnership (a group of between two or twenty people trade, as one firm, and share responsibility for debts, decision-making and the profits); a limited company/Ltd./ (a company formed by two or more shareholders who put money into the business in return for a share of the profits).

Vocabulary

to do business – заниматься бизнесом

to produce goods – производить товары

to provide services – предлагать услуги

production of goods – производство товаров

to run a business – руководить, заведовать, управлять предприятием

to run a firm – управлять фирмой

shop keeper – владелец магазином

sole trader – единоличный предприниматель

income tax – подоходный налог

partnership – партнерство

to trade – торговать

to share – разделять

debt [det] – долг

decision - making – принятие решения

limited company –компания с ограниченной ответственностью

shareholder – акционер

to put money into –вкладывать деньги

in return for – в обмен на

share – акция; доля

I. Answer the questions.

1. Is business an easy or a difficult kind of human activity? 2. What types of business do you know? 3. Why do people like small business? 4. For what purpose do people do business? 5. In what two forms do people do business? 6. What business do you think is good? 7. What main services do you know? 8. Are production of goods and provision of services profitable? 9. Has doing business become very popular everywhere nowadays? 10. Do women, like men, successfully run a firm or a company? 11. Do women prove to be good bank managers or shop keepers? 12. Is doing business a new and perspective tendency in modern life? 13. Do you prefer to work as a sole trader, a partnership or a limited company?

II. Read and translate the dialogue given below.

Partnership

(Two friends, Martin and Barbara, are having lunch together in a restaurant)

Martin: Well, it's been a long time, Barbara. What have you been doing?

Barbara: I've been pretty busy. You know, I went into business with my friend, Jean.

Martin: Oh, yes. How's it going?

Barbara: Pretty well. We get along quite well and the shop is beginning to attract more customers.

Martin: Good. Are you two a partnership?

Barbara: Yes. I'm very pleased about it. We seem to have the right combination. Jean's background is in accounting. She's the one who's good at keeping the books and ordering stock.

Martin: And you?

Barbara: Well, you know, I've always liked talking a lot. I guess I'm rather good with customers. I enjoy selling.

Martin: Sounds interesting. I guess it's not too risky a business.

Barbara: We haven't had any problems, although I suppose all business can be risky. Being partners, we're both liable.

Martin: Did you both put the same amount of money into the business? Or do you mind my asking?

Barbara: To tell you the truth, we didn't invest the same amount of capital. But we've combined our resources very well, I think. It seems to be a good deal for both of us.

Martin: It sounds like it. That is one advantage of a general partnership. One partner can invest less capital than the other - in fact, no money at all - but a partner can contribute important services or skills, sometimes just a name or reputation.

Barbara: Exactly.

Martin: What kind of arrangement do you have for distribution of profits and losses?

Barbara: They're equally shared. We hope to be in business for a long time.

Martin: Good for you. You've really become very knowledgeable about business.

Barbara: Believe me, I'm still learning. The subject becomes quite technical.

Martin: But I'm glad to hear you're doing so well. Next time you'll take me to lunch.

Vocabulary

to go into business - заняться бизнесом

to get along well - ладить; находиться в хороших взаимоотношениях

to be pleased about- быть довольным чем-то, кем-то

to be good at – быть способным

to keep the books - вести бухгалтерский учет

stock - зд. ассортимент товаров; акции, основной капитал

to enjoy doing smth. - получить удовольствие, делая что-то

to be liable - нести ответственность

skills - умения, навыки, квалифицированность

arrangement - договоренность

distribution – распределение

They're equally shared. – Они делятся поровну.

Good for you! – Молодец!

TEXT 2

My business

Not long ago I decided to set up a small business. As I had no experience in business activities it was difficult for me to choose an appropriate business. So I went to the lawyer's for consultation.

After clarifying all the details of my project and my financial possibilities he recommended me to set up a small business in the field of services. According to the lawyer anyone who wants to set up a small business is to make sure that he/she is choosing one which will work and yield big profit. This requires a thorough investigation into the customers' needs. So, the first step I had to take was to study my future customers' needs and wants.

I knew there were many car owners in my neighbourhood. Why not open a car service station? - said I to myself, and got down to business. One of the difficulties I was faced with (I encountered) was lack of money, and I had to borrow it from the bank. The next day I made a loan of 2 mln. pounds, and I was "on the seventh heaven" because now I could put my project into practice.

Now, at the prime of my business life I still remember my lawyer's words; when choosing a business weigh all pros and cons and ask yourself the questions: what kind of customers am I going to serve upon? How many potential customers are there in my district? How shall I attract customers? What products or services shall I offer?

Vocabulary

to set up a business – учредить торговое предприятие

lawyer – юрист; адвокат

to clarify – разъяснить, пролить свет (на что-либо)

to make sure – убеждаться; удостовериться

to yield a profit – приносить прибыль, давать доход

to require a thorough investigation into – требовать тщательного изучения

to study customers' needs and wants – изучить потребности и желания покупателей

to get down to business – взяться за дело

to be faced with smth. – столкнуться с чем-либо

lack of money – недостаток денег

to borrow money from the bank – занимать деньги в банке

to make a loan – взять ссуду

in the prime of – в расцвете

to weigh all pros and cons – взвесить все "за" и "против"

potential customer – потенциальный потребитель, покупатель

to attract customers – привлекать покупателей

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:

to have no experience in business activities; lawyer; to clarify all the details; financial possibilities; to make sure; to yield a profit; to be faced with smth; to borrow money from the bank; in the prime of; potential customer.

II. Give English equivalents to the following word combinations:

учредить торговое предприятие; требовать тщательного изучения; изучить потребности и желания покупателей; взяться за дело; недостаток денег; взять ссуду; взвесить все "за" и "против"; привлекать покупателей.



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