Level; network; feedback; excess



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Level; network; feedback; excess



Human Excretory System

Функции глагола “to have”

!Запомните правило:

В английском языке глагол “to have” является вторым после глагола “to be” значимым глаголом грамматики английского языка в силу своей многофункциональности. Перевод глагола на русский язык требует знания функций, которые выполняет глагол в предложении.

 

Определите функции глагола“to have” и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. Ten days prior to admission to the hospital, a 39-year-old female had receivedterfenadine 60 mg twice a day and cefaclor 250 mg three times a day.

2. Bromfenac (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent was removed from the market in 1998, less than 1 year after it had been introduced.

3. Recent publications have shown that many adverse drug reactions can be prevented and detected.

4. Astemizole was a second generation antihistamine drug which had a long duration of action.

5. Astemizole is a histamine H1 – receptor antagonist and has anticholinergic and antipruritic effects.

6. Aspirin is safe and effective in reducing the risk of recurrent transient ischemic attacks or stroke in men who have had transient ischemia of the brain.

7. Patients presenting with signs and symptoms of transient ischemic attacks should have a complete medical and neurologic evaluation before prescribing certain medications.

8. Data on effectiveness of this drug are available only for the prevention of stroke in men who have already experienced at least one transient ischemic attack.

I. Master the pronunciation of the following adjectives and guess their meaning:

A). capillary; pituitary; excretory; urinary

B). ionic; organic; toxic; metabolic; osmotic; neucleic

C). functional; renal; original; radical; environmental

D). cellular; extracellular

E). poisonous; nitrogenous

 

II. Essential words to know:

 

1. nephron [`nefron] – нефрон, структурная единица в почке

2. kidney [`kidni] - почка

3. ureter [ju `ri:t ] - мочеточник

4. bladder`bl d ] – пузырь, мочевой пузырь

5. urethra ju `ri: r ] – мочеиспускательный канал

6. urine [`ju rin] - моча

7. uric acid [`ju rik ` sid] – мочевая кислота, C5H4N4O3

8. urea [`ju ri ] – мочевина, CO(NH2)2

9. dialysis [dai` lisis] - диализ

 

III. Read the following words and translate them into Russian:

 

1. ammonia [ `mounj ] 2. amino acid [` mino ` sid]

3. nitrogen [`naitrid n] 4. antidiuretic hormone

5. vasopressin [ v so`presin] 6. sodium [`soudj m]

7. aldosterone 8. osmosis [oz`mousis]

9. renin 10. balance [`b l ns]

 

IV. Memorize the following words:

 

1. level [`levl] – n. уровень

2. network [`netw :k] – n. сеть

3. to leave [`li:v] – v. покидать, оставлять, уходить

4. to distend [dis`tend] – v. расширать(ся), раздувать(ся), растягивать(ся)

5. feedback [`fi:d b k] – n. обратная связь

6. eventual [i`vent u l] – adj. окончательный

в конце концов

7. excess [ik`ses] – n. избыток, излишек

8. dilute [`dailju:t] - v. разводить, разбавлять

adj. разбавленный, растворенный

9.to result in - приводить к

10.to result from – являться следствием

11.to excrete [eks`kri:t] – v. выделять, выводить

12. to accept [ k`sept] – v. принимать, допускать

 

V. !Запомните правило

Суффикс - ate , являясь суффиксом глагола произносится как [eit].

 

Многие глаголы с этим суффиксом заимствованы в русский язык

e.g. to circulate [`s :kjuleit] – циркулировать

 

Прочтите и вспомните значение этих глаголов изученных ранее:

* to eliminate; to facilitate; to locate; to lubricate; to associate

 

Догадайтесь о значении глаголов, которые встретятся в тексте урока:

* to regulate; to modulate; to donate

 

VI. Read and guess the meaning of the verbs ending in –ate :

* to evacuate, to accumulate, to regulate, to calculate, to manipulate, to speculate, to stimulate, to communicate, to radiate, to assimilate, to demonstrate, to operate, to perforate, to circulate, to indicate, to separate, to associate, to generate, to accelerate, to concentrate, to consolidate, to differentiate, to integrate, to formulate, to initiate, to intoxicate, to coordinate, to isolate, to ventilate

VII. Reand and translate one-rooted words:

* to excrete; excreted; excretive; excretory; excretion

* excess; excessive; excessively

* to dilute; diluted; dilution; dilutent [di`lju:t nt]

* to distend; distended; distension

* to accept; accepted; acceptable; unacceptable; acceptably; unacceptably; acceptance

 

VIII. Find the definitions of these words:

 

Kidneys

The human kidneys are the major organs of bodily excretion. They are bean-shaped organs located on either side of the backbone at about the level of the stomach and liver. Blood enters the kidneys through renal arteries and leaves through renal veins. Tubes called ureters carry waste products from the kidneys to the urinary bladder for storage or for release.

Kidneys perform a number of homeostatic functions:

1.They maintain volume of extracellular fluid.

2.They maintain ionic balance in extracellular fluid.

3.They maintain pH and osmotic concentration of the extracellular fluid.

4.They excrete toxic metabolic by-products such as urea, ammonia, and uric acid.

The product of the kidneys is urine, a watery solution of waste products, salts, organic compounds, and two important nitrogen compounds: uric acid and urea. Uric acid results from nucleic acid decomposition, and urea results from amino acid breakdown in the liver. Both of these nitrogen products can be poisonous to the body and must be removed in the urine.

The first nitrogenous waste to be formed from the breakdown of protein is

ammonia,a highly toxic chemical that is quickly converted by the liver to urea

and uric acid.These are less toxic than ammonia and are transported in the blood to the kidneys for excretion in urine. Urine consists of excess water, excess salt,

urea and uric acid.

Kidney Stones

In some cases, excess wastes crystallize as kidney stones. They grow and can become a painful irritant that may require surgery or ultrasound treatments. Some stones are small enough to be forced into the urethra, others are the size of huge, massive boulders.

 

XIV.Mix and match:

1. uric acid a )antidiuretic hormone which reduces the

2. urea rate of urine output

3. urine is b)a substance derived from creatineand

4. creatinine creatine phosphate in muscle

5. renin c)a nitrogen-containing organic acid

6. vasopressin that is the end-product of nucleic acid

Metabolism

d) an enzyme released from the blood by the

Metabolism

Ureter

 

5. Ureteritis is an inflammation of the ureter which usually occurs in association with inflammation of the bladder.

6. They conduct urine from the pelvis of the kidneys to the bladder.

7. Smooth muscles contract to force urine into the bladder.

8. Ureter is either of a pair of tubes, 25-30 cm long.

9. The walls of the ureters contain thick layers of smooth muscle between an outer fibrous coat and an inner mucous layer.

 

XVII. !Запомните правило

Emphatic Construction

 

В английском языке существует усилительная конструкция – It is (was) …… that (who) , которая служит для выделения членов предложения. Эта конструкция может употребляться только в настоящем и прошедшем времени, и стоит всегда только в единственном числе, хотя слова, которые выделяются при помощи конструкции могут быть как в ед. так и во мн. числе.

На русский язык она переводится словом именно.

 

e.g. It is in the alveoli that the respiratory metabolism takes place. – Именно в альвеолах происходит дыхательный метаболизм.

 

e.g. It was Alexander Fleming who discovered penicillin in 1942. – Именно Александр Флеминг открыл пенициллин в 1942 году.

 

N.B. Обратите внимание на тот факт, что при выделении неодушевленных предметов в составе конструкции используется слово - that, а при выделении людей – who.

 

Read and translate the sentences incorporating Emphatic Construction:

 

1. It was Sechenov who investigated blood gases.

2. It is hemoglobin that carries oxygen to different tissues of the human body.

3. It is uric acid that is the component of the urine.

4. It is the accumulation of urea in the bloodstream together with other nitrogenous compounds that results in uraemia.

5. It was at our chemist`s that I bought these drugs to relieve bladder spasms.

6. It was urologist in our local polyclinic who prescribed me Monurol for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary infection.

7. It is sodium chloride that is another major constituent of urine.

 

 

XVIII.Read the text “Bladder” and find the sentences incorporating Emphatic Construction:

Bladder

Bladder is a sac-shaped organ that has a wall of smooth muscle. It is bladder that stores the urine produced by the kidneys. Urine passes into the bladder through the ureters. The release of urine from the bladder is controlled by a sphincter at its junction with the urethra. It is the bladder neck that is the outlet of the bladder where it joins the urethra. In males it is in contact with the prostate gland. Bladder is under the control of the autonomic nerves of the pelvis. It is the neck of the bladder that is the commonest site for the retention of urine.

Inflammation of the urinary bladder is called cystitis. Most commonly it is the bacterium Escherichia coli that causes this inflammation. An acute attack of cystitis is treated by antibiotic administration and a copious ([`koupj s] – обильный) fluid intake.

 

XIX.Substitute English words for the Russian ones:

 

Kidney

 

Kidney is either of the пара of organs responsible for the выделение of азотистых wastes, principally моча, from the blood. The kidneys are situated at the back of the брюшная полость, below the диафрагма, one each side of the позвоночник. Kidneys are supplied with blood by the почечные arteries. Each kidney is enclosed in a волокнистая capsule and is composed of an outer кора and внутренняя medulla. The active единица of the kidney is the нефрон within the cortex and medulla. The nephrons filter the blood under давление and then reabsorb water and selected вещества back into the blood. The urine thus сформированная is conducted from the nephrons через the renal трубочки into the renal pelvis and from here to the мочеточник, which leads to the мочевой пузырь.

 

Quiz:

Excretory System

 

1. Excretion is the removal of the metabolic wastes of an organism. These wastes must
have travelled at one time in the:

A. lungs

B. blood
C. rectum

2. The excretory system consists of:
A. rectum, lungs, skin and kidneys
B. rectum, liver and kidneys

C. lungs, liver, skin and kidneys

3. The wastes excreted from the lungs are:
A. carbon dioxide and excess oxygen

B. carbon dioxide and nitrogen

C. water and carbon dioxide

4. The role of the liver in excretion is the production of urea from:
A. ammonia

B. uric acid

C. fatty acids

5. Examples of nitrogenous wastes are:
A. fatty acids and glycerol

B. water and carbon dioxide

C. urea and uric acid

6. Sweat contains:

A. water, excess salt and ammonia

B. excess water, excess salt, urea and uric acid

C. excess water and salt only

7. The outer layer of the skin is the:
A. epiglottis

B. dermis

C. epidermis

8. The organs responsible for filtering the blood arethe:
A. kidneys

B. intestines

C. rectum

9. Approximately how much blood is filtered every day?
A. 150 to 200 litres

B. 2 to 3 litres

C. 1 litre

10. What name is given to the millions of tiny filtering units that make up each kidney?

A. nephrons

B. tubules

C. filter organs

11. The tube between the kidney and the urinary bladder is the:
A. renal vein

B. urethra

C. ureter

12. The tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body is the
A. renal vein

B. urethra

C. ureter

13. What is the name of the circular muscle that controls the flow of urine from the body?
A. bladder muscle

B. kidney muscle

C. sphincter muscle

14. 'Body balance' of temperature and water salt and glucose levels is correctly termed:
A. peristalsis

B. homeostasis

C. endometriosis

15. Examples of how the body maintains a constant body temperature are:
A. sweating and urination

B. salt and fibre excretion

C. “goosebumps and glucose excretion

 

Read the text concerning the effect of taking drugs on the renal system; make the summary of the text in Russian:

Drug history

 

Renal failure has important effects on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, and drugs may damage the kidneys. Examples of drugs which accumulate in renal failure are digoxin, lithium, aminoglycosides, opioid analgesics and water-soluble beta-blockers such as atenolol.

A wide range of drugs may alter renal function, or cause renal failure, including angiotensin-converting enzyme Inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists and non­-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These drugs have no adverse effect on normal kidneys, but reduce glomerular filtration when the kidneys are underperfused. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in particular, can dramatically reduce renal function in the presence of systemic infection or hypovolaemia. They are commonly taken as over-the-counter drugs so it is always necessary to ask about their usage.

Other drugs are toxic even to the normal kidneys. Examples include aminoglycosides, amphotericin, lithium, ciclosporin and tacrolimus, and in overdose, paracetamol.

Some drugs cause renal failure by indirect mechanisms. An example is rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure occurring in intravenous drug and cocaine users.

 

Render from Russian into English:

Мочевыделительная система

Мочевыделительная система у человека представлена почками, мочеточниками, мочевым пузырём и мочеиспускательными каналами.

Почки - это парный орган. Они имеют бобовидную форму и гладкую ярко-коричневую поверхность. Вес каждой почки у взрослого человека колеблется от120гр. до 200гр., длина 10-12см., ширина 5-6 см., толщина 3-4 см. Почки расположены в поясничной области по обе стороны от позвоночника. Они окружены жировой клетчаткой (волокнистой) и соединительной тканью.

В почке есть крупные артерии и вена, лимфатические сосуды, нервные волокна.

Почка- это система однотипных по строению образований, называемых нефрона. Каждый из них является отдельной функциональной единицей.

Почки, будучи экскреторным органом, выводят из организма продукты азотистого обмена - мочевину, креатинин, мочевую кислоту и др., избыток солей и воды, а также различные чужеродные вещества. Но эта функция у почек не основная. Главное в работе почек - это регуляция водного и электролитного обмена, чтобы поддерживать важнейшие параметры организма: объём и осмотическое давление крови и жидкостей

 

Human Excretory System

Функции глагола “to have”

!Запомните правило:

В английском языке глагол “to have” является вторым после глагола “to be” значимым глаголом грамматики английского языка в силу своей многофункциональности. Перевод глагола на русский язык требует знания функций, которые выполняет глагол в предложении.

 

Определите функции глагола“to have” и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. Ten days prior to admission to the hospital, a 39-year-old female had receivedterfenadine 60 mg twice a day and cefaclor 250 mg three times a day.

2. Bromfenac (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent was removed from the market in 1998, less than 1 year after it had been introduced.

3. Recent publications have shown that many adverse drug reactions can be prevented and detected.

4. Astemizole was a second generation antihistamine drug which had a long duration of action.

5. Astemizole is a histamine H1 – receptor antagonist and has anticholinergic and antipruritic effects.

6. Aspirin is safe and effective in reducing the risk of recurrent transient ischemic attacks or stroke in men who have had transient ischemia of the brain.

7. Patients presenting with signs and symptoms of transient ischemic attacks should have a complete medical and neurologic evaluation before prescribing certain medications.

8. Data on effectiveness of this drug are available only for the prevention of stroke in men who have already experienced at least one transient ischemic attack.

I. Master the pronunciation of the following adjectives and guess their meaning:

A). capillary; pituitary; excretory; urinary

B). ionic; organic; toxic; metabolic; osmotic; neucleic

C). functional; renal; original; radical; environmental

D). cellular; extracellular

E). poisonous; nitrogenous

 

II. Essential words to know:

 

1. nephron [`nefron] – нефрон, структурная единица в почке

2. kidney [`kidni] - почка

3. ureter [ju `ri:t ] - мочеточник

4. bladder`bl d ] – пузырь, мочевой пузырь

5. urethra ju `ri: r ] – мочеиспускательный канал

6. urine [`ju rin] - моча

7. uric acid [`ju rik ` sid] – мочевая кислота, C5H4N4O3

8. urea [`ju ri ] – мочевина, CO(NH2)2

9. dialysis [dai` lisis] - диализ

 

III. Read the following words and translate them into Russian:

 

1. ammonia [ `mounj ] 2. amino acid [` mino ` sid]

3. nitrogen [`naitrid n] 4. antidiuretic hormone

5. vasopressin [ v so`presin] 6. sodium [`soudj m]

7. aldosterone 8. osmosis [oz`mousis]

9. renin 10. balance [`b l ns]

 

IV. Memorize the following words:

 

1. level [`levl] – n. уровень

2. network [`netw :k] – n. сеть

3. to leave [`li:v] – v. покидать, оставлять, уходить

4. to distend [dis`tend] – v. расширать(ся), раздувать(ся), растягивать(ся)

5. feedback [`fi:d b k] – n. обратная связь

6. eventual [i`vent u l] – adj. окончательный

в конце концов

7. excess [ik`ses] – n. избыток, излишек

8. dilute [`dailju:t] - v. разводить, разбавлять

adj. разбавленный, растворенный

9.to result in - приводить к

10.to result from – являться следствием

11.to excrete [eks`kri:t] – v. выделять, выводить

12. to accept [ k`sept] – v. принимать, допускать

 

V. !Запомните правило

Суффикс - ate , являясь суффиксом глагола произносится как [eit].

 

Многие глаголы с этим суффиксом заимствованы в русский язык

e.g. to circulate [`s :kjuleit] – циркулировать

 

Прочтите и вспомните значение этих глаголов изученных ранее:

* to eliminate; to facilitate; to locate; to lubricate; to associate

 

Догадайтесь о значении глаголов, которые встретятся в тексте урока:

* to regulate; to modulate; to donate

 

VI. Read and guess the meaning of the verbs ending in –ate :

* to evacuate, to accumulate, to regulate, to calculate, to manipulate, to speculate, to stimulate, to communicate, to radiate, to assimilate, to demonstrate, to operate, to perforate, to circulate, to indicate, to separate, to associate, to generate, to accelerate, to concentrate, to consolidate, to differentiate, to integrate, to formulate, to initiate, to intoxicate, to coordinate, to isolate, to ventilate

VII. Reand and translate one-rooted words:

* to excrete; excreted; excretive; excretory; excretion

* excess; excessive; excessively

* to dilute; diluted; dilution; dilutent [di`lju:t nt]

* to distend; distended; distension

* to accept; accepted; acceptable; unacceptable; acceptably; unacceptably; acceptance

 

VIII. Find the definitions of these words:

 

level; network; feedback; excess

 

1. remarks about or in answer to an action, process, etc. passed back to the person.

2. a general standard of quality or quantity; a position of height in relation to a flat surface.

3. something more than is reasonable; more than a reasonable degree or amount.

4. a large system of lines, tubes, wires that cross one another or are connected with one another

 

IX. Read and translate word-combinations incorporating new words:

 

* to accept an invitation to visit a pharmaceutical company; to accept an offer immediately; to accept or ignore smb`s suggestion; to accept the need to do smth.; to accept the fact that…; an acceptable level of sugar in blood; to provide an acceptable level; an acceptable risk for patient`s life; socially unacceptable;

 

* to adjust the level of water; the level of competence; to record high level; to require a certain level of oxygen; to change the level of bile; blood sugar level; to be arranged in two levels; an eye-level; to be six kilometers above sea level; at the level of smth.; dropping level

 

* dilute(diluted) acid; diluted concentration; dilute solution; dilution method; dilution of the solution; large quantities of a more dilute urine

 

* excretory duct; excreting cell; excretory products; to provide excretion; an increased excretion; to be associated with excretion of waste products; to excrete toxic metabolic by-products

 

* excess air in the organ; excess of temperature; excessive production of urine; excess wastes

* to leave the kidneys by ureters; to leave through the urethra; to leave through renal veins

 

X. Form adverbs and translate them into Russian:

 

vital; distinct; various; constant; similar; close; delicate; name; smooth; voluntary; responsible; firm; certain; chief; complete; main; primary; conscious; eventual; acceptable; excessive

 

XI. Fill in the gaps with the words in the box:

 

feedback; eventual; level; to accept; acceptable; excess; network

 

 

1. This standard of work is not ……, do it again.

2. Doctors are doing tests to measure the …… of sugar in patient`s blood.

3. Arteries, veins, and capillaries compose a …… of blood vessels in the body.

4. There is nothing the doctors can do in this case – we`ll just have …… the situation.

5. The pharmaceutical company wants to receive …… from people who buy their products at chemist`s.

6. …… vitamin D can cause kidney damage in young children.

7. A research programme dealing with elaboration of a new generation of these antibacterial drugs aims at the …… elimination of this infectious disease.

 

XII. Translate from Russian into English:

 

сформировать сеть, растянутый желудок, положительная обратная связь, окончательно превращенный, приводить к высвобождению, покидать почки, являться следствием растяжения мочевого пузыря, разбавленная жидкость

 

XIII. Read and translate sentences incorporating verbs “result in” and “result from”:

1. Enflurane is pungent, which may result in breath holding or coughing; thus, this anesthetic shows less acceptance by children than halothane.

2. Enflurane is associated with cardiovascular system depression, primarily resulting in decreased cardiac output and increased ventricular filling pressure, with a little more decrease in vascular resistance than halothane.

3. Isoflurane is associated with dose – dependent depression of cardiovascular system, primarily resulting in decreased vascular resistance, with less decrease in cardiac output than halothane.

4. Thiopental is administered IV to induce or supplement sedation and hypnosis during anesthesia; results in smooth, pleasant, and rapid induction and minimal postoperative nausea and vomiting.

5. Inadvertent intraarterial administration of concentration > 2,5% can result in necrosis, ulceration, and gangrene.

6.Minimum alveolar concentration is relative term defined as the minimum alveolar concentration at steady state (measured in volume/volume percent) that results in immobility in 50% of patients when exposed to a noxious stimulus, such as a surgical incision.

XIV..Read the text”Human Excretory System”

Mind the meaning of this medical term



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