Give the main idea of the text in one sentence.

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Give the main idea of the text in one sentence.

8) Render the following item in English:

Телевидение и радио

Эффект телевизионной рекламы в целом существенно выше, чем газетно-журнальный, в связи с почти безграничными возможностями видеозаписи монтажа. Так как реклама может быть включена почти в любую передачу, то телевидение сохраняет и «выборочные» возможности. И, конечно, никакая, даже самая популярная газета не сравнится по массовости аудитории с десятками, а то и сотнями миллионов телезрителей, «приникших» к экранам во время по­пулярного футбольного матча или развлекательной программы. Реклама на телевидении весьма дорога, ее эффективность существенно зависит от време­ни суток для показа рекламы, от удачной компоновки ее с основными переда­чами, от воздействия другой рекламы и многих иных факторов. Кроме того, до­вольно острой проблемой является время, отводимое на саму рекламу. И это вопрос не только денег, но и довольно жестких нормативных соотношений между объемом основных и рекламных передач.


Text G


Announcement can be used for any category of public relations advertising. Their primary use is to inform the public promptly about something that affects everyone. Recalling a product, explaining a failure of service, or rebutting a charge of irresponsi­bility are appropriate announcements.

Sears used announcement advertisements to tell how auto owners could apply for rebates if they believed they were charged too much or paid for replacement parts that were not needed. And Jack-In-The-Box used announcement ads to reassure con­sumers that it was taking precautions to make sure its restaurants met new health standards after an outbreak of food poisoning at several locations in the Seattle area. Here is the text of one such advertisement that appeared in the San Francisco Bay Area.



recall - принимать обратно

failure - неудача, провал

rebut - опровергать, давать отпор

a charge of – обвинение

irresponsibility - безответственность

appropriate - соответствующий, подходящий

apply for - обращаться за

rebate - скидка, уступка

charge for - взимать плату за; назначать плату за; просить за

replacement parts - запасные части

reassure - заверять, уверять, убеждать

take precautions - принимать меры предосторожности

meet - соответствовать, удовлетворять, отвечать

outbreak - вспышка (гнева, эпидемии); внезапное начало (болезни); взрыв

food poisoning - пищевое отравление

location – местность



1) Find the English equivalents in the text and use them in sentences of your own:

1. могут применяться для

2. влиять на кого-либо

3. плохое обслуживание

4. владельцы автомобилей

5. с них запросили слишком много денег

6. запасные части

7. заверить потребителей в том, что

8. убедиться

9. соответствовать новым стандартам

10. неожиданные случаи пищевого отравления


2) Match the words which are close in the meaning:

announcement paramount
primary to consume
to inform recklessness
failure to brief
irresponsibility declaration
to poison blunder
to use to kill
3)Match the words having the opposite meaning:
announcement to abstain
primary reliability
to inform concealment
failure to sterilize
irresponsibility subordinate
to poison achievement
to use to conceal

4) Insert prepositions where necessary(of; after; in; about; for; at):

1. Announcements can be used_ any category of public relations advertising.

2. Their primary use is to inform the public promptly_ something that

affects_ everyone.

3. Recalling a product, explaining a failure_ service are appropriate announce­ments.

4. Sears used announcement advertisements to tell how auto owners could apply_ rebates.

5. Jack-In-The-Box used announcement ads to reassure consumers that it was taking precautions to make sure its restaurants met new standards_ an out­break of food poisoning_ several locations_ the Seattle area.

Give the main idea of the text in one sentence.

6) Read the advertisement and translate it in writing:

A Message from the Chairman of JACK IN THE BOX

As you may know, there has recently been an outbreak of food-related illness in the Pacific Northwest. All of us at JACK IN THE BOX extend our prayers for a complete and speedy recovery to everyone who has experienced this illness.

When we first learned of the problem, we immediately recalled all hamburger meat suspected of contamination and we are no longer having hamburger meat processed by our former meat supplier. However, I want to make it clear that no hamburger meat suspected of contamination was ever shipped to the Greater Bay Area, so no one here was ever at risk.

And, in an effort to make absolutely certain this never happens again in any JACK IN THE BOX restaurant, we have increased our hamburger cooking times to levels above both state and federal standards. We have also retrained all food prepa­ration staff to ensure that all new and existing cooking procedures are followed.

At the same time, we have increased our testing procedures on all hamburger meat now being processed so that we will perform seven separate quality control checks before it ever gets into our restaurants.

Again, I want to emphasize that the wholesomeness of the hamburger meat we serve here was never in question. JACK IN THE BOX has been part of this com­munity for many years and we will do everything in our power to keep your com­munity for many years and we will do everything in our power to keep your trust.

Jack Goodall Chairman


Though reassuring to consumers in the San Francisco Bay Area, this letter appeared only after Jack-In-The-Box had suffered major damage to its corporate reputation for its handing of the problem in the first place.


Answer the following questions:

1. Is the advertisement effective? Why or why not?

2. Can you cite applicable concepts of persuasion and advertising copy writing?

Texts for self-studying


Text A

There are several key elements in a print advertisement. They are headline, text, art­work, and layout.

Headline. Advertising expert John Caples says, "The headline is the most impor­tant element in most ads - and the best headlines appeal to the reader's self-interest or give news".

Headlines should be specific about a benefit, or they can be teasers that arouse interest. Here is a headline about a specific program: "The Phoenix Mutual Insurance Retirement Income Plan". Caples thought this was all right, but he created a headline that sold much more successfully: "To Men Who Want to Quit Work Some Day". This was accompanied with an illustration of a smiling senior citizen fishing in a mountain stream.

Text. The headline is followed by what is known as text or body copy. This is the words that persuade the reader to do something. In general, copy should be limited to only one or two major points. Sentences should be short and punchy. A declarative sentence is much better than one that includes a dependent or an independent clause.

The copy should invoke emotion, provide information of value to the reader, and suggest a way that the reader can act on the information. You might include a toll-free telephone number, an address to write for more information, or a suggestion that peo­ple visit a local dealer.


Artwork. An ad can consist of just a headline and copy, but ads usually have a strong graphic element. This may be a striking photo, a line drawing, or a computer-generated design. Artwork attracts the reader to the ad and breaks up large blocks of type .

Layout.The headline, copy, and graphic elements need to be integrated into an attractive, easy-to-read advertisement. A layout can be a mock-up of the planned ad, or it can be a detailed comprehensive that includes the actual type and artwork that will be used.)



□ Vocabulary:

print - печатный headline - заголовок

artwork - художественное оформление; рисунок

layout - макет объявления печатной рекламы

teaser - (разг.) рекламное объявление; головоломка «дразнилка» (дразнящее рекламное объявление или заголовок, не сообщающее всей необходимой информации, но содержащее указание на то, что отсутствующие сведения будут даны в последующих публикациях или на последующих щитах)

arouse interest - вызывать интерес

phoenix - (миф) Феникс; чудо

insurance - страхование; страховая премия

retirement - отставка; выход на пенсию, в отставку

income - доход

quit - бросать что-то, уходить

fish - удить, ловить рыбу

a stream - ручей

body сору - основной текст

punchy - эффективный, энергичный

declarative - декларативный; повествовательное предложение

dependent - подчинительное предложение independent - самостоятельный, независимый clause - придаточное предложение involve - взывать к

toll-free - бесплатный (междугородный телефонный разговор)

dealer - дилер; биржевой торговец; торговец;

striking - поразительный, ошеломляющий

line drawing - штриховой рисунок

computer-generated design - компьютерный рисунок

a block of type - блок набора

break up - разбивать (на части)

integrate into - объединять

easy-to-read - легко читаемый; легкий (простой) для прочтения

mock-up - оригинал-макет в натуральную величину

comprehensive - чистый макет (рекламного объявления)

actual - реальный, действительный


Text В

Using an Advertising Agency

Most public relations advertising is prepared and placed by advertising agencies. The agency has people who are experts in all phases of creating the ads and getting them published or broadcast in the chosen media.,

If your organization has an advertising department, it is likely to be the prime con­tact with the agency. However, there are some organizations in which the public rela­tions department is the contact. In either case, the public relations people are identi­fied as the "client", the entity that approves or disapproves the agency's recommenda­tions.

This relationship must be one of enthusiastic cooperation. Agency and client are not adversaries but partners. In general, the public relations role is to determine broad objectives ("what to do") while the agency determines the means ("how to do it").

Advertising agencies do not normally charge anything for their services. Their com­pensation comes from the "agency discount" that is granted by most media. Normally this discount is 15 percent of the cost of the space or time, and it is not granted to advertisers. It works this way: If the space or time costs $1000, the agency bills the advertiser for the sum but remits $850 to the medium. The $150 difference is retained by the agency as pay for preparing the ad.

Agencies do bill clients for the cost of materials purchased for use in preparing the advertising for publication or broadcast.

□ Vocabulary:

prime - очень важный, основной; первоначальный, первичный, подходящий

in either case - в любом (из двух) случаев

identify - отождествлять, опознавать

entity - зд. самостоятельное (хозяйственное) подразделение

adversary - соперник, противник

grant - предоставлять

space - место, пространство

bill smb. - выставлять счет кому-либо

remit - пересылать (деньги по почте)

retain – удерживать


Text С

Other Advertising Channels

Other forms of advertising that have value in public relations programs are outdoor, transit panels, posters, sponsored books, T-shirts and buttons, and hot lines and toll-free telephone numbers. Direct mail is also a valuable channel.


Most outdoor advertising employs paper sheets pasted on a wooden or metal back­ground. The 24-sheet poster is standard, but there are also painted bulletins, which use no paper. Outdoor advertising reaches large audiences in brief exposures. Accordingly, advertising for this medium must be eye-catching and use few words. Ten words is a rule-of-thumb limit for outdoor copy. When design and copy are approved, the indi­vidual sheets of paper that will make up the whole advertisement are printed and then pasted to the background.

Location is vital in this medium - and prices are based on the traffic that is exposed to the site. Occasionally, nonprofit organizations can obtain free or heavily discounted usage of outdoor space that is temporarily unsold. Displays are usually scheduled in monthly units, and occasionally there are gaps in the schedules, so it may pay to keep in touch with local outdoor companies.

Transit Panels

This category includes both the small posters placed in subway and commuter rail stations and the cards used in buses and rail cars. Both types of transit advertising require eye-catching graphics, but the copy can be longer than for outdoor posters. The person waiting for a train or holding a strap or a bar on a bus or rail car has some time to absorb a message. Cards in transit vehicles often carry coupons or tear-off notes allowing readers to ask for more information or respond to some sort of offer.


□ Vocabulary:

transit panel - рекламный щит в городском транспорте, метро, электричках

T-shirt - тенниска, футболка (мягкая, легко тянущаяся, обычно хлопчатобумаж­ная, с короткими рукавами, без воротника)

button - пуговица

hot line - «горячая» телефонная линия

toll-free - беспошлинный, бесплатный

employ - зд. применять, использовать

sheet - лист бумаги

paste - приклеивать

wooden - деревянный

background - фон; задний план

24-sheet poster - двадцати четырех-листовой плакат

exposure - экспонирование, контакт (с рекламой)

eye-catching - привлекающий, бросающийся в глаза

rule-of-thumb - приблизительный; грубо говоря

heavily discounted - с большой скидкой; намного ниже номинальной стоимости occasionally - иногда, время от времени; случайно

temporarily - временно

schedule - (п) график, план, расписание; (v) - намечать, планировать

gap - пробел, брешь, интервал, промежуток

keep in touch with - поддерживать связь с

subway - (ам) метро; подземка

commuter rail station - пригородная станция железной дороги

card - билет (в городском или пригородном транспорте)

strap - ремень (в транспорте)

bar - поручень (в транспорте)

vehicle - транспорт; средства передвижения, машина

tear-off note - отрывное приложение к рекламному объявлению, заполнив и отослав которое в адрес рекламодателя, покупатель заявляет о своем желании приобести рекламируемый товар, либо предъявитель которого получает огово­ренную скидку при покупке товара


Text D


Posters are used in a variety of settings to create awareness and remind people of something. Many companies use posters on bulletin boards to remind employees about basic company policies and safety precautions.

A good example is the Nissan Motor Company's poster campaign to remind employ­ees at various U.S. offices to buckle up when driving. Nissan used a series of posters with a lighthearted touch, using famous artworks and personalities. One poster draped a seat belt over a stock movie photo of Sherlock Holmes with the caption, "It's Elementary, Buckle Up Now".

Government agencies often use posters as part of public information campaign about preventing AIDS, getting flu shots, or having pets neutered. The government of New Zealand used an extensive poster campaign to warn returning citizens from abroad about the dangers of bringing fruit and other banned products into the island nation. The large poster, in full color, carried the headline "Lethal Weapon" and showed a collage of banned food products in the shape of a machine gun. The copy below the picture was simple and brief:


Don't Bring One Home

The everyday items you bring back from overseas could contain pests and diseases with a more lethal effect than any weapon:

• Devastating our economy.

• Destroying our environment.

Just ask your travel agent for a brochure on what you can and can't bring back. And if you're in doubt, leave it behind.

Museum exhibits and art shows lend themselves to poster treatments. The poster, often a piece of art itself, can promote attendance and can also be sold as a souvenir of the show.

Posters can also be used as mailers to business prospects and key opinion leaders. The American Management Association regularly sends posters to businesses promot­ing its services and conferences, they are mailed in the hope that the recipients will dis­play them on bulletin boards so that additional people are informed.

To be effective, a poster must be attractively designed and have strong visual ele­ments. It should be relatively large, convey only one basic idea, and use only a few words to relate basic information. A poster is a small billboard.

Posters, if done property, can be expensive to design and produce. Therefore, you need to assess how the posters will be used and displayed. Costs can be controlled, often by buying ready-to-use posters from printers and having the organization's name or logo printed on them. Local chapters of national organizations, such as the American Cancer Society, also get posters from the national organization that can be easily localized.


□ Notes:

the American Management Association - Американская Ассоциация менеджмента. Основана в 1923 г. Штаб-квартира в г. Нью-Йорке.


□ Vocabulary:

setting - окружение; окружающая обстановка

bulletin board - доска объявлений

buckle up - пристегнуть ремни

light-hearted - беззаботный, веселый, беспечный

drape - драпировать; накинуть (что-то сверху)

stock movie photo - кадр из фильма

caption - подпись (под фотографией); титр

prevent AIDS - помешать распространению СПИДа

get flu shots - получить лекарства от гриппа в виде инъекции

have pets neutered - кастрировать, стерилизовать любимых домашних животных

lethal - летальный, смертельный

collage - коллаж

banned - запрещенный

item - предмет

pests - паразиты, вредители

exhibits - экспонаты

art shows - выставка, показы произведений искусства

treatment - подход, обработка

attendance - посещение, посещаемость, публика

mailers - рекламно-информационные материалы, рассылаемые по почте

convey - передавать

relatively - относительно

relate - излагать, передавать

assess - оценить

Text E

Sponsored Books

Sponsored books may be written by anyone on your organization's staff. They may also be put together by freelance writers. If you should become involved in engaging such a writer, be sure that you read some of his or her work. One large national corpo­ration once hired a famous writer to put together a biography of the founder. It was so bad that extensive rewriting had to be done by a member of the company's staff.

A sponsored book can be published by the organization. In fact, most such books are produced in this way. It is simply a matter of hiring a printer to print and bind the necessary number of copies.

If the book is of such importance that it should be produced by an established book publisher, the usual procedure is to guarantee the purchase of a sufficient number of books to give the publisher a profit. After the sponsor buys the guaranteed number, the publisher is free to market the book through its regular channels.

From Three Cents a Week is the official history of the Prudential Life Insurance Company, and The Truth About Energy was written by the staff of the Mobil Oil Corporation.

Books that relate directly to a company's product are also often underwritten by the company. General Mills has long been producing Betty Crocker cookbooks for Random House.

Corporate histories are often commissioned as part of an anniversary celebration. How-to books can be published whenever there is a potential audience. Some may actually produce a net return for the publishers. In many cases, however, such books are planned for free distribution only, accordingly, the entire cost must be included in the budget as an item of expense.


the Prudential (Life) Insurance Company - одна из крупнейших страховых компа­ний США, основана в 1875 г. «Пруденшл (лайф) иншуранс компани». the Mobil Oil Corporation - нефтехимическая компания «Мобил», владеет сетью заправочных станций.

General Mills - компания по производству и переработке пищевых продуктов «Дженерал Миллс», владеет сетью гостиниц и ресторанов. Betty Crocker packaged food - полуфабрикаты и концентраты «Бетти Крокер». Random House - издательский дом «Рэндом», одна из крупнейших в мире изда­тельских компаний.


□ Vocabulary:

be on the staff - быть штатным сотрудником

freelance - внештатный (сотрудник)

put together - составлять, компилировать

hire - нанимать, брать на работу

engage - давать работу, нанимать

extensive - длительный, пространный, обширный bind - переплетать; скреплять

established book publisher - авторитетный книгоиздатель

underwrite - гарантировать, страховать, поддерживать; подтверждать

relate to - относиться к

corporate history - история фирмы

commission - поручать, законтрактовать, давать заказ (художнику и т.д.)

anniversary celebration - празднование годовщины; юбилей

how-to book - практическое руководство; учебно-инструктивная книга

a net (cash) return - чистое (денежное) поступление

an item of expense - статья расходов


Text F

T-Shirts and Buttons

T-shirts have been described as "walking billboards", and some people, including sociologists, lament the fact that people are so materialistic that they willingly become walking ads for products, service, and social or political issues. Why people do this remains unresolved, but the fact is that they do spend their own money to advertise things with which they may or may not have any direct connection.

Because so many people are willing to serve as billboards, you may find an opportu­nity to use this medium, which is particularly convenient for causes such as environ­mental protection. Often such groups make sizable incomes from the sale of T-shirts.

Corporations don't usually sell T-shirts, but they do distribute them to attendees at conferences, sales meetings, picnics, and other events. In these situations, the T-shirts contribute to a feeling of belonging to a team.

Almost every town and city in America has at least one shop where you can order T-shirts. You can specify just about anything your mind suggests - slogans, corporate logos, symbols, and so on. The process is simple and fast, and the costs are low. At some time, almost any organization may find T-shirt ads useful.

Akin to T-shirts are buttons. They are widely used in political campaigns and at spe­cial events. They are also useful in fund-raising, when they are distributed to people who make donations. In San Francisco one year, money was raised for the ballet by selling "SOB" ("Save Our Ballet") buttons to pedestrians in the downtown area.

Buttons in general have a short life span. They are worn by convention delegates for a few days or by sales representatives during a trade show. Outside of these areas, peo­ple don't generally wear buttons unless they are highly committed to a particular cause.

Buttons call for some creative thinking in terms of expressing your message in one or two words. Advertising specialty firms can make buttons for you. The most expen­sive part is making the original plate or die; after that, buttons in bulk cost only pen­nies apiece to produce.

They don't walk but they do roll - bumper stickers. This once ubiquitous medium is still used to some extent. Most late-model cars have bumpers that are faced with rubber; neither this surface nor that of the car's body is a good place to attach a stick­er. There are, however, a few places available on some cars, and there are some oppor­tunities for the placement of stickers. As with posters, the prescription is brevity Five or six words is about right.


□ Notes:

Neither this surface nor that of the car's body - ни эта поверхность, ни поверхность корпуса машины


□ Vocabulary:

billboard - рекламный щит

lament - печалиться, сожалеть

willingly – охотно

issue - проблема, вопрос

remain unresolved - оставаться нерешены

м be willing to do - хотеть что-то сделать

cause - дело

sizable - большой, порядочного размера

attendee - присутствующий, участник

contribute to - вносить вклад в; способствовать, содействовать

mind - ум

akin to smth. - сродни; близкий, похожий button - пуговица, кнопка, (ам) значок

fund-raising - сбор пожертвований в пользу фонда

make donations - вносить пожертвования

raise money - собирать деньги, добывать деньги

ballet - балет; спектакль

pedestrian - прохожий

downtown - (ам) центр города, деловая часть города

span - период времени; короткий промежуток времени

convention - собрание, съезд, совещание, встреча

outside - за пределами

be committed to - быть связанным с

call for - требовать, призывать

in terms of - с точки зрения

specialty - специальный ассортимент

plate - пластинка, клише

die (pl. - dice) - штамп, матрица

in bulk - навалом, оптом; в общей массе

apiece - поштучно, за штуку

bumper - бампер (у машины)

sticker - этикетка, наклейка, стикер

ubiquitous - вездесущий, повсеместный

face with - отделывать, облицовывать

rubber - резина

attach - прикрепить, приклеить

available - доступный, имеющийся в наличии prescription - зд. совет; предписание

brevity – краткость



Render the following text in English:

Наружная реклама

Наружная реклама (англ. outdoor advertising) - медиаканал, который доно­сит рекламные обращения до получателей при помощи отпечатанных типо­графским способом плакатов, рисованных щитов или световых табло, устанав­ливаемых в местах наиболее оживленного уличного движений, а также вдоль шоссейных и железных дорог. Основными носителями наружной рекламы следует назвать рекламные щиты (англ. billboard), вывески на остановках (bus shelter), электронно-механические щиты с периодически сменяющимися изображениями (prismav-ision), световые короба (city light), световые короба на опоре (city light on pole), стационарные панно на зданиях - брандмауэры, пространственные конструк­ции (например, огромные объемные макеты: упаковки пленки «Kodak», бутылки «Соса-Cola», пачки сигарет «МагШого» и т.п.), транспарант-растяжки (баннеры, от англ. banner), «бегущая строка» и др.

Рекламный контакт достигается во время передвижения по городским улицам и автострадам и поэтому является очень кратким по времени. В связи с этим обращение должно быть лаконичным, тексты - краткими, а изображе­ния - привлекающими непроизвольное внимание и выразительными по форме.

Преимуществами наружной рекламы являются: широкий охват аудитории, частотность, гибкость, относительно невысокая стоимость одного контакта и долговременность воздействия на аудиторию.

Наружная реклама наряду с преимуществами имеет и недостатки. К ним необходимо отнести большие сроки, необходимые на проведение кампании с использованием данного медиа-канала. Под влиянием атмосферных явлений (дождь, мороз, ветер и т.п.) резко снижается качество изображения на щитах. Носители наружной рекламы требуют постоянного контроля над их состоя­нием. Рекламодателю, осуществляющему общенациональную кампанию, проконтролировать эти моменты практически





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