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10.2 Ответьте на вопросы?
What does the Cadastral information include?
What are information resources for the SUC formed on?
The importance of Cadastral surveys
City, town and village governments conduct cadastral surveys which identify the property owner, type of land. Cadastral surveys also include the preparation of maps and books. The cadastral maps and cadastral books are prepared from the results of cadastral surveys. They are submitted to official registration offices where they replace old maps under the Property Registration Law.
Through cadastral surveys, the cadastre (the most fundamental level of information on land) is clarified. Cadastral surveys also contribute to the protection of land-based assets.
It is necessary to promote cadastral surveys as a matter of urgency, and to produce cadastres (the most basic level of information about land) in order to promote effective land use.
The "Cadastral Information System" provides digitized information for areas where cadastral surveys have been completed. The "Cadastral Information System" also maintains and manages land configuration information. The system provides land and housing surveyors, surveying companies and the general public with cadastral maps on land-lots, integrated cadastral maps.
11.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:
кадастровая съемка, закон о регистрации прав на имущество, цифровые данные, землеустроитель.
11.2 Укажите в каком из приведенных значений данное слово употребляется в тексте:
1. survey a) осмотр
b) топографическая съемка
2. property a) имущество
11.3 Переведите слова и выражения в скобках:
1. Cadastral surveys also include (подготовку) of maps and (книг).
2. (Кадастровая информационная система) provides digitized information (для территорий, где кадастровые съемки) have been completed.
Urban systems are built up from a network of subsystems. Transportation is an example. Food, water, and materials move into a city through subsystems. Unlike natural systems, urban systems have the opposite tendency.
One subsystem works in isolation from all other subsystems. The one-sided development of highways leads to the neglect of transportation as a whole. Builders of suburban tracts work without consideration of the effect of their community on transportation, sewage disposal, water supply, schools, and all of the other parts of the broader urban community. It is the job of the metropolitan planners. But many planners are not trained, and they are ruled by politicians, who often reflect special interest pressures.
Perhaps the greatest failure in urban planning and development is the tendency to forget that the city is the home for the human being. Thus the new housing developments are commonly hated by those who live in them. They seldom function in the way the designers had intended.
12.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:
Транспортировка, одностороннее развитие, пригородный район, водоснабжение, недостаток.
12.2 В чем самый большой недостаток градостроительства и городского развития?
The greatest failure is the tendency to forget that the city is the home for the human being.
The greatest failure is many planners are not trained.
The greatest failure is politicians reflect special interest pressures.
A new town, planned community, or planned city is a city, town, or community that was planned from its inception. It is constructed in a previously undeveloped area.
Navi Mumbai, a planned city near Indian city of Mumbai is the largest planned township in the world. Several of the world's capital cities are planned cities, including Washington, D.C., in the United States, Canberra in Australia, Brasília in Brazil, New Delhi in India, Abuja in Nigeria and Islamabad in Pakistan. It was common in the European colonization of the Americans to build according to a plan either on fresh ground or on the ruins of earlier Amerindian cities.
13.1 Где строится спроектированный город?
1. A planned city is constructed on the ruins of earlier Amerindian cities.
2. A planned city is constructed near the largest planned township in the world.
3. A planned city is constructed in a previously undeveloped area.
Canberra was established in 1908. It was planned as the capital city of Australia. Canberra is Australia's most notable and ambitious example of civic planning. The city was designed to be the Federal Capital. The new nation required a capital that was located away from other major settlements such as Melbourne and Sydney. Canberra was nothing more than farming land and forest. In 1912 the vision of American Walter Burley Griffin was chosen as the winning design for the city. Unlike some other Australian cities, the road network, suburbs, parks and other elements of the city were designed in context with each other. Notable buildings include the High Court, Federal Parliament, Government House, War Memorial and others.
14.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:
выдающийся, нуждаться, сельскохозяйственная земля, проект, дорожная сеть, пригород.
14.2 Ответьте на вопросы?
When was Canberra established?
What did the nature require?
Who was the author of the winning design?
The country's capital, Brasília, was a planned city. It was built in four years. The former capital of Brazil was Rio de Janeiro. The city was built because there was a need for a neutrally-located federal capital. The main reason was to promote the development of the entire territory of Brazil. Brasília is approximately at the geographical center of Brazilian territory.
Lúcio Costa, the city's principal architect, designed the city in the shape of an airplane. Houses and offices are situated on giant superblocks, everything following the original plan. The plan specifies which zones are residential, which zones are commercial, where industries can settle, where official buildings can be built, the maximum height of buildings, etc.
15.1 Переведите слова и выражения в скобках:
1. It was built (за 4 года).
2. (Главная причина) was to promote (развитие) of the entire territory of Brazil.
3. Lúcio Costa (спроектировал) the city in the shape of (аэроплана).
15.2 Что определяет оригинальный план?
1. The plan specifies the development of the entire territory.
2. The plan specifies which zones are residential and which zones are commercial.
3. The original plan specifies a need for a neutrally-located federal capital.
Derry was the first ever planned city in Ireland. Work began on building the new city across the River Foyle from the ancient town of Derry in 1613. The walls were completed five years later in 1618. The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was a good design for defense. In 1963 according to the Matthew Plan the new city of Craigavon was founded out of the original towns of Portadown and Lurgan. This town today lies mostly incomplete because the troubles halted construction.
Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland the term "new town" is referred to planned towns built after World War II. The term "new town" in Ireland was also used for some earlier developments.
In 1961 the first new town of Shannon was commenced and a target of 6,000 inhabitants was set. Shannon is an important economic centre (with the Shannon Free Zone and Shannon International Airport).
The most recent new town in Ireland is Adamstown in County Dublin.
16.1 Ответьте на вопросы?
1. What happened in 1613?
2. When was the new city of Craigavon founded?
3. What was the term “new town” used for?
16.2 Переведите слова и выражения в скобках:
1. (Стены) were completed (5 лет спустя) in 1618.
2. This town lies (незавершенный) because the troubles (прекратили) construction.
3. The term (“новый город”) in Ireland was also used for (более ранних) developments.
In the past centuries several new towns have been planned in Italy. One of the most famous is Pienza, close to Siena, a Renaissance city. Between 1459 and 1462 the most famous architects of Italy worked there for the Pope Pius II and built the city centre of the small town.
Another example of renaissance planned cities is the walled star city of Palmanova.
In early 20th century, during the fascist government of Benito Mussolini, many new cities were founded. The most prominent was Littoria. The city was inaugurated on December 18, 1932. Littoria was populated with immigrants from Northern Italy.
The great Sicilian earthquake of 1693 forced the complete rebuilding on new plans of many towns.
Other well known new cities are located close to Milan in the metropolitan area. In the 1970s in the eastern metropolitan area of Milan a new city was built by Silvio Berlusconi. It is called Milano Due.
17.1 Ответьте на вопросы?
1. What is one of the famous cities?
2. What can you say about Littoria?
3. What did the Sicilian earthquake of 1693 force?
Список использованной литературы
1. Долинская Л.Д., Киткова Н.Г. Человек и земля. М.: Изд-во МГУ, 1994. – 119с.
2. A.Goltsblat A guide to land transactions in Russia.M.2007, 100p.
3. Agricultural Land Market in Russia http://ideas.repec.org/a/pal/compes/v47y2005i1p127-140.html
4. Cadastral report http://www.gradkadastr.ru/eng/certificates/
5. Category:Planned citieshttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Planned_cities
6. Land Resources of Russia. Glossary. http://www.iiasa/ac/at/Research/FOR/russia_cd/gloss.
7. Land Ownership in Russia http://www.lexuniversal.com/en/articles/887
8. Land Code of the Russian Federation http://www.jurinfor.ru/library/B5891581388.php
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