Б1.Б.3. ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)



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Б1.Б.3. ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)



Б1.Б.3. ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)

Сборник текстов и заданий для подготовки бакалавров заочного обучения

По направлению

Землеустройство и кадастры

 

Уфа 2011

УДК 811.111

ББК 812 Англ

С 23

 

Рекомендовано к изданию методической комиссией факультета землеустройства и лесного хозяйства протокол №4 от 26 декабря 2011 г.

 

Составители: к.ф.н., доцент З.Н. Изимариева, ассистент Л.Р.Иванова

 

Рецензент: к.ф.н., доцент А.Р. Шамратова

 

 

Ответственный за выпуск: зав. кафедрой английского языка к.ф.н., доцент О.Н.Новикова

1.1 Прочитайте и переведите текст со словарем:

Text 1

Land categories of Russian Federation

Land account (LA) is a system for registering the actual state and use of land. Land is registered by administrative units, land categories, land quality, and land tenants.

LA indicates all changes in land use at the moment of observation and records them in the land cadastre.

Under Article 7 of the Land Code of the Russian Federation, all land in the country is divided into seven land categories:

1. Agricultural lands;
2. Settlement lands;
3. Lands of industry, power industry, transport, communications, radio broadcasting, television, informatics and other activities;
4. Specially protected territories;
5. Lands of forest fund;
6. Lands of water fund;
7. Reserve lands.

Land classified under a particular category may be used only for its designated purpose. Depending on the ownership of the land, the right to transfer land from one category to another is vested either in the Russian Government, executive authorities of Russian constituent entities, or in municipalities. Agricultural lands may be transferred from one category to another only by the executive authorities of Russian constituent entities.

(1120)

1.2 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

земельная оценка, реальное состояние, административная единица, арендатор земли, земельный кадастр, земельный кодекс, сельскохозяйственные площади, земли населенных пунктов, особо охраняемая территория, заповедник, земли лесного фонда, земли водного фонда, субъект Российской Федерации.

1.3 Переведите слова и выражения в скобках:

1. Land (регистрируется) by administrative units, (земельными категориями), land quality, and land tenants.

2. (Согласно статье №7) of the Land Code of the Russian Federation land in the country (поделена на) seven land categories.

3. Land (классифицируемая по) a particular category (может быть использована) for its designated purpose.

1.4 Укажите в каком из приведенных значений данное слово употребляется в тексте:

1. account a) счет

b) отчет

c) оценка

2. record a) запись

b) отчет

c) протокол

3. to transfer a) перевозить

b) переводить

c) передавать

 

Text 2

Agricultural land

Agriculture is one of the important branches of material production that includes the cultivation of crops and the breeding of animals and their primary processing. Agriculture produces foodstuff for populations and primary products for many branches of industry.

Land is the basic means of production for agriculture. Its special features affect the patterns of concentration and specialization of agricultural production. Living organisms such as plants and animals are also means of production. Both economic and biological laws control development of this branch. Means of production and labor are used seasonally. More than 20% of the gross output of agriculture (seeds, feeds, animal yield) is used in a subsequent production cycle.

(739)

2.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

зерновые культуры, первичная переработка, пищевые продукты, средства, живой организм, объем валовой продукции, приплод.

2.2 Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is agriculture?

2. What does agriculture produce?

3. What is “land” for agriculture?

4. What is used seasonally?

Text 3

Nature reserve land

A nature reserve is a protected area for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest. Nature reserves are designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners. There are around 100 nature reserves (Russian: zapovednik) in Russia, covering some 330,000 km² (~127,400 sq mi), or about 1.4% of the country's total area. A few of them predate the October Revolution of 1917, but most have been created during the Soviet Union era. There are also natural protected areas where only certain species are protected. They are zakazniks.

The status of the protected areas in Russia is governed by the laws of the Russian Federation

The law establishes the following categories of protected areas:

§ State nature zapovedniks, including biosphere reserves (biosphere zapovedniks)

§ National parks

§ Nature parks

§ State nature zakazniks

§ Natural Monuments

§ Dendrological parks and botanical gardens

§ Health recuperation areas and health resorts

(988)

3.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

природоохранная территория, государственная структура, землевладелец, виды, лечебно-оздоровительные местности.

3.2 Переведите слова и выражения в скобках:

1. Nature reserves (определяются) by government institutions (в некоторых странах).

2. A few of them (появились до) the October Revolution of 1917.

3. The status of (охраняемых территорий) in Russia (устанавливается) by the laws of the Russian Federation.

3.3 Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is a nature reserve?

2. How many nature reserves are there in Russia?

3. What categories of protected areas do you know?

Text 4

The Land Code

The Land Code of the Russian Federation is a document passage into law effectuated by the Federal law. The Land Code consists of 18 chapters. This documentregulates the procedure, conditions, principles and other important issues of legal land relationship in the Russian Federation.

General provisions contained in the Code determineprinciples and elements of land legislation specify the participants of legal land relationship, objects of legal land relationship, contain the list of categories of lands in the Russian Federation.

The Code establishes different mechanisms of operations with different plots, different legal regime of their use. The Code defines the concept "protection of land", determines purposes and content of such protection. The Code specifies the kinds of control in accordance with the land legislation, protection and use of lands (state, municipal, social, industrial control). Besides, the Code contains responsibility for offences in the area of protection and use of lands.

(1010)

4.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

земельный кодекс, приводить в исполнение, земельные отношения, положения, участок (земли), земельное законодательство, правонарушение.

4.2 Укажите в каком из приведенных значений данное слово употребляется в тексте:

condition a) состояние

b) условие

c) обстоятельство

operation a) разработка

b) эксплуатация

c) действие

plot a) план

b) участок

c) проект

4.3 Что регулирует земельный кодекс?

a) The Land Code regulates participants of legal land relation?

b) The Land Code regulates the procedure, conditions, and principles of legal land relationship.

c) The Land Code regulates law effectuated by the Federal law.

Text 5

Text 6

Land ownership

Land may be private, state, social, municipal, and "other property." Private land belongs to citizens or organizations. Lands that are not owned by citizens, legal entities, or municipal structures are in the state property category. State land consists of Russia property and property of the subjects of the Russian Federation. Land that belongs to urban and rural settlements and other municipal formations is known as municipal property. State property is in the charge of government bodies at the federal or republic level. The state statistic accounts are based on the state land cadastre information, which is accumulated and stored by regional bodies of the Federal land cadastre service of Russia (Roszemkadastr). (721)

6.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

частный, юридическое лицо, субъект, собственность, статистические данные, накапливать, региональная организация.

6.2 Ответьте на вопросы?

1. What categories of land can you name?

2. What lands are in the state property category?

3. What is municipal property?

Text 7

The city-planning cadastre

City-planning cadastre of the city contains the information about terms and conditions of implementation of the city-planning activities at any part of the city territory. Information resources of the city-planning cadastre subdivide into operational and referential.

Operational information resources comprise the data about city-planning regulations, protection zones of historical and cultural monuments. Referential information resources comprise documents and data necessary for implementation of the city-planning activities.

The city-planning cadastre is the only official source of operational information. If normative legal acts of the city prescribe compulsory use of the information of the city-planning cadastre it is necessary to order official document — cadastral report.

Plans, maps and schemes that belong to the unified state cartographic base of the city serve as cartographic base for the formation of the information resources of the city-planning cadastre.

(976)

7.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

осуществление, включать, защитная зона, обязательное использование, унифицированная государственная картографическая база.

7.2 Переведите слова и выражения в скобках:

1. (Городской кадастр) of the city contains (информацию) about terms and (условиями) of implementation of the (градостроительной деятельности) at any part of the city territory.

2. The city-planning cadastre is the (единственный официальный) source of operational (информации).

3. Plans, maps and schemes (служат) cartographic (базой) for the formation of the information resources (городского кадастра).

Text 8

Urban areas

An urban area is a village.

Text 9

Cadastral report

Cadastral report contains official information on the urban cadastre of the city on the basis of the operating Master Plan of the city. It represents a normative document on location, construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation and rebuilding of objects in the city. All the information in the cadastral report is public and accessible to any customer without limitation. The information resources are formed on the basis of the town-planning and project documentation.

Cadastral report is not permission but a document, which provides both the government bodies and investors with the information base. This information base is necessary for taking justified decisions and it protects the investors against biased actions of authorities.

(739)

9.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

Text 10

The Cadastral information

Cadastral Information is formed on the basis of the approved materials of the Master Plan of the city development prospects. It contains norms and data necessary for decision-making on distribution, construction, reconstruction, restoration and legal registration of rights to the land plots and property objects related to them.

The Cadastral Information includes fragments of town-planning documentation registered in the State Urban Cadaster (SUC) of the city.

Information resources for the SUC are formed on the basis of the approved town planning documentation.

The SUC information resources are subject to constant supplementation and actualization.

Cadastral Information is a document which provides government bodies and customers with the information.

(757)

10.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

Text 11

The importance of Cadastral surveys

City, town and village governments conduct cadastral surveys which identify the property owner, type of land. Cadastral surveys also include the preparation of maps and books. The cadastral maps and cadastral books are prepared from the results of cadastral surveys. They are submitted to official registration offices where they replace old maps under the Property Registration Law.

Through cadastral surveys, the cadastre (the most fundamental level of information on land) is clarified. Cadastral surveys also contribute to the protection of land-based assets.

It is necessary to promote cadastral surveys as a matter of urgency, and to produce cadastres (the most basic level of information about land) in order to promote effective land use.

The "Cadastral Information System" provides digitized information for areas where cadastral surveys have been completed. The "Cadastral Information System" also maintains and manages land configuration information. The system provides land and housing surveyors, surveying companies and the general public with cadastral maps on land-lots, integrated cadastral maps.

(1115)

11.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

кадастровая съемка, закон о регистрации прав на имущество, цифровые данные, землеустроитель.

11.2 Укажите в каком из приведенных значений данное слово употребляется в тексте:

1. survey a) осмотр

b) топографическая съемка

c) обзор

2. property a) имущество

b) хозяйство

c) вещь

 

11.3 Переведите слова и выражения в скобках:

1. Cadastral surveys also include (подготовку) of maps and (книг).

2. (Кадастровая информационная система) provides digitized information (для территорий, где кадастровые съемки) have been completed.

Text 12

Urban planning

Urban systems are built up from a network of subsystems. Transportation is an example. Food, water, and materials move into a city through subsystems. Unlike natural systems, urban systems have the opposite tendency.

One subsystem works in isolation from all other subsystems. The one-sided development of highways leads to the neglect of transportation as a whole. Builders of suburban tracts work without consideration of the effect of their community on transportation, sewage disposal, water supply, schools, and all of the other parts of the broader urban community. It is the job of the metropolitan planners. But many planners are not trained, and they are ruled by politicians, who often reflect special interest pressures.

Perhaps the greatest failure in urban planning and development is the tendency to forget that the city is the home for the human being. Thus the new housing developments are commonly hated by those who live in them. They seldom function in the way the designers had intended.

(1008)

12.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

Text 13

Planned cities

A new town, planned community, or planned city is a city, town, or community that was planned from its inception. It is constructed in a previously undeveloped area.

Navi Mumbai, a planned city near Indian city of Mumbai is the largest planned township in the world. Several of the world's capital cities are planned cities, including Washington, D.C., in the United States, Canberra in Australia, Brasília in Brazil, New Delhi in India, Abuja in Nigeria and Islamabad in Pakistan. It was common in the European colonization of the Americans to build according to a plan either on fresh ground or on the ruins of earlier Amerindian cities.

(639)

13.1 Где строится спроектированный город?

1. A planned city is constructed on the ruins of earlier Amerindian cities.

2. A planned city is constructed near the largest planned township in the world.

3. A planned city is constructed in a previously undeveloped area.

 

Text 14

A. Canberra

Canberra was established in 1908. It was planned as the capital city of Australia. Canberra is Australia's most notable and ambitious example of civic planning. The city was designed to be the Federal Capital. The new nation required a capital that was located away from other major settlements such as Melbourne and Sydney. Canberra was nothing more than farming land and forest. In 1912 the vision of American Walter Burley Griffin was chosen as the winning design for the city. Unlike some other Australian cities, the road network, suburbs, parks and other elements of the city were designed in context with each other. Notable buildings include the High Court, Federal Parliament, Government House, War Memorial and others.

(729)

14.1 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

выдающийся, нуждаться, сельскохозяйственная земля, проект, дорожная сеть, пригород.

14.2 Ответьте на вопросы?

Text 15

B. Brazil

The country's capital, Brasília, was a planned city. It was built in four years. The former capital of Brazil was Rio de Janeiro. The city was built because there was a need for a neutrally-located federal capital. The main reason was to promote the development of the entire territory of Brazil. Brasília is approximately at the geographical center of Brazilian territory.

Lúcio Costa, the city's principal architect, designed the city in the shape of an airplane. Houses and offices are situated on giant superblocks, everything following the original plan. The plan specifies which zones are residential, which zones are commercial, where industries can settle, where official buildings can be built, the maximum height of buildings, etc.

(740)

15.1 Переведите слова и выражения в скобках:

1. It was built (за 4 года).

2. (Главная причина) was to promote (развитие) of the entire territory of Brazil.

3. Lúcio Costa (спроектировал) the city in the shape of (аэроплана).

15.2 Что определяет оригинальный план?

1. The plan specifies the development of the entire territory.

2. The plan specifies which zones are residential and which zones are commercial.

3. The original plan specifies a need for a neutrally-located federal capital.

Text 16

C. Ireland

Northern Ireland

Derry was the first ever planned city in Ireland. Work began on building the new city across the River Foyle from the ancient town of Derry in 1613. The walls were completed five years later in 1618. The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was a good design for defense. In 1963 according to the Matthew Plan the new city of Craigavon was founded out of the original towns of Portadown and Lurgan. This town today lies mostly incomplete because the troubles halted construction.

Republic of Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland the term "new town" is referred to planned towns built after World War II. The term "new town" in Ireland was also used for some earlier developments.

In 1961 the first new town of Shannon was commenced and a target of 6,000 inhabitants was set. Shannon is an important economic centre (with the Shannon Free Zone and Shannon International Airport).

The most recent new town in Ireland is Adamstown in County Dublin.

(974)

16.1 Ответьте на вопросы?

1. What happened in 1613?

2. When was the new city of Craigavon founded?

3. What was the term “new town” used for?

16.2 Переведите слова и выражения в скобках:

1. (Стены) were completed (5 лет спустя) in 1618.

2. This town lies (незавершенный) because the troubles (прекратили) construction.

3. The term (“новый город”) in Ireland was also used for (более ранних) developments.

Text 17

D. Italy

In the past centuries several new towns have been planned in Italy. One of the most famous is Pienza, close to Siena, a Renaissance city. Between 1459 and 1462 the most famous architects of Italy worked there for the Pope Pius II and built the city centre of the small town.

Another example of renaissance planned cities is the walled star city of Palmanova.

In early 20th century, during the fascist government of Benito Mussolini, many new cities were founded. The most prominent was Littoria. The city was inaugurated on December 18, 1932. Littoria was populated with immigrants from Northern Italy.

The great Sicilian earthquake of 1693 forced the complete rebuilding on new plans of many towns.

Other well known new cities are located close to Milan in the metropolitan area. In the 1970s in the eastern metropolitan area of Milan a new city was built by Silvio Berlusconi. It is called Milano Due.

(902)

17.1 Ответьте на вопросы?

1. What is one of the famous cities?

2. What can you say about Littoria?

3. What did the Sicilian earthquake of 1693 force?

Список использованной литературы

1. Долинская Л.Д., Киткова Н.Г. Человек и земля. М.: Изд-во МГУ, 1994. – 119с.

2. A.Goltsblat A guide to land transactions in Russia.M.2007, 100p.

3. Agricultural Land Market in Russia http://ideas.repec.org/a/pal/compes/v47y2005i1p127-140.html

4. Cadastral report http://www.gradkadastr.ru/eng/certificates/

5. Category:Planned citieshttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Planned_cities

6. Land Resources of Russia. Glossary. http://www.iiasa/ac/at/Research/FOR/russia_cd/gloss.

7. Land Ownership in Russia http://www.lexuniversal.com/en/articles/887

8. Land Code of the Russian Federation http://www.jurinfor.ru/library/B5891581388.php

Б1.Б.3. ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)

Сборник текстов и заданий для подготовки бакалавров заочного обучения

По направлению

Землеустройство и кадастры

 

Уфа 2011

УДК 811.111

ББК 812 Англ

С 23

 

Рекомендовано к изданию методической комиссией факультета землеустройства и лесного хозяйства протокол №4 от 26 декабря 2011 г.

 

Составители: к.ф.н., доцент З.Н. Изимариева, ассистент Л.Р.Иванова

 

Рецензент: к.ф.н., доцент А.Р. Шамратова

 

 

Ответственный за выпуск: зав. кафедрой английского языка к.ф.н., доцент О.Н.Новикова

1.1 Прочитайте и переведите текст со словарем:

Text 1



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