ТОП 10:

Revision of TOK Year 1 Areas of Knowledge



Zhumabekov Adilzhan

Revision of TOK Year 1 Areas of Knowledge

Natural sciences, human sciences, mathematics, the arts

Natural sciences

Section 1 Scope/ Applications:

1. What is the AoK about?

It is about the natural world we live in. Natural sciences gives us an opportunity to understand all phenomena that are surrounding us, providing us with (usually) reliable, precise facts.

2. What practical problems can be solved through applying this knowledge?

For example: with the help of Physics humans can calculate a trajectory of space bodies (i.e. meteors, asteroids etc.) and know exactly are they going to collide with the Earth, or not.

What makes this AoK important?

Natural science helps us to understand and perceive the world.

What are the current open questions in this area – important questions that are currently unanswered?

Biology: What is the exact transport mechanism by which proteins travel through the Golgi apparatus? (Taken from (List of unsolved problems in biology, 2014 ))

Physics: What is the exact mechanism by which an implosion of a dying star becomes an explosion? (Taken from (List of unsolved problems in physics, 2014))

Chemistry: Why are some organic reactions accelerated at the water-organic interface? (Taken from (List of unsolved problems in chemistry, 2014 ))

Are there ethical considerations that limit the scope of inquiry? If so, what are they?

People should not use living beings for dangerous experiments.

What is the relationship between this area of knowledge and reality?

This area of knowledge is used as a tool to represent reality, to interpret reality in something that people could understand.

Section 2 Concepts/ Language:

What role does language play in the accumulation of knowledge in this area?

Language is used for sharing knowledge amongst people (particularly amongst scientists). They use it to construct hypothesis, theory, and conclusion, to record quantitative and qualitative data. Also, they use it in proving their theories.

What are the roles of the key concepts and key terms that provide the building blocks for this area?

Key concepts and key terms like axioms and theories are building blocks of science. First of all, scientists construct axioms. Then using axioms they construct theories. And using that theories and axioms they establish new theories. That is why key terms and concepts are very essential.

What is the role of convention in this area?

The main role is the presence of a uniform standard, the standard by which it will be possible to share and teach others the same concepts.

Section 3 Methodology:

What are the methods or procedures used in this area and what is it about these methods that generate knowledge?

A method called scientific method is used in Natural sciences. It consists of some steps: constructing a hypothesis, testing hypothesis with an experiment, and make a conclusion.

What are the assumptions underlying these methods?

- Conclusion either supports a hypothesis, or not in the scientific method. (there is no intermediate)

- This method gives a precise answer.

What counts as a fact in this area of knowledge?

A true statement that was proven through experiments.

What roles do models play in this area of knowledge?

It gives opportunity to represent something (i.e. some process) that humans can’t ‘see with naked eye’, like model of an atom.

Models (even if they sometimes are not precise) help people understand how things are working and how do they look like. They, sometimes, give not accurate knowledge, but better something than nothing.

What ethical thinking constrains the methods used to gain knowledge?

People and animals (excluding artificially grown animals) must not be used in dangerous experiments. So that, no harm is done to ecosystem.

Section 4 Historical development:

What is the significance of the key points in the historical development of this area of knowledge?

In the history of natural sciences tons of theories and concepts were false, and falsifying them was a great achievement. Why? Because, less false leads to more truth and more correct interpretation of the world.

How has the history of this area led to its current form?

In the history of natural sciences there were lots of paradigm shifts that changed old incorrect concepts with new ones (it doesn't mean that new ones are true). Falsification played a great role in its history, too.

Section 5 Links to personal knowledge:

Why is this area significant to the individual?

Natural science may help to individual to survive in this world.

What is the nature of the contributions of individuals to this area?

It is knowledge. Each human can add something to common piggy bank of knowledge, add his own personal knowledge. But not always this ‘something’ is true.

What assumptions underlie the individual’s own approach to his knowledge?

A belief that all knowledge is true, concrete and reliable.

Human sciences

Section 1 Scope/ Applications:

What is the AoK about?

It is all about humans, their thoughts, behavior, actions.

What practical problems can be solved through applying this knowledge?

To understand the behavior of a particular person in a society.

What makes this AoK important?

To understand reasons people behaving, acting, thinking differently, or the same way.

What are the current open questions in this area – important questions that are currently unanswered?

Psychology:Why do we dream? (Taken from (Krauss, 2013))

Are there ethical considerations that limit the scope of inquiry? If so, what are they?

In experiments there should be no physical or mental damage done to humans.

What is the relationship between this area of knowledge and reality?

Humans are living in real life (don’t even ask about the Matrix!! :D). They are acting in real life. And human sciences look for this action and try to interpret it. So, here is the relationship.

Section 2 Concepts/ Language:

What role does language play in the accumulation of knowledge in this area?

Language is used for sharing knowledge amongst people (particularly amongst scientists). They use it to construct hypothesis, theory, and conclusion, to record quantitative and qualitative data. Also, they use it in proving their theories.

What are the roles of the key concepts and key terms that provide the building blocks for this area?

Key concepts and key terms are playing a role of basement, on which the rest part of human sciences is attached.

What is the role of convention in this area?

The main role is the presence of a uniform standard, the standard by which it will be possible to share and teach others the same concepts.

Section 3 Methodology:

What are the methods or procedures used in this area and what is it about these methods that generate knowledge?

A method called scientific method is used in Human sciences. It consists of some steps: constructing a hypothesis, testing hypothesis with an experiment, and make a conclusion.

What are the assumptions underlying these methods?

They are not always correct.

This method might give a result that is true for a certain group of people.

What counts as a fact in this area of knowledge?

A true statement that was proven through experiments.

What roles do models play in this area of knowledge?

Models help to gain knowledge by visualizing trends in form of for example graphs.

What ethical thinking constrains the methods used to gain knowledge?

There should be no damage to humans.

Section 4 Historical development:

What is the significance of the key points in the historical development of this area of knowledge?

In the history of human sciences tons of theories and concepts were false, and falsifying them was a great achievement. Why? Because, less false leads to more truth and more correct interpretation of the world.

Why is this area significant to the individual?

Individual will understand some humans’ actions, behavior.

What assumptions underlie the individual’s own approach to his knowledge?

Mathematics

Section 1 Scope/ Applications:

What is the AoK about?

It is about the shapes of the objects, their arrangement and quantity.

Bibliography

Cooney, M. (29 September 2008 г.). The world's 23 toughest math questions. Получено из networkworld.com: http://www.networkworld.com/article/2346451/securityhe-world-s-23-toughest-math-questions/security/the-world-s-23-toughest-math-questions.html

Krauss, S. (23 April 2013 г.). Psychology Today. Получено из psychologytoday.com: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fulfillment-any-age/201304/top-10-list-psychology-s-big-questions-and-the-answers

List of unsolved problems in biology. (22 August 2014 г.). Получено из Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unsolved_problems_in_biology

List of unsolved problems in chemistry. (18 June 2014 г.). Получено из Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unsolved_problems_in_chemistry

List of unsolved problems in physics. (25 August 2014 г.). Получено из Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unsolved_problems_in_physics

 

 

Zhumabekov Adilzhan

Revision of TOK Year 1 Areas of Knowledge







Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-08-12; Нарушение авторского права страницы

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