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Vocabulary (Negotiating and e-tailing)



Analysis

CEO stands for:

Chief executive officer

An ability to understand something clearly:

Insight

R&D stands for:

Research and development

We tried to contact you, but we couldn’t get:

Through

The line is bad. Please hang ...and I’ll call you back.

up

I … for my exam, when my friend… me.

Was revising called

Before I …to sales Director, I…a sales consultant in our main city-center branch.

I’m …charge …three accountants working …me.

Why do you…your boss? Because he makes us work long hours.

 

…? I would say very often. It keeps crashing every other day.

…? They were arguing about software problems.

I was wondering if you ………………….arrange a visit from the technician?

When dealing with difficult customers, sometimes we …exchange the product or give a full refund.

I……………………get through to the Paris office. I‘ve been trying all morning.

…you give more details of the business procedures?

Using office telephone for making personal calls very often is …

 

…., or you will never finish your job.

Knowledge or skill you get from being in different situations:

experience

USP is…

Many products are identical from the consumer’s point of …

view

The principal problem in the company is a lack of …between the people.

communication

You need to possess strong … to work in Sales Department.

We can hire you on condition that you’re able to ...

Nowadays young people prefer money rather than…

 

When the company was taken over by a larger competitor, Kate…

Thanks to her enhanced resume, Sue …for a second interview.

Was shortlisted

Tom joined the British Petroleum three months ago. He has been hoping for…there.

The bank has over 3,000 …

employers

Someone who teaches about trade between countries is a teacher of…

The bank is …in a number of new projects.

Since she …from university, Jane … live alone.

At…moment she is working on … project in …China.

The a -

Jane… about running her own business ever since she was at school.

David runs the business …a day-to-day basis.

on

The phrase ‘climb a ladder’ in a company means:

Jim will be working …Jake and Jill in Marketing soon.

alongside

You won’t ... if you don’t prioritize.

A dress code is obligatory here. You have to dress…

If you have any problems we can …a visit from our technician.

‘to refund’ means:

I am writing … regard to a computer problem.

I would like to express my ...for your help with the computer.

Please accept my … for confusing you with your cousin.

Unfortunately your laptop is no longer … guarantee.

A date by which you have to do something:

deadline

‘Purchasing’ is a formal way of saying:

buying

a specially selected group of people who are intended to represent the general public:

Household-cleaning products are products which you clean the house …

with

This idea turned out to be …for technical limitations.

What is the thing you are most proud of in your present job? What is your greatest …?

achievement

During their work placements students … a lot of experience.

Steve ... from the company at the age of 75.

retired

Before graduating, Joe ... for jobs in 20 companies.

Applied for

While I was..., I studied for a master’s degree.

Was unemployed

I liaise with government officials; fortunately, I …

I believe I can make a valuable … to any group.

contribution

Mike…his sales targets by 10 % and got promoted.

After a hostile takeover of the company Tony

The word ‘redundancy’ means:

We expect all the work to be done on time. Are able to work to strict …?

There is a lot of conflicts between the...and the trade union members.

…indicators are figures showing how well a country’s economy is working.

People say that...money makes ... world go round.

? the

 

We developed …great new product- ...idea came from our R&D department.

A the

Estelle is one of …Jane’s friends from...MBA.

- the

At ... moment she is working on ... project in China.

The a

FedEx is an international company …reputation is very good.

whose

The woman…phoned me was our CFO.

Sales …by 5% so far this year.

Have gone up

I …in R&D department since last week.

From time to time I … a bit of work in my father’s company-usually during the summer.

Employees are often to join a company’s insurance…

a natural ability to do something well or to learn it quickly:

aptitude

I’m able to cope with being under stress.

I don’t think I have any significant weaknesses.

It is essential to be staying … at work.

Candidates should be analytical, independent and able to develop a rapport with clients in all sectors.

I am … that there are areas I need to improve on.

Today’s marketplace is highly ...

 

Packaging is the manufacturer’s last chance to …the customer.

Seduce

Nowadays many students apply for a gap-year…

I…my CV all morning, and finally I…it.

I have been writing I have been finished

There were some complaints about the product, so we had to …it in order to make the necessary modifications.

‘to withdraw ’ means:

 

Advertising is simply another of …

The company has... a lot of money in new equipment.

Last year was very unsuccessful. We __________ to meet our targets by 20%.

When I…at work, the meeting …already ….

Domestic sales …steadily over the past 4 years.

There … a slight fall in domestic sales in 1995.

When Wilson’s got into difficulties, Cathy …redundant.

As you …from my CV, I…currently…for Gippo Foods as the Senior Quality Assurance Technician.

 

In…UK…students have to pay back their loans when they leave …university.

The - their

Our charges are among … lowest on …market.

The ...not to bring your personal problems to work?

Why

I …in charge of R&D for a year and a half.

Have been

Antonio …from Milan University in 1998.

Graduated

After university I…for Cambridge University for ten years. Then I was invited to join Oxford University.

Worked

High staff… might damage a company’s image.

For the company to…, our turnover needs to grow by 20% this year.

We had to withdraw large number of … products.

She… several job applications since she graduated from the university but she hasn’t been informed yet.

I… twenty candidates this morning. I’m so tired!

At the present we…our company’s structure.

While I …in my uncle’s company, I …to understand ins and outs of this business.

Was working started

I had no …for accountancy, therefore I applied for marketing at university.

…delegate more if you want to finish the job.

 

The government has imposed …on the amount of currency that can be exported.

Anyone who works in …marketing will tell you that …packaging is very important.

- -

I nearly hit my boss’s car as I …mine.

Was parking

...that it’s rather difficult to find a job at the age of 55?

Ideas for new products can come from many different...

I’m not …to deal with this problem.

There are many…for students doing a work placement.

Doing an internship can help you check if you have chosen the most appropriate career.

A work placement also …the look of your CV.

We need to ...this question urgently.

We must keep an eye…what our competitors are doing at the present time.

The term ‘investor’ means:

Microsoft is a company about … I know quite a little.

which

FedEx is an international company …reputation is very good.

whose

...I do a bit of work in my father’s company – usually during the summer.

The soup…delicious.

tastes

Right now I… two assignments.

Have written

I am...as I speak two languages: English and Spanish.

bilingual

I had a great time ... my university days.

during

I had a great time ... the first two years at university.

for

Erica has ...left. If you go out to the car park, you’ll catch her.

just

Have you …been really late for an interview?

If you want to achieve …success with …new product, there are …number of …steps you have to get right.

Products should be available ... before they are introduced into the market.

A parent company owns several smaller companies called …

subsidies

A ‘parent company’ means:

By the end of the year I…that I …several books on my degree subjects.

Currently I… for Almaty Management University. There’s a great atmosphere in my department.

work

The interview should have a ... structure and this should be explained to the candidates at the very start.

These workers are paid on hourly … here.

I can’t solve your problem at the moment. I need to …it my supervisor.

The order I placed online last week….yet.

I …be grateful if you …the order immediately.

Someone who a business buys from:

A written promise that a company will repair something you buy from them:

We need to make our computers more powerful.

The printer has run out of ink. We need to fill up the…

The machine broke … after only a few months.

down

The machine…by a small motor.

In recent years we …rapidly and now the company has three separate divisions.

We managed to maintain our position during the recession of the early nineties.

Last year we had some difficulty in meeting our sales ...

We were extremely reluctant to make anyone redundant as it was the first time we had ever closed a branch.

Typically we…prices once a year, from January the first, but this time we…the dollar prices immediately because of the big change in the exchange rate.

We … a couple of hundred pounds on gifts every Christmas.

This new model is a real breakthrough.

Branding is not enough to …almost identical products.

The … in our office is very formal – everyone wears a suit.

Dress code

The office etiquette …that you don’t read other people’s messages.

demands

She will have to take the. In order to improve their relationship.

initiative

Most employers prefer interns who have some work experience.

Alex seems to have learned nothing from the …of his predecessors. All of them were wrong.

faults

Do not …me for your faults.

…do you exactly work? In R&D department.

…do you exactly work for?

I often take on… of projects with multi-million dollar budgets.

ownership

Producers need to know their consumers …

Right now I… a break.

What are the positive things you can bring to our company? What are your …?

Strengths and weakness

How does the company know you’re doing a good job? How do they …your performance?

They have given us a ten-day …to finish the job.

‘Know-how’ means:

Students are legally obliged to …fully with the university regulations.

comply

He never acknowledges his mistakes.

The phrase ‘to pick someone’s brain’ means:

a person who tries to persuade someone to leave their job and take another job which has better pay and more status:

I enjoy teaching Marketing at university because it’s my…

He was hired to this firm on the spot.

We are seeking someone who is good at …

…high prices, they are also dissatisfied with the service.

They are unhappy with their …. suppliers for several reasons despite their long-term relationship.

This candidate has some good … though.

In fact, he did almost the …job when he was in Africa.

I don’t think he’s the right …of person for this position.

Due to the world crisis, the company had to reduce the headcount.

The company’s suppliers always complained about the late …

I’m going to send them a reminder. They …us for their last order.

Jane’s upstairs with Ann and Roy. They…a meeting about the catalogue.

The stock market can be risky because the price of shares… according to economic conditions.

Every time inflation …, people … higher wages.

Could you help me? I…to translate this letter from Spanish client and I don’t know what this word…

I come from Australia, but at the moment I… in Switzerland.

…did she complete her report? On Friday.

Our sales … because we have introduced some new product lines.

I’m feeling rather nervous.

As you will see from the enclosed CV, I… in the financial services sector for several years.

Candidates are required to have managerial… in this sphere.

I got into trouble for not working hard enough last week. Since then I …very hard.

I handed in my resignation a month ago. Since then they…another sales manager.

I’m looking forward to my trip because I …to Russia.

I’ve booked your flight and hotels for your trip to Germany. You…on the 18th at 6.30 a.m.

We’ve got a machine… prints in color.

to … I spoke was extremely helpful.

 

We drew up a shortlist of candidates … CVs were very good.

I work for a company that manufactures … for aircraft.

The office that we work…is very comfortable.

The new accounts program,…, is working very well.

I am writing …reference to my client Mr. Warburg.

The conference hall….we held the meeting was a little small.

He gave me …advice.

 

I’ve got a problem with Petersons. They owe us …money for some work we did for them.

Okay. I’ll send them …e-mail today.

I had an … with the Personnel Manager the other day.

What is an ‘appraisal’?

How long have you been in…engineering?

We go on business trips …

I’ve just received …nice gift from …one of …my suppliers.

I just have to go to…bank to get …money.

Could you send me… information about your latest range of furniture?

Why don’t you get on with your boss?

The term ‘short-list’ means:

I’m surprised he is the Managing Director. He ….so young.

The board of…will make the final decision.

You will get that information from our marketing …

Another word for ‘shareholders’ (in American English) is...

I’ve been involved in this project ... three months.

COO stands for:

Chief operating officer

Task given as part of your studies or your job:

Assignment

The power to make your own decisions:

autonomy

A set of rules about what you should wear in a particular place or at a particular event:

Dress code

A set of rules for behaving correctly in a particular situation:

etiquette

The ability to think of ideas and take decisions independently:

initiative

To stay away from school or work when you should be there:

Skive off

This idea...to be impractical for technical limitations.

It seems that she ... for a loan to have some cosmetic surgery.

I wish I ...about their monkey business.

Only ...which have been approved by a manager will be reimbursed.

 

The police...me on my way home last night.

 

When we got home last night, we found that somebody... into the flat.

When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul... home.

 

This time last year I ... in Brazil.

Matt phoned while we ... dinner.

I ... my back while I was working in the garden.

Sam _________ home when I phoned.

Jim...his key and couldn’t get into his house.

Kate ______ television a lot when she was ill last year.

The government should do more to ...a crime rate.

I’m in....of this project.

I’m ...for entering our clients into the database.

...you help me with my balance sheet?

Would you mind...the front door?

...type of car do you drive?

The person who had the job before:

predecessor

The person who has a job or position after someone else:

successor

Determination to work at something or intention to support something:

commitment

To threaten or frighten someone to get what you want:

bully

Someone that has the same job or purpose but in a different country or organization:

counterpart

A factory where people work very hard in bad conditions and earn very little money:

sweatshop

Something that does not match something else:

inconsistency

The rate at which people leave jobs and new people arrive:

Staff turnover

To have a new product tested by customers:

Beta test

When we were on ...holiday we stayed at ...hotel.

Helen works 8 hours... day, 6 days...week.

Jane is looking ... a better-paid job.

Have you ever been ...the United States?

This was the worst hotel I ...at.

The restaurant...we had dinner was near the airport.

I meet a man...sister knows you very well.

The people with...I work are very easy-going and very friendly.

The woman ...lives next door is my supervisor.

I have just finished a two-month summer... with an international company. I think it will help me find a good job.

 

He liaises with Jim in Marketing.

Our boss wants us to be involved in this social project.

The Office Manager takes care of the personnel.

Nowadays people use the term...instead of ‘personnel’.

Today’s market ...with highly competitive products. It is rather difficult to make the right choice.

Doing an internship can help you check if you have chosen the most appropriate career.

We live in a dog-eat-dog business world.

In some companies employees are provided with ... at the canteens.

In order to ...in negotiations you need to possess negotiating skills.

If forecasts don’t predict good profitability for a product then it should be ...

The distribution pipeline should be full of the product, ready for when the consumer rush to the stores.

Total product development is the prototype stage where a mock-up is built and tested in typical situations where it may be used.

Many products are identical from the ... points of view.

High staff turnover might...a company’s image.

‘Sales pitch’ means:

We had to withdraw a large number of faulty products.

We always represent our new products at the annual Trade Fair.

 

Performance-related pay might demotivate the staff.

You always have to ...a CV in your application letter.

‘Monkey business’ means...

 

Unwritten rules in a company embrace many issues.

Nowadays employees need to be ...to survive.

We need to be able to ...stress by balancing our life.

reduce

You won’t meet deadlines if you don’t prioritize.

 

Don’t hesitate to contact us if you need any further information.

Heavy ...might damage an employee’s health.

The news the boss expects came up with today was earth-shattering.

Start digging into reasons of your decision to quit your job.

I don’t understand what you...

These books ...like hot cakes for $ 10 at thelocal bookstore.

Is selling

I...for Almaty Management University since 2007.

I have been a student

***************************************************************************************

1. The activity of promoting the sale of goods, especially by their presentation in retail outlets:

d) Merchandising

2. What would you … in this definite case?

E) advise me to do

3. This company isalways smothering their customers with love. What does the word ‘smother’ here imply?

c) make someone feel pleased and satisfied

4. I would like to…on your remarks about the company’s creditworthiness.

a) clarify

5. Unfortunately, this item is out of stock at the moment. What does the phrase ‘out of stock’ imply?

b) not available for immediate sale in a shop

6. If the job … highly paid, I … and work anywhere in the world.

b) was, would go

7.…the political situation in the country improves, it will be difficult to attract investors.

a) Unless

8. Once we're down to the nitty-gritty of this matter, we can begin to sort things out. What does the word ‘nitty-gritty’ imply?

d) the most important aspects or practical details of a subject or situation

9. The authority should be…of their employees’ merits and achievements.

b) mindful

10. Full investigation of a company’s activities and finances:

a) due diligence

11. The provision of assistance to laid-off employees in finding new employment:

b) outplacement

12. income remaining after deduction of taxes and social security charges, available to be spent or saved as one wishes:

d) disposable income

13. I think we are diverting from the main issue. So let’s stick to the …

c) agenda

14. At last we have succeeded … convincing the senior management to give us a pay rise.

a) in

15. What verb does not collocate with the term ‘goods’?

c) avoid

16. Fair compensation payments…to the top management of the acquired company.

b) have been paid

17. A lot of illegal immigrants …by our contractors in this country.

d) are being employed

18. All flights throughout the country…due to oil shortages.

b) have been cancelled

19. We are obliged to…the standards of common decency in our university.

a) uphold

20. I think Susan is getting …from the main issues.

E) side-tracked

21. If I …you, I… on her to do this assignment.

a) were, wouldn’t rely

22. -Could you do me a favour to scan these documents?- OK. …it right away.

a) I’ll do

23. In order to deal with a problem, we need to aсknowledge that it exists. Choose the synonym for the verb ‘acknowledge’.

E) admit

24. Corporate social responsibility is also about reducing costs, upholding a better reputation, improving morale and providing better skills development. What does the term ‘morale’ imply?

a) the confidence, enthusiasm, and discipline of a person or group at a particular time

25. movement by a manufacturer or trader into a wider field of products:

c) diversification

26. Sometimes we turn a blind eye to some unethical behaviours of our collegues. What does the idiom ‘turn a blind eye’ imply?

a) pretend not to notice

27. Most companies support a different charity each year on an ad hoc basis. What does the word ‘ad hoc’ imply?

c) created or done for a particular purpose as necessary

28.Choose the synonym for the term ‘target company’.

E) prey

29. The committee asked me some delicate questions about the company finances.

Choose a sentence with an appropriate passive form.

d) I was asked some delicate questions…

30. You did a good job: you’re almost certain to get a salary raise. What percentage would suit the word ‘almost certain’?

b) 90%

1. Most visitors to a website don’t actually buy anything, so simply having lots of eyeballs doesn’t mean there will be lots of sales. In fact, if the site attracts visitors through paid search ads on Google or Yahoo, then bringing them actually costs money.

2. Customer service reps answer questions via live web charts on the site. When a customer engages in live chat with sales rep, the average purchase doubles in value.

3. But instead of real customer services reps, many smaller e-tailers use animated characters that draw on a databank of answers to commonly asked questions. E-tailers hope that the animated characters will turn browsers into buyers.

4. When someone is shopping at home, they have an expectation of privacy. Ted Martin, senior vice-president for merchandising and operations at Overstock.com, said: “We’re taking the conservative approach right now, we don’t want to be intrusive”.

 

Research shows that most online shoppers consider tracking their navigation of a site without their consent to be a violation of their privacy.

1. Look up a product on a search engine

2.Pay by credit card

3. Place the product you want in a cart

4. Click on a link to get to the seller’s site

5. Browse the site to find any interesting products

6. Debit the customer’s credit card

7. Send back a faulty product under guarantee

8. Ship the product from warehouse

 

Find/place/take an order

Ask for/be entitled to/offer a discount

Discuss/go over/sort out the details

Make/put forward/reject a proposal

Extend/meet/miss a deadline

Look for/seek/reach a compromise

1. If you fail to do smthg by the agreed time, you miss the deadline.

2. If you tell a retailer you want to buy smthg from them, you place an order.

3. If you finally get agreement after both sides had different starting points, you reach a compromise.

4. If you automatically have the right to a lower price, for example because of the quantity you are ordering, then you are entitled a discount.

 

If we increased our order, would you give us a discount?

 

Supplier: I might consider reducing the price if you increase your order

Customer: It would be difficult for me to increase my order, unless you guaranteed the price for 2 years.

Supplier: It might be able to guarantee the price, providing you agree to a five-year contract.

 

1. What do you recommend me?

2. What do you advise me to do?

3. I suggest ordering 500 pieces initially, and the perhaps more later.

4. I advise you to order 500 pieces initially.

5. I suggest to him that he should order 500 pieces initially.

 

 

1. As agreed, please findbelow a proposal to install a series of photocopies.

2. Should you require on-site support, our engineers are available 7 days a week.

3. In the unlikely event of a breakdown, we would provide a replacement.

4. Our changes are amongst the lowest on the market.

5. If you wish to place an order, we require a deposit of 25%,

Collocations

Place, take, fill → an order

Bring down, quote, state → a price

Offer, ask for, grant → a discount

See, sell, explain → the benefits

Sort out, discuss, go over → the details

Make, firm up, reject → a proposal

Subject to, open to, under → negotiation

Pay, require, put down → a deposit

A monthly, an annual, an entrance → fee

Hidden, extra, fixed → costs

Meet, miss, extend → a deadline

Seek, offer, find → a compromise

 

Tentative offers (неуверенное предл) MIGHT

Counteroffers (встречное предл) WOULD BE

Firm offers (твердое предл) AM READY

 

Got (get) down to the business

Point out the advantages

Clarity his comments

Summarize the position

Make a proposal

Work out a solution

Consider other options

Find an agreement

 

First conditional

If + Present S + will + do likely future events

Second Cond

If + Past S + would + do unlikely future events

 

 

Recommend / suggest smth

Recommend / suggest smth to someone

Recommend / suggest (not) doing smth

Recommend / suggest (that) someone do smth

Advise (not) doing smth

Advise someone (not) to do smth

 

Vocabulary

Unit 5

About business (E-tailing)

Barge in- to enter suddenly and noisily, usually interrupting someone in a rude way

Beware - to warn someone of danger or difficulty

Brisk -moving quickly

e-tailer - a company that sells things on the internet

Eyeball - the whole ball that froms the eye; a person browsing website

Flag - to mark something so that you will be able to find it again

Intrusive - forcing itself on people in a way that is not welcome

Publicly-traded – a company whose shares you can buy on the stock exchange

Pushy – extremely determined to get what you want

Smother – to cover smth. completely so it cannot breathe

Tracking – the act of following or looking for a person, animal or thing

Writing (A proposal)

Breakdown – detailed presentation or analysis of information, particularly financial figures or statistics

Contingency – smth that might happen in the future, especially smth bad

Fee – money that you pay to a professional person or institution for their work

Mail order – a way of buying goods in which you order them by post or by telephone ond they are posted to you

Mailshot – a letter or advertisement sent to many people at the same time

Merchant account- a special account for performing e-business transactions

Process - to deal with information or documents so that smt can happen

Prospect – a possible or likely customer

Upgrade – to make a computer or other machine more powerful or effective

5.6 Case study (St John’s Beach Club)

Allocate - to officially give something to someone, or decide that smth can be used for a specific purpose

Gourmet- gourmet food is of a very high quality

Incentive – smth that makes you want to do smth or work harder, because you know that you will gain smth by going this

Squeeze - to press smth firmly, especially with your hands; to squeeze something out of something or someone to obtain something more that is normally possible

Throwin – to include smth extra with smth that you are selling, without asking for more money

Upgrade – an improvement of a product or service

 

Grammar condition’s:

Conditions:

Zero: general+general

First: present+future if + present simple, (then) + will + do

Second: past+would be if + past simple, (then) + would + do

 

Will = the result is certain (уверенно)

Should = the result is probable (предполагаемый)

Might / could = the result is possible (вожможно)

 

In ZERO Cond. If=when

In FIRST Cond. If-uncertainty (неуверенно), when-certainty (уверенно)

 

Unless=if not

•If we don`t leave now, we will miss the start of the film.

Unlesswe leave now, we will …

 

Providing/provided (that)-если только, при условии

As long as/so long as – пока, до тех пор

= if, only if. They have SECOND cond. forms, PAST Simple

 

Recommend/suggestsmt, (not) doing smt, (that) someone do smt

Advice(not) doing smt, someone to do smt

Unit 6

Immediate or quick – Prompt

willing to do things which are not honest - Dishonest

intended to make someone believe something that is not true - Misleading

Deceptive- appearing different from the way it really is - Deceptive

Able to be trusted as honest - Trustworthy

Dependable - Reliable

Complicated, not easy to understand - Confusing

Not true - False

Having a selfless concern for other’ well-being - Altruistic

Correct or true in every detail – Accurate

 

I have received two - apologies for absence

Has everybody received - a copy of agenda?

If we can’t agree, I think we should take - a vote

It’s getting late, so I propose we close - the meeting

I think this would be a good time to break - for lunch

We have lots to discuss, so let’s stick to - the agenda

It’s five past nine, so I’d better open - the meeting

Can we start by approving - the minutes of the last meeting?

We seem to have reached - a unanimous decision

That’s interesting, but I think we are getting - side-tracked

I’ll just give out this - handout

Before we finish, we need to deal with - any other business

 

1 supporting a charity 2 think long-term

3 identify with an issue 4 contribute funds

5 obey the law 6 uphold standards

7 respecting human dignity 8 recognizing merit

9 limit the impact 10 acknowledge the problem

11 negotiate a settlement 12 compensate the victims

 

The passive

Be + Past Participle

It does → it is done

It is doing → it is being done

It did → it was done, etc.

Used when the person who does the action is obvious or unknown

 

Reported speech

Direct reported

Present → past

Past → past\past perfect

Pr. Perf. → past perfect

Will → would

When you report what someone said, move the original tense back in time

Speaking (Meeting-teamwork)

Civil servant – someone who works for a government department (Госслужащий)

Disabled – someone who is disabled is unable to use the part of their body or brain properly because of injury of disease (Инвалид)

Ethic minority – a group of people who have a different culture and different traditions to most people living in a place (Этика меньшиства)

Slim – thin in an attractive way (Тонкий, слабый)

Tender – an offer to provide goods or services for a particular price (Предложение)

Turn a blind eye (to smth.) – to pretend you don’t notice smth., because you don’t want to have to deal with it (Закрывать глаза)

 

Case study (Phoenix)

Derelict – unused and in bad condition, usually of a building or a piece of land (Покинутый)

Flammable – able to burn very easily and quickly (Легковоспламеняющийся)

Greenfield site – a piece of land that has not previously been built on (Сайт с нуля)

Hazardous - dangerous, especially to people’s health of safety (Опасный)

Toxic – poisonous and harmful to people, animals, or the environment (Токсичный, ядовитый)

Upset – to make someone feel sad, worries or angry (Расстройство)

Worthless – without value or use (Бесполезный)

Grammar 7 unit

Future forms

Will + do

I’ll open the window.

instant decisions , predictions, future facts

going + do

It’s going to rain.

Plans and intentions prediction based on present situation

Is / are doing

I’m saying the doctor at 10:30.

Fixed arrangement for the future

 

Will has two main uses:

1 predictions and facts about the future

2 decisions , promises and offer of help that we make at the moment of speaking.

The second use is informal, and in this use will is usually contracted to ‘ll.

Decisions , promises and offer of help are often combined:

OK, I’ll email the information to you this afternoon.

(instant decision + promises )

I’ll speak to my boss and see if we can do that.

(instant decision+ offer of help )

BE GOING TO:

Be going to has two main uses:

1 predictions, especially where there is strong evidence in the present situation

Look out! It’s going to fall.

2 Plans and decisions we have already made.

We’re going to cut forty job next month.

WILL or GOING

Predictions:

· Willis more likely if the prediction is based on the speaker’s thought and opinions

· Going to is more likely if the prediction is based evidence in the present situation.

Decisions:

· Will is more likely if the prediction is spontaneous, made at the moment of speaking

· Going is more likely if the prediction has been made previously , and so now it is a plan.

Going to or present continues:

Going to is slightly more likely if it’s gust a plan.

The present continuesis slightly more likely if the arrangement is fixed, with a time and a place.

I’m going to see my bank manager next week.

I’m seeing my bank manager at 10:30 next Tuesday.

50% 1 We have a 50/50 chance of success.
20% 2 We’re unlikely to get a better offer.
0% 3 There’s no way my boss will agree.
100% 4 Artip will definitely be sold.
50% 5 Costs are rising: it’s possible our competitors will put up their prices.
20% 6 It’s going to be a tough negotiation, but they might just accept our offer.
100% 7 It’s in everybody’s interest: the merger will definitely go ahead.
10% 8 There’s not much chance our suppliers will deliver by next week..
90% 9 You did a good job: you’re almost certain to get a raise.
50% 10 Their cultures are different, but I suppose they could find common ground.
90% 11 Wait a few months: the asking price is bound to come down.
70% 12 There’s a good chance we’ll meet the deadline.
90% 13 It’s highly likely that taxes will increase.
50% 14 It’s still uncertain, but they may announce a merger.
70% 15 Chris has all the right qualifications: she’s likely to get the job.
90% 16 In the months to come, we fully expect sales to increase.
    1 There’s a good chance the merger will go ahead 50%→70%
2 The merger will definitely go ahead. 100%→100%
3 The merger definitely won’t go ahead. 0%→0%
4 The merger might just go ahead. 50%→20%
5 The merger is almost certain to go ahead. 100%→90%
6 It’s highly likely the merger will go ahead. 70%→90%
7 We fully expect the merger to go ahead 70%→90%

 

100% it will defi nitely
90% it’s almost certain to
70% it’s likely to
50% it might
20% it might just
10% there’s not much chance it will
0% there’s no way it will
 

 

increase decrease stability Rise and fall
to double to peak to climb to rise to jump to reach a high to rocket to soar to ascend to dip to slump to drop to deteriorate to slide to fall to plummet to descend to hit a low to stabilize to level off to fluctuate to vary to undulate

 

 

Will + V Am/are/is going to + V Am/are/is Ving
instant decision e.g. I'll open the door. prediction based on the speaker's thought and opinion (after the verbs situation think, believe, suppose, etc.) e.g. I think he will pass his exam. future facts e.g. They will send their offer next plans and intentions e.g. He is going to write a report. prediction based on a present situation e.g. look at these dark clouds. It is going to rain. fixed arrangements for the future e.g. I'm seeing the doctor at 10.30.

 

Unit 8

in time means ‘with enough time’
on time means ‘at the right time’

 

in the end means ‘eventually’ or ‘fi nally’
at the end refers to the last part of something
by the end means ‘at or before the end’
towards the end means ‘near the end’
at last shows pleasure because something
happens that you have been waiting for

 

Verb preposition  
agree / consent / refer to
comply / sympathize / associate with
vote / pay / allow for
expend / reiy/ insist on
resuit / invest / succeed in
suffer / emerge / hear from
apply /look / apologize for
consist / approve / think of
access/call/ tell no preposition
insure / fight / protect against
1 ask for / resort to / object to / attend — / borrow from / account for / discuss — / react to / comment on / conform tQ  

 

Noun + preposition

involvement in an effect on
substitute for respect for
the need for a tax on
a solution to access to
dealings with responsibility for

 

an invoice to issue to settle to query Goods to provide to load to ship An application to submit to vet to approve
Conditions to state to meet to comply with A deal To negotiate To make To sign   A payment To make To meet To chase

 

credit line / credit terms / credit period / credit sales / credit card f credit insurance / credit policy

insurance claim / insurance policy / insurance sales

customer credit / customer loyalty / customer portfolio

Review Unit7

Will

The merger will take place next January = a promise about the future

I think the merger will probably take place sometime early next year = a prediction about future based on an opinion

I’ll open the window – it’s a bit hot in here= an instant decision

I’ll carry your suitcase to the car = an offer or help

I’ll call you next week. Bye! = a future fact

4.

Bye! – Bye! I’ll see you tomorrow

Are you ready to order now? – Yes, I’ll have the roast lamb

Can you send me a copy of your new brochure? – Of course, I’ll put one in the mail this afternoon.

I only have an hour to get to the airport – Don’t worry, I’ll call a taxi

Are you going for a drink with you colleagues? – Yes, but I don’t think I’ll be back late

 

6.

In says in this article that there are going to be job cuts in our banking sector – Prediction

I’m going to see my bank manager about the loan next week – Plan

You want delivery by the end of the month? – Prediction

We’re going to launch the new model at the Frankfurt – Plan

 

9.

Have you heard the news? Citibank are going to make a bid for Tatra Banka.

The UK will probably start using the euro

If you’re busy, I’ll come back later.

I was talking with my friends yesterday – we’re going to go skiing in the Alps.

 

10.

100% it will definitely

90% it’s almost certain to

70% it’s likely to

50% it might

20% it might just

10% there’s not much chance it will

0% there’s no way it will

 

11.

There’s s good chance the merger will go ahead = 50 – 70%

The merger will definitely go ahead = 100 – 100 %

The merger definitely won’t go ahead = 0 – 0 %

The merger might just go ahead. = 50 – 20 %

The merger is almost certain to go ahead. = 100 – 90 %

It’s highly likely the merger will go ahead. = 70 – 90 %

We fully expect the merger to go ahead. = 70 – 90 %

 

Unit 7 Review

1 due diligence – full investigation of a company’s activities and finances

2 liabilities– the amount of money that company owes

3 merger – the process of combining two companies to form a bigger one

4 acquisition – something that someone buys

5 variable costs – costs that alter directly when the business alters its level of output

6 fixed costs – costs that do not alter when the business alter its level of output

7 assets– things such as money, buildings or equipment that a person or company owns

8 liquidity – measure of a company’s ability to quickly convert assets into cash

9 economies of scale – reductions in the cos of producing a unit of a product that occur as the output increases

10 turnover – total amount of money coming into a company from sales

 

costs of sales/ direct costs – variable costs

overheads/ indirect costs – fixed costs

cash-flow – liquidity

debts – liabilities

revenue/ income – turnover

 

1 considerable – a large

2 dramatic –sudden and surprising

3 moderate –neither big not small

4 sharp - sudden

5 significant– large or noticeable

6 slight – small in size

7 sudden – quick and unexpected

 

1 climb – become higher (literally to move up using your hands and feet)

2 dip – become less (literally: to put something into a liquid)

3 fluctuate – change frequently especially from a high level to a low

4 stabilize – stop changing and become steady

5 deteriorate – get worse (opposite: improve)

6 slide – get worse gradually (literally: to move smoothly and quickly across)

7 rise– increase (opposite: fall)

8 soar – increase quickly to a high level (literally: to fly in the sky)

9 jump – increase suddenly and by a large amount (literally: push your body off the ground using your legs)

10 peak – reach the highest point before becoming lower (the noun means ‘the top of a mountain’)

Open account- goods are shipped directly to the buyer with a request for payment

Advance payment- payment is expected by the exporter , in full , before goods are shipped

Bills for collection – a bill of exchange is sent from the exporter’s bank to the buyer’s bank. When the buyer agrees to pay on certain date, they sign the draft. The documents and goods are released to the buyer against this acceptance

Letters of credit(L/Cs) also known as documentary credits (DCs)- Documentary credit is a bank-to-bank commitment of payment : the buyer’s bank guarantees that payment will be made when the shipping documents are found to be in compliance with terms set by the buyer

Collocations:

Issue, settle, query ,reach- an invoice

Provide, load, ship, assume – goods

Submit , vet , approve – an application

Make, meet , chase - a payment

Negotiate , make, sign, reach – a deal

State , meet, comply with, chase - conditions

Unit. Grammar.

In = periods: the morning, July (months), the winter, 2007, the 80s

On= days and dates: Monday, the 17th, New Year’s Day

At = times and special times: 3pm, breakfast, the weekend, Christmas

Zero= expressions with last, next, ago yesterday, tomorrow.

 

Unit. Review

1. Don’t sell on price rather than quality.

2. Be proactive with local distributors.

3. Make a firm commitment to export.

4.Think outside the box.

5. Trade on open account.

6. Sign an exclusive deal.

7. Be prepared to modify product specifications.

8. Invest time, effort and money.

9. Ask a credit agency about a customer’s creditworthiness.

10. Chasing payments can be done by the credit agency.

11. Focus on one market, rather than trying to sell all over the world.

12. Don’t assume that what works in your domestic market will also work abroad.

 

2. Creditworthiness = the ability of a company to repay debts

Chasing = trying hard to get something you want.

 

3.

Issue/settle/query an invoice.

Provide/ load/ ship good.

Comply with/ state/ meet conditions

Negotiate/ reach/ sign a deal

Check out/ check up on a customer’s creditworthiness

Fall behind with/ get behind with payments

 

4. After the exporter and foreign customer finally reach on a deal, the exporter will ship the goods and issue an invoice. The exporter must comply with all the conditions in the contract and if they do, they can expect to be paid on time. It’s waste of time if they have to chase customers who get behind with payments. If there’s a problem with payment, the exporter can use a credit agency to check up a customer’s creditworthiness.

 

5. During the 90s we worked with a series of different local agents. In 2002 we started using APL and they have been our exclusive agent from that time until now. They’re very good at collecting payment from local customers, and we give them the discretion to ask for payment within either 60 or 90 days. They forward to us all payments they have collected, after taking their commission and we receive money from them at the end of every month.

 

6. Diplomatic sentences:

1. Let me put it another way.

2. Correct me If I’m wrong but you seem to be saying that you’re not convinced.

3. I’m afraid there seems to be a slight misunderstanding.

4. Perhaps I haven’t made myself clear.

5. Would I be right in saying that you want to withdraw from the project.

 

7. Diplomatic sentences:

I think we might need more time.

I’m afraid there’re still quite a large number of difficulties.

Perhaps we’d renegotiate one or two parts of the contract.

Won’t that be rather expensive?

 

8. According to our records, our invoice number KL788 is now overdue.

We would appreciate your early settlement of this outstanding balance.

Further to our email, we have still not received payment.

We regret to inform that we have no alternative but to pass this matter to our legal department.

 

9. Overdue = not paid when expected.

Outstanding = not yet paid.

 

Analysis

CEO stands for:

Chief executive officer

An ability to understand something clearly:

Insight

R&D stands for:

Research and development

We tried to contact you, but we couldn’t get:

Through

The line is bad. Please hang ...and I’ll call you back.

up

I … for my exam, when my friend… me.

Was revising called

Before I …to sales Director, I…a sales consultant in our main city-center branch.

I’m …charge …three accountants working …me.

Why do you…your boss? Because he makes us work long hours.

 

…? I would say very often. It keeps crashing every other day.

…? They were arguing about software problems.

I was wondering if you ………………….arrange a visit from the technician?

When dealing with difficult customers, sometimes we …exchange the product or give a full refund.

I……………………get through to the Paris office. I‘ve been trying all morning.

…you give more details of the business procedures?

Using office telephone for making personal calls very often is …

 

…., or you will never finish your job.

Knowledge or skill you get from being in different situations:

experience

USP is…

Many products are identical from the consumer’s point of …

view

The principal problem in the company is a lack of …between the people.

communication

You need to possess strong … to work in Sales Department.

We can hire you on condition that you’re able to ...

Nowadays young people prefer money rather than…

 

When the company was taken over by a larger competitor, Kate…

Thanks to her enhanced resume, Sue …for a second interview.

Was shortlisted

Tom joined the British Petroleum three months ago. He has been hoping for…there.

The bank has over 3,000 …

employers

Someone who teaches about trade between countries is a teacher of…

The bank is …in a number of new projects.

Since she …from university, Jane … live alone.

At…moment she is working on … project in …China.

The a -

Jane… about running her own business ever since she was at school.

David runs the business …a day-to-day basis.

on

The phrase ‘climb a ladder’ in a company means:

Jim will be working …Jake and Jill in Marketing soon.

alongside

You won’t ... if you don’t prioritize.

A dress code is obligatory here. You have to dress…

If you have any problems we can …a visit from our technician.

‘to refund’ means:

I am writing … regard to a computer problem.

I would like to express my ...for your help with the computer.

Please accept m





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