Граматичний матеріал: The Present Perfect Tense.



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Граматичний матеріал: The Present Perfect Tense.



Study this example situation:
Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.
He has lost his key.
He has lost his key = He lost it recently, and he still doesn't have it.

Have/has lost is the present perfect simple:

I/we/they/you have (= I've etc.) finished lost done been etc.
he/she/it has (= he's etc.)


The present perfect simple is have/has
+ past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed(finished/decided etc.),but many important verbs are irregular(lost/done/written etc.).

When we say that 'something has happened', this is usually new information:
• Ow! I've cut my finger.
• The road is closed. There's been (there has been) an accident.

(from the news) Police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.
When we use the present perfect, there is a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now:

• 'Where's your key?' 'I don't know. I've lost it.' (= I don't have it now)
• He told me his name, but I've forgotten it. (=I can't remember it now)
• 'Is Sally here?' 'No, she's gone out.' (= she is out now)
• I can't find my bag. Have you seen it? (= Do you know where it is now?)

You can use the present perfect with just, already and yet.
Just = a short time ago:
• 'Are you hungry?' 'No, I've just had lunch.'
• Hello. Have you just arrived?

We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected:

• 'Don't forget to send the letter.' 'I've already sent it.'
• 'What time is Mark leaving?' 'He's already gone."

Yet = until now. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences:
• Has it stopped raining yet?
• I've written the letter, but I haven't sent it yet.

Note the difference between gone (to) and been (to):
• Jim is on holiday. He has gone to Italy.
(= he is there now or on his way there) • Jane is back home now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now come back)

Ex. 1. Complete B's sentences. Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet.

Ex. 2. Put in been or gone.
1. Jim is on holiday. He's gone to Italy.
2. Hello! I've just ___________ to the shops. I've bought lots of things.
3. Alice isn't here at the moment. She's ___________ to the shop to get a newspaper.
4. Tom has ___________ out. He'll be back in about an hour.
5. 'Are you going to the bank?' 'No, I've already ___________ to the bank.'

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Different Types of Hotels

When you go to stay in a hotel there are several different considerations. One of them, of course, is price. It's not a concern for everyone, but most people are budget-conscious and can't just spend whatever they want to on accommodations. With that being the case, you'll have to determine what fits within your budget and what you can expect from a hotel in that price range. Where budget accommodations are concerned you won't pay a lot but you won't get a lot, either. Most of these hotels are older, and although they are clean there are anything but fancy. The linens and fixtures might be a bit worn and they won't have the look and feel of the higher priced hotels. You don't usually get any 'freebies,' either, although you might be treated to a simple breakfast and/or a newspaper included in the price.

Luxury hotels are a far different story from budget hotels. They cost much more, but you also get many more amenities than you would in a place where you pay considerably less. You can expect food, newspapers, free phone calls, better television channel selections, and more pampering. These hotels often have pools, spas, free room service, massages, robes and slippers, and other amenities that you wouldn't otherwise get. You are generally given whatever you ask for, within reason, and the people there carry your bags and do everything that they can to ensure that you are happy. It's very important to them that you have a good stay and that you return in the future.

A lot of people stay in middle-of-the-road hotels. These places offer much more than the budget hotels, but they don't come close to what the luxury hotels provide. You'll get some freebies there, but you won't get the pampering and the do-anything-for-you attitude that you'll get in the luxury hotels. That doesn't seem to be required, though, because these standard hotels are still very popular. It gives people the feeling that they are staying in a nice hotel without requiring them to spend such an excessive amount of money. The fixtures in these hotels will be newer than the budget hotels, as will the linens. They will be nice places overall, but they won't have the spas and free massages and other treatments that a lot of the luxury options provide. For travellers on a tight budget, these hotels might be too costly, as well.

 

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Arts

One can distinguish two branches of human work: the arts and the sciences. The sciences require knowledge, observation, identification, description, experimentation and theoretical explanation.

The arts on the contrary require skill. That means the ability to work well with a part of his or her body. It is the combination of talent and technique. An artist is a man who can do something well with his own hands and tools. Some time ago everything that was made with tools was «artificial», not natural. The word «manufacture», for example, once meant «to make by hand»

Everything is a bit different nowadays. The word «art» has a special meaning. It means something beautiful. The paintings of skilled painters are appreciated and admired by millions of people today, by those who can see the beauty. Art comprises weaving rugs, tapestries, ceramic work. So there are a lot of types of art. Nevertheless one can trace basic principles in art. All kinds of it require the same characteristics. The separate parts of a work of art should be arranged in pattern. The form itself, a pleasing shape and balance are extremely important.

Art inspires the human spirit. Painters, sculptors, musicians, writers, weavers - they all contribute to a better life for us.

The Arts play a large role in the expression of inner thoughts and beauty in my life. From dance and music to abstract art our concept of life is shown through the various ways in which we interpret it. We use the Arts as a means of touching that part of us that we cannot reach with Physical Science, Social Science, or any of the Humanities. The arts allow us to be as specific or as abstract as we please. It helps us become closer to ourselves and to others around us. Though there has been a lot of confusion as to what the true definition of “good art” is, how we show others what is going on in our minds and inner souls cannot be judged, graded, criticized or revised by anyone other than ourselves.

The arts play a valued role in creating cultures and developing and documenting civilizations. The arts teach us how to communicate through creative expression. Show us how to understand human experiences, past and present. Prepare us to adapt to and respect the ways others think, work, and express themselves. Music, singing, dancing, poetry, and sketching are just a few of the different forms of art that I use to express myself in a way that I enjoy.

Because each art discipline appeals to different senses and expresses itself through different media, each adds a special richness to the learning environment. Arts help people Learn to identify, appreciate, and participate in the traditional and non-traditional art forms of their own communities and the communities of others. Art teaches us how to be imaginative, creative, and reflective. Different art forms help us develop the verbal and nonverbal abilities necessary for lifelong learning. The intellectual demands of the arts help us develop problem-solving abilities and such powerful thinking skills as analyzing and evaluating. Numerous studies point toward a consistent and positive comparison between concrete education in the arts and student achievement in other subjects. A program in arts education would engage students in a process that helps them develop the self-esteem, self-discipline, cooperation, and self-motivation necessary for success in life. Most important, the arts should be experienced and studied for their own true value.

If art was not present in my life, I know that I would be missing so much. I would not be able to do the things that I love to do each day. The only way to express yourself is through art, and the presence of art in the lives of today’s society plays a big role. People listen to music every day, they dance, and sing. For many people’s art is a way of life, and without it they would be lost. Art is the only way to express one’s true feelings. Without art the world would be a dull and sad place. People would not be able to communicate in the same sense that art allows them to. Art shows people’s individualism. Without art wouldn’t we all be the same?

 



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