Repetition of initial consonant sound

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Repetition of initial consonant sound

The initial consonant sound is usually repeated in two neighbouring words (sometimes also in words that are not next to each other). Alliteration draws attention to the phrase and is often used for emphasis.


§ for the greater good of ... (1)

§ safety and security (1)

§ share a continent but not a country (2)


n Asyndeton Lack of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words.

n We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardships, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty. J. F. Kennedy, Inaugural



repetition of a consonant sound at the beginning of consecutive or nearby words



repetition of vowel sounds at the beginning of consecutive words or nearby words



passing reference, without explicit identification, to a person, place, text or event. Often well known



first set of words in one sentence, clause, or phrases are repeated at the beginning of successive sentences, clauses or phrases.



Reversal of grammatical structure (in the repeated clause)



Additional information. The normal progression of a sentence is interrupted by extra information or explanations enclosed in commas, brackets or dashes. The extra information can be a single word, a phrase or even a sentence.



Deliberate omission of a word or words that are readily implied by the context; it creates an elegant or daring economy of words.


Successive clauses or sentences are similarly structured. This similarity makes it easier for the reader / listener to concentrate on the message.


Reversing the order of words in a sentence or reversing entire sentences. It is used to create an impact when providing information, making a point, ect.

13 The origin of the language. In 1994, an article appeared in Time magazine

The Origin of Language (by Edward Vajda)

Yesterday we discussed the gulf that separates the creative use of language by humans from the inborn signals of animals. Bees returning from their first flight out of the hive know perfectly how to perform their complex nectar dances. With humans, the precise form of language must be acquired through exposure to a speech community. Words are definitely not inborn, but the capacity to acquire and language and use it creatively seems to be inborn. Noam Chomsky calls this ability the LAD (Language Acquisition Device). Today we will ask two questions: how did this language instinct in humans originate? And how did the first language come into being?

Concerning the origin of the first language, there are two main hypotheses, or beliefs. Neither can be proven or disproved given present knowledge.

1) Belief in divine creation. Many societies throughout history believed that language is the gift of the god to humans. The most familiar is found in Genesis 2:20, which tells us that Adam gave names to all living creatures. This belief predicates that humans were created from the start with an innate capacity to use language.

It can't be proven that language is as old as humans, but it is definitely true that language and human society are inseparable. Wherever humans exist language exists. Every stone age tribe ever encountered has a language equal to English, Latin, or Greek in terms of its expressive potential and grammatical complexity. Technologies may be complex or simple, but language is always complex. Charles Darwin noted this fact when he stated that as far as concerns language, "Shakespeare walks with the Macedonian swineherd, and Plato with the wild savage of Assam." In fact, it sometimes seems that languages spoken by preindustrial societies are much more complex grammatically than languages such as English (example: English has about seven tense forms and three noun genders; Kivunjo, a Bantu language spoken on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, has 14 tenses and about 20 noun classes.) There are no primitive languages, nor are any known to have existed in the past--even among the most remote tribes of stone age hunter-gatherers.

2) Natural evolution hypothesis. At some point in their evolutionary development humans acquired a more sophisticated brain which made language invention and learning possible. In other words, at some point in time humans evolved a language acquisition device, whatever this may be in real physical terms. The simple vocalizations and gestures inherited from our primate ancestors then quickly gave way to a creative system of language--perhaps within a single generation or two

This hypothesis cannot be proven either. Homo sapiens, "the wise human," should perhaps really be called Homo loquens, "the speaking human" because language and humans are everywhere found together, whereas wisdom among humans is much more selectively distributed.

First, there are four imitation hypotheses that hold that language began through some sort of human mimicry of naturally occurring sounds or movements:

1) The "ding-dong" hypothesis. Language began when humans started naming objects, actions and phenomena after a recognizable sound associated with it in real life. This hypothesis holds that the first human words were a type of verbal icon, a sign whose form is an exact image of its meaning: crash became the word for thunder, boom for explosion.

The problem with this hypothesis is that onomatopoeia (imitation of sound, auditory iconicity) is a very limited part of the vocabulary of any language; imitative sounds differ from language to language: Russian: ba-bakh=bang, bukh= thud.

2) The "pooh-pooh" hypothesis holds that the first words came from involuntary exclamations of dislike, hunger, pain, or pleasure, eventually leading to the expression of more developed ideas and emotions. In this case the first word would have been an involuntary ha-ha-ha, wa-wa-wa These began to be used to name the actions which caused these sounds.

The problem with this hypothesis is that, once again, emotional exclamations are a very small part of any language. They are also highly language specific. For instance, to express sudden pain or discomfort: Eng. ouch; Russ. oi.

3) The "bow-wow" hypothesis (the most famous and therefore the most ridiculed hypothesis) holds that vocabulary developed from imitations of animal noises, such as: Moo, bark, hiss, meow, quack-quack. But, once again, onomotopoeia is a limited part of the vocabulary of any language. The linguistic renditions of animal sounds differ considerably from language to language:

b) Cat-meow, Russ.myaoo, Chin--mao, Jap.nya-nya purr in French is ron ron.

c) Pig: oink-oink; Russ. hryu-hryu; Chin.--oh-ee-oh-ee; Jap. bu-bu.

d) Russian rooster: kukareiku. Japanese kokekoko

4) A somewhat different hypothesis is the "ta-ta" hypothesis. Charles Darwin hypothesized (though he himself was sceptical about his own hypothesis) that speech may have developed as a sort of mouth pantomime: the organs of speech were used to imitate the gestures of the hand.

It is very possible that human language, which today is mostly verbal, had its origin in some system of gestures. Human gestures, however, just like onomatopoeic words, differ from culture to culture. Cf. English crossing the finger for good luck vs. Russian "fig" gesture; nodding for yes vs. for no in Turkish and Bulgarian;

A second set of hypotheses on language origin holds that language began as a response to some acute necessity in the community.

1) Warning hypothesis. Language may have evolved from warning signals such as those used by animals. Perhaps language started with a warning to others, such as Look out, Run, or Help to alert members of the tribe when some lumbering beast was approaching.

2) The "yo-he-ho" hypothesis. Language developed on the basis of human cooperative efforts. The earliest language was chanting to simulate collective effort, whether moving great stones to block off cave entrances from roving carnivores or repeating warlike phrases to inflame the fighting spirit.

Plato also believed that language developed out of sheer practical necessity. And Modern English has the saying: Necessity is the mother of invention.

3) A more colorful idea is the lying hypothesis. all real intentions or emotions get involuntarily expressed by gesture, look or sound. He proposed that the need to deceive and lie--

There are no scientific tests to evaluate between these competing hypotheses. This is why in the late 19th century the Royal Linguistic Society in London actually banned discussion and debate on the origin of language out of fear that none of the arguments had any scientific basis at all and that time would be needlessly wasted on this fruitless enquiry.

Where did grammar come from? There is nothing like grammar (patterns with definite functions yet no set meaning) in animal systems of communication.

In isolated instances it can be shown that a grammatical pattern developed from chance lexical combinations: suffix -hood from OE word haeda= state. childhood, boyhood, puppyhood.

But these are isolated instances. How language developed a complex grammar remains a complete mystery. This means that how language developed is equally a mystery. We simply don't know how language may have actually evolved from simple animal systems of sounds and gestures.

There are about 5,000 languages spoken on Earth today. We know that there were even more spoken in the past, when most people lived in small bands or tribes.

There are two age-old beliefs regarding world's present linguistic diversity.

1) The oldest belief is that there was a single, original language. monogenesis. And similar stories are found in other parts of the world.

a) A Basque scholar claimed that the first language was Basque.

b) A German philologist of the last century maintained that German was the first language and that all other languages are inferior corruptions of it.

2) the hypothesis of parallel evolution. This hypothesis holds that, as humans evolved parallel in more than one location; each group developed its own unique language. The hypothesis of the multiple origin of humankind is sometimes called the Candelabra theory. The candelabra hypothesis tends to be favored in East Asia and by a smaller number of scientists in the WestThe major language families of today would be descended from these separate mother tongues.

3) Scientific monogenesis: The Mother Tongue theory.

Many modern scholars believe in a theory of monogenesis that has come to be called the Mother Tongue Theory. This theory holds that one original language spoken by a single group of Homo sapiens perhaps as early as 150 thousand years ago gave rise to all human languages spoken on the Earth today. As humans colonized various continents, this original mother tongue diverged through time to form the numerous languages spoken today.

Regardless of the origin of language, the fact remains that there are over 5,000 mutually unintelligible forms of human speech used on Earth today.

What is expressed concisely in one language requires a phrase in another language. (Examples of aspect and evidentiality; also words like Swahili mumagamagama "a person who habitually loses things" and Russian zajchik "the rainbow reflection from glass." Сross-language comparisons fall under a branch of linguistics called language typology.

1) First, to try to trace the original mother tongue (or mother tongues). Linguists who compare modern languages try to reconstruct ancient languages are called comparative linguists.

2) Second, because languages change more slowly than the environment in which they are spoken, languages contain all sorts of indications of bygone culture. Study a language--any language--and you will learn much about the history of the people who speak that language. You will also be taking a crucial step toward understanding the contemporary culture of the speakers.


14 Means of epic Imagery, in a literary text, is an author's use of vivid and descriptive language to add depth to his or her work. It appeals to human senses to deepen the reader's understanding of the work. Powerful forms of imagery engage all of the senses pro lenses.

Imagery often makes writing more fascinating through the use of sensual details and adds to deeper symbolic meaning to the text alluring to all senses. Imagery is not defined to visual imagery; it includes olfactory (smell), auditory (sound), gustatory (taste), tactile (touch), thermal (heat and cold), and kinesthetic sensation (movement).

Visual Imagery:
relating to visual scenes, graphics, pictures, or the sense of sight.


  • The clouds were low and hairy like locks blown forward in the gleam of eyes.
  • The iced branches shed ‘crystal shells.’

Auditory Imagery: relating to sounds, noises, music, sense of hearing or choosing words with a sound that imitates real sounds in the form of onomatopoeia. Words such as “bang!” “achoo!” “cacaw!” "buzz!" all work to describe sounds that most people are familiar with. Onomatopoeia is used mostly in poetry, but has its function in prose.


  • Joanna, the minute she set her eyes on him, let loose the scream of her life.
  • The rumbling sound of clouds, indicated start of monsoon.

Olfactory Imagery:is concerning aromas, smell, odors, scents, or the sense of smell.


  • She smelled as sweet as roses.
  • I was awakened by the strong smell of a freshly brewed coffee.

Gustatory Imagery:pertains to tastes, flavors, palates or the sense of taste.


  • Christina served the bland sea-prawns pasta with the sweet mariana sauce.
  • Joshua touched the naked wire. It was the biggest mistake of his life.

Tactile Imagery: is concerning physical touches, textures or the sense of touch.


  • The cold water touched his skin and he felt a shudder run down his spine.
  • Chloe came running and touched every nook and corner of my face with her slobbering tongue.

Kinesthetic Imagery:pertains to movements or the sense of bodily motion.


  • Ange's heartbeat was so loud, she felt it could be heard across the room.
  • The clay oozed between Jacob's fingers as he let out a squeal of pure glee.

Organic Imagery or Subjective Imagery:are the personal experiences of a character's physique, body, including emotion and the senses of hunger, thirst, fatigue, sickness, agony and pain.
Example: Life is too much like a pathless wood.



A narrative often reflects your personal experience, explaining what happened during some sort of experience. Stories are narrative, and narrative essays have a similar purpose of telling the events to a reader. Narrative essay topics include recounting an experience where you learned something significant, your first day at school, your first job interview, a frightening encounter, an experience that changed your life and two differing versions of the same event. Narration is not always a personal experience, though; a book report is narrative since it typically spells out the plot of the book or story.


Description uses sensory detail (sights, sounds, tactile sensations, tastes and smells) to describe a scene, person or feeling to a reader. As you describe, you create a three-dimensional picture so your reader can experience the item, place, person or emotion along with the reading. Descriptive essay topics include your favorite place, your bedroom, your best friend, the most unusual object you own, an art exhibit, the best or worst teacher you ever had, your ideal job or dream home.


16. The Modernist Period in English Literature occupied the years from shortly after the beginning of the twentieth century through roughly 1965. In broad terms, the period was marked by sudden and unexpected breaks with traditional ways of viewing and interacting with the world. Experimentation and individualism became virtues, where in the past they were often heartily discouraged. Modernism was set in motion, in one sense, through a series of cultural shocks. The first of these great shocks was the Great War, which ravaged Europe from 1914 through 1918, known now as World War One. At the time, this “War to End All Wars” was looked upon with such ghastly horror that many people simply could not imagine what the world seemed to be plunging towards. The first hints of that particular way of thinking called Modernism stretch back into the nineteenth century. As literary periods go, Modernism displays a relatively strong sense of cohesion and similarity across genres and locales. Furthermore, writers who adopted the Modern point of view often did so quite deliberately and self-consciously. Indeed, a central preoccupation of Modernism is with the inner self and consciousness. In contrast to the Romantic world view, the Modernist cares rather little for Nature, Being, or the overarching structures of history. Instead of progress and growth, the Modernist intelligentsia sees decay and a growing alienation of the individual. The machinery of modern society is perceived as impersonal, capitalist, and antagonistic to the artistic impulse. War most certainly had a great deal of influence on such ways of approaching the world. Two World Wars in the span of a generation effectively shell-shocked all of Western civilization.Modernism encompasses a variety of specific artistic and philosophical movements including symbolism, futurism, surrealism, expressionism, imagism, vorticism, dada, and others. Many prior theories about epistemology argued that external and absolute reality could impress itself, as it were, on an individual, as, for example, John Locke's (1632–1704) empiricism, which saw the mind beginning as a tabula rasa, a blank slate (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1690). Freud's description of subjective states, involving an unconscious mind full of primal impulses and counterbalancing self-imposed restrictions, was combined by Carl Jung (1875–1961) with the idea of the collective unconscious, which the conscious mind either fought or embraced. While Charles Darwin's work remade the Aristotelian concept of "man, the animal" in the public mind, Jung suggested that human impulses toward breaking social norms were not the product of childishness, or ignorance, but rather derived from the essential nature of the human animal. Another major precursor of modernism[4] was Friedrich Nietzsche, especially his idea that psychological drives, specifically the "will to power", were more important than facts, or things. Henri Bergson (1859–1941), on the other hand, emphasized the difference between scientific clock time and the direct, subjective, human experience of time[5] His work on time and consciousness "had a great influence on twentieth-century novelists," especially those modernists who used the stream of consciousness technique, such as Dorothy Richardson for the book Pointed Roofs (1915), James Joyce for Ulysses (1922) and Virginia Woolf (1882–1941) for Mrs Dalloway (1925) and To the Lighthouse (1927).[6] Also important in Bergson's philosophy was the idea of élan vital, the life force, which "brings about the creative evolution of everything"[7] His philosophy also placed a high value on intuition, though without rejecting the importance of the intellect.[7] These various thinkers were united by a distrust of Victorian positivism and certainty.[citation needed] Modernism as a literary movement can be seen also, as a reaction to industrialization,urbanization and new technologies.Important literary precursors of Modernism were: Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821–81) (Crime and Punishment (1866), The Brothers Karamazov (1880)); Walt Whitman(1819–92) (Leaves of Grass) (1855–91); Charles Baudelaire (1821–67) (Les Fleurs du mal), Rimbaud (1854–91) (Illuminations, 1874); August Strindberg (1849–1912), especially his later plays, including, the trilogy To Damascus 1898–1901, A Dream Play (1902), The Ghost Sonata (1907).


18. Plot refers to the sequence of events inside a story which affect other events through the principle of cause and effect. The causal events of a plot can be thought of as a series of sentences linked by "and so." Plots can vary from simple structures such as in a traditional ballad to complex interwoven structures sometimes referred to as an imbroglio. The term plot can serve as a verb and refer to a character planning future actions in the story.

In the narrative sense, the term highlights the important points which have important consequences within the story, according to Ansen Dibell. The term is similar in meaning to the term storyline.

English novelist E. M. Forster described plot as the cause-and-effect relationship between events in a story. According to Forster, "The king died, and then the queen died, is a story, while The king died, and then the queen died of grief, is a plot. Consider the following:

1. The prince searches for Cinderella with the glass shoe

2. Cinderella's sisters tried the shoe on but it does not fit

3. The shoe fits Cinderella's foot so the prince finds her

The first event is causally related to the third event, while the second event, while descriptive, does not directly impact the outcome. As a result, according to Dibell, the plot can be described numerically as 1⇢3 while the story can be described as 1⇢2⇢3. A story orders events from beginning to end in a time sequence.[1] Teri Shaffer Yamada agrees that a plot does not include memorable scenes within a story which do not relate directly to other events but only "major events that move the action in a narrative."[7] For example, in the 1997 film Titanic, when Rose climbs on the railing at the front of the ship and spreads her hands as if she's flying, this scene is memorable but does not directly influence other events, so it may not be considered as part of the plot. Another example of a memorable scene which is not part of the plot occurs in the 1980 film The Empire Strikes Back, when Han Solo is frozen in carbonite.[1] Steve Alcorn, a fiction-writing coach, said the main plot elements of The Wizard of Oz could be summarized as follows:

A tornado picks up a house and drops it on a witch, a little girl meets some interesting traveling companions, a wizard sends them on a mission, and they melt a witch with a bucket of water

In 1863, Gustav Freytag, a German writer, advocated a model based upon Aristotle's theory of tragedy. This is now called "Freytag's pyramid," which divides a drama into five parts, and provides function to each part. These parts are: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and denouement.

The first phase in Freytag's pyramid is the exposition. The exposition introduces the main characters of the story, especially the main character, also known as the protagonist. It shows how the characters relate to one another, their goals and motivations, as well as their moral character. During the exposition, the protagonist learns their main goal and what is at stake.

Freytag’s definition of conflict must not be confused with Sir Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch's definition of conflict. Quiller-Couch uses the term to categorize plots into types (for example, man vs. society). The main difference is that according to Quiller-Couch's mode of analysis, an entire story can be discussed in terms of its conflict. Freytag's definition of conflict refers to the second act in a five-act play, a point of time in which all of the major characters have been introduced, their motives and allegiances have been made clear, and they have begun to struggle against one another.

Rising action is the second phase in Freytag's five-phase structure. It starts with a conflict, for example, the death of a character. The inciting incident is the point of the plot that begins the conflict. It is the event that catalyzes the protagonist to go into motion and to take action. Rising action involves the buildup of events until the climax.

In this phase, the protagonist understands his or her goal and begins to work toward it. Smaller problems thwart their initial success and their progress is directed primarily against these secondary obstacles. This phase demonstrates how the protagonist overcomes these obstacles.

The climax is the turning point or highest point of the story. The protagonist makes the single big decision that defines not only the outcome of the story, but also who they are as a person. Freytag defines the climax as the third of the five dramatic phases which occupies the middle of the story.

At the beginning of this phase, the protagonist finally clears away the preliminary barriers and engages with the adversary. Usually, both the protagonist and the antagonist have a plan to win against the other as they enter this phase. For the first time, the audience sees the pair going against one another in direct or nearly direct conflict.

This struggle usually results in neither character completely winning or losing. In most cases, each character's plan is both partially successful and partially foiled by their adversary. The central struggle between the two characters is unique in that the protagonist makes a decision which shows their moral quality, and ultimately decides their fate. In a tragedy, the protagonist here makes a poor decision or a miscalculation that demonstrates their tragic flaw.

According to Freytag, the falling action phase consists of events that lead to the ending. Character's actions resolve the problem. In the beginning of this phase, the antagonist often has the upper hand. The protagonist has never been further from accomplishing their goal. The outcome depends on which side the protagonist has put themselves on.

In this phase the protagonist and antagonist have solved their problems and either the protagonist or antagonist wins the conflict. The conflict officially ends. Some stories show what happens to the characters after the conflict ends and, or they show what happens to the characters in the future.


Image, Artistic

a universal category in art; the depiction, interpretation, and perception of life through the creation of objects that produce anaesthetic effect. The term “image” often refers to an element or part of an artistic whole, generally a fragment that as it werepossesses an independent life and content, for example, a literary character or a symbolic image such as the sail in M. Iu.Lermontov’s poem “The Sail.” In a more general sense, an artistic image is the very basis of a work of art from the viewpointof the work’s expressiveness, intensity, and meaningfulness.

In comparison with other aesthetic categories, the artistic image is relatively late in origin. The rudiments of a theory ofartistic images may be found in Aristotle’s doctrine of mimesis, that is, the artist’s free imitation of life insofar as life is ableto produce integrated and internally structured objects; Aristotle noted the aesthetic satisfaction to be gained from suchimitation. For a long time, owing to the classical tradition, art was viewed as a craft or skill, and consequently the plasticarts predominated among the arts. Aesthetic thought was limited to the concepts of the canon and later of style and form,which clarified the transformative relationship of the artist to his material. Only when the less concrete arts—literature andmusic—became foremost was it recognized that artistically transformed material embodies a certain ideal that to an extentis similar to an idea.

Hegelian and post-Hegelian aesthetics, including the aesthetics of V. G. Belinskii, made extensive use of the category ofthe artistic image, contrasting the image as the product of artistic thought to the results of abstract, conceptual thought—that is, to the syllogism, deduction, proof, or formula. The universality of the category of the artistic image has often beendisputed since then, because the connotations of objectivity and clarity in the term “artistic image” seemed to make theterm inapplicable to the nonobjective, nonrepresentational arts, in particular to music. However, modern aesthetics, andprimarily Soviet aesthetics, widely uses the theory of the artistic image, regarding it as the most promising theory for theelucidation of the distinctive nature of art.

Various aspects of the artistic image may be distinguished that demonstrate its simultaneous involvement in many areas ofknowledge and being.

In ontological terms the artistic image reflects the ideal and is as it were a stylized object superimposed on its own materialsubstratum. Marble is not the flesh it represents, a two-dimensional surface is not a three-dimensional space, and a storyabout an event is not the event itself. An artistic image is not identical with its material base, although it may be recognizedin and by means of this base. “The nonaesthetic aspect of material, in contrast to the content, does not form part of theaesthetic object. The artist deals [with the nonaesthetic aspect] and aesthetics does so as well, but primary aestheticcontemplation does not deal with it” (M. M. Bakhtin, Voprosy literatury i estetiki, 1975, pp. 46, 47). Nevertheless, the imageis more closely united with its material basis than is number or any other ideal object dealt with in the exact sciences. Sinceto an extent the image is uninvolved with the literary material it is based on, the image uses its potentialities as signs of itsown content. For example, a statue has no relationship to the chemical composition of the marble it is made of, but it doeshave a relationship to the marble’s texture and color.

In this semiotic aspect, the artistic image is a sign, that is, a means of semantic communication in a given culture or amongrelated cultures. Similarly, the image is a manifestation of imagined existence, repeatedly renewed in the imagination of thereader or observer who possesses the key or cultural code needed to identify and comprehend the image. In order tounderstand a traditional Japanese or Chinese play, one must be acquainted with a special language of gestures and poses.But even Pushkin’s The Stone Guest would not be wholly comprehensible to a reader who was completely unfamiliar withthe Don Juan legend and its symbolic language. In order to understand a motion picture, the viewer must have anelementary familiarity with the language of cinematography. For example, he must understand the function of large-scaleshots, which alarmed the unaccustomed viewer in the early days of the cinema. Consequently, in the material on which theimage is based, the image-forming elements are those that are distinct from the strictly technical elements. For example, itis not acoustics but tone which is an element of a harmonic system. The image-forming elements constitute part of aspecific language that is used to describe a given art form or artistic tradition and that is conditioned by cultural agreement.

In gnoseological terms, the artistic image is a product of the imagination, closest to such types of cognitive thought as theassumption. Aristotle observed that the various aspects of art are in the sphere of the probable, whose very existencecannot be confirmed or denied. It follows that the artistic image can be an assumption or hypothesis only owing to its ownideal, imaginary nature. Rembrandt’s painting The Return of the Prodigal Son exists as such and is kept in the Hermitage,but that which is depicted on the canvas, while it does not exist in reality, has the potentiality of such existence. At thesame time, the artistic image is not simply a formal assumption but (even in the case of deliberate fantasy) an assumptionthat is suggested by the artist with maximum sensory persuasiveness and that attains a semblance of reality. Related tothis is the strictly aesthetic aspect of the artistic image—a unification, illumination, and vitalization of the artistic material bymeans of semantic expressiveness.

In its aesthetic aspect, the artistic image is a rational, lifelike entity that contains nothing superfluous, accidental, orsupplementary and that creates an impression of beauty owing precisely to the complete unity and ultimate meaningfulnessof its component parts. In the autonomous, total existence of artistic reality, nothing is directed toward such external aimsas commentary or illustration by means of example; this bears witness to the striking similarity of the artistic image to aliving person. A person is perceived in depth not from without, as an element in a causal chain of elements, but from thatperson’s own vital center. A person also has the ability to evaluate the outside world in terms of space and time owing to theinternal mechanisms of regulation that also maintain that person’s own continually changing sense of identity. But withoutthe isolating power of imagination and without exclusion from reality, the artistic image could not attain the intensity andlogic that bring it to life. In other words, the verisimilitude of an artistic image is related to its imaginary existence.

As a living entity, an image is autonomous; as an ideal object it is objective, like a number or an equation; and as anassumption it is subjective. However, as a sign the image is intersubjective, communicative, and comprehensible during adialogue between the author or artist and the reader or viewer. In this sense the image is not an object or a thought but atwo-way process. To an extent this may be illustrated by examining the internal structure of elementary artistic images. Thestructural diversity of the different types of artistic images may be reduced to two basic principles: that of metonymy (a partor feature instead of the whole) and that of metaphor (an associative linking of different objects).

On a conceptual level, two types of artistic generalization correspond to the above two structural principles. The symbolcorresponds to the metaphor, and the type, to metonymy; compare A. A. Potebnia’s characterization of metaphor andmetonymy in his collection Aesthetics and Poetics (1976, pp. 553–54). The artistic image tends toward metonymy in therepresentational arts. This is because any rendering of outward reality is a reconstruction based on those lines, forms, anddetails that are viewed as most important by the artist, that represent what is perceived and replace it, and that can bedepicted with the resources of the art form in question. Metaphoric linking, transfer, and indirect use of artistic images aretypical mainly of the expressive arts: lyric poetry (“the poet begins his discourse from afar”) and music. In these arts theaesthetic object comes into being as it were on the boundary of the two terms that are linked; it emerges from theintersecting of the image’s elements. Both these principles of organizing aesthetic objects are not conceptual and analyticbut are organic, since neither can be separated from the emotional aspect of the image.

In the epithet, the point at which the metaphoric and metonymic principles converge may be observed. The primaryaesthetic trait of the epithet is that it is combined with the word it modifies rather than added to it as a logical differential.The epithet therefore intensifies the concrete, elemental content of the word it modifies without narrowing that word’ssemantic scope. It is well known that the opposite is true of conceptual thought: the more concrete, the narrower.

In the phrase “the blue sea” the epithet “blue” as a metonymic feature makes the sea conceivable as such by removing itfrom abstract characterlessness. As a metaphoric feature the epithet shifts the sea to another conceptual sphere, that of anearthly expanse. In this elementary image of the sea, everything that is characteristic of the sea as such accompanies themeaning. Nothing remains outside the boundary of the aesthetic object, and understanding is achieved without a sacrifice ofabstraction and simplification. At the same time, this concrete unity is only latent, since the epithet “blue” provides only aschematic internal form to the image of the sea, indicating in advance the direction our imagination can take and the limitswithin which our imagination can function. The sea must be perceived as something blue, but within these limits a broadrange of concepts and associations is possible. These as it were constitute the life and inner dynamism of the image—itsconceivable substance, its self-sufficiency independent of the author or artist, and its ability to have many aspects whileretaining its identity. The organic aspect of the artistic image is inconceivable without the image’s schematic aspect, whichestablishes the author’s or artist’s subjective intention and at the same time provides scope for the reader’s or viewer’sobjectivity.

Thus, no artistic image is wholly concrete. The elements of clarity and stability in the image are enveloped by otherelements of indefiniteness and concealment. This results in a certain incompleteness of the artistic image in comparisonwith the reality of actual objects. Art seeks to become reality but is constrained by its own limitations. However, the imagealso has the advantage of its own polysemy and its capacity for elucidation by means of many varied interpretations, whosenumber is limited only by the author’s or artist’s emphasis. For example, the respective interpretations of Pushkin’s novel inverse Eugene Onegin that were made by Belinskii and by F. M. Dostoevsky, although they constitute a polemic and in manyways contradict each other, are valid in terms of Pushkin’s artistic intentions in the novel. On the other hand, D. I. Pisarev’sinterpretation of Eugene Onegin is opposed to the very values emphasized by the poet himself in the novel.

The merging of that which is organic and that which is schematic in the artistic image underscores the dual relationship ofthe image to the criterion of truth. This has undoubtedly been the most complex and paradoxical aspect of art ever since artbecame an independent field of human endeavor. Beyond the artistic image as a hypothesis and a means of communicationis the creator—the individual artist. This is also so in the case of anonymous or collectively produced works of art, wherethe aesthetic object also expresses the viewpoint of the person or persons creating it.

However, an image is subject to its creator not absolutely but only in its schematic changes and its internal form. Thisinternal form is composed of the semantic tension instilled by the artist, a tension that is part of the emotional exterior of theartistic image and that controls the image’s perception. Moreover, from the viewpoint of its own organic unity, an imagebelongs to itself. It becomes objectivized, that is, it becomes detached from its psychologically arbitrary source—thenonaesthetic views and intentions of the artist. It is true that the artist himself creates a work of art from beginning to end.However, in relation to the organic aspect of the image the artist is not an authoritative creator but a sensitive craftsmanwho nurtures the independent development of an artistic idea and the growth of a living, developed seed.

The inner form of an image is personal and bears the indelible impression of its creator’s ideology and his selective andcreative initiative. Consequently, an image represents the creator’s evaluation of human life, has cultural value, andexpresses historically relevant tendencies and ideals. But as an organism that vivifies literature or art, an artistic imageconstitutes a sphere in which the aesthetically harmonizing laws of life function to the utmost. In the artistic image there isno infinity in a negative sense and no unwarranted outcome. The range of perception is extensive, and time is reversible.Coincidence is not absurd, necessity is not oppressive, and clarity triumphs over indistinctness. In these aspects, artisticvalue is a relative sociocultural value and one of life’s permanent values. The artistic image represents an ideal potentialityof our human universe. For this reason an artistic assumption, unlike a scientific hypothesis, cannot be discarded asunneeded and be replaced by another assumption, even if the historical limitations of its creator seem obvious.


The dialects of Old English

Writing and sounds

It is common to divide England into four dialect areas for the Old English period. First of all note that by England that part of mainland Britain is meant which does not include Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. These three areas were Celtic from the time of the arrival of the Celts some number of centuries BC and remained so well into the Middle English period.

The dialect areas of England can be traced back quite clearly to the Germanic tribes which came and settled in Britain from the middle of the 5th century onwards. There were basically three tribal groups among the earlier settlers in England: the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes. The Angles came from the area of Angeln (roughly the Schleswig-Holstein of today), the Saxons from the area of east and central Lower Saxony and the Jutes from the Jutland peninsula which forms west Denmark today. The correlation between original tribe and later English dialect is as follows:

Germanic tribes and regions in England where they mainly settled

Saxons — South of the Thames (West Saxon area)
Angles — Middle and Northern England (Mercia and Northumbria), including lowland Scotland
Jutes — South-East of England (Kent)

Of these three groups the most important are the Saxons as they established themselves as the politically dominant force in the Old English period. A number of factors contributed to this not least the strong position of the West Saxon kings, chief among these being Alfred (late 9th century). The West Saxon dialect was also strongest in the scriptorias (i.e. those places where manuscripts were copied and/or written originally) so that for written communication West Saxon was the natural choice.

A variety of documents have nonetheless been handed down in the language of the remaining areas. Notably from Northumbria a number of documents are extant which offer us a fairly clear picture of this dialect area. At this point one should also note that the central and northern part of England is linguistically fairly homogeneous in the Old English period and is termed Anglia. To differentiate sections within this area one speaks of Mercia which is the central region and Northumbria which is the northern part (i.e. north of the river Humber).

A few documents are available to us in the dialect of Kent (notably a set of sermons). This offers us a brief glimpse at the characteristics of this dialect which in the Middle English period was of considerable significance. Notable in Kentish is the fact that Old English /y:/ was pronounced /e:/ thus giving us words like evil in Modern English where one would expect something like ivil.

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