Political parties. Pressure groups. Articulation and aggregation of interests.

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Political parties. Pressure groups. Articulation and aggregation of interests.

A political party (from Latin: pars, Genitive partis, "part", "portion") is a political organization that typically seeks to influence, or entirely control, government policy, usually by nominating candidates with aligned political views and trying to seat them in political office.[1] Parties participate in electoral campaigns and educational outreach or protest actions. Parties often espouse an ideology or vision, expressed in a party program, bolstered by a written platform with specific goals, forming a coalition among disparate interests.In Kazakhstan there are 9 officially registered political parties.Agrarian party of Kazakhstan,Civil party of Kazakhstan,The democratic party of Kazakhstan "Ak zhol", The Communist party of Kazakhstan ,Communist national party of Kazakhstan Republican political party "Otan",
Republican political party "Asar" ,"Ruhaniyat" party (spirituality)
Pressure groups are collections of individuals who hold a similar set of values and beliefs based on ethnicity, religion, political philosophy, or a common goal. Based on these beliefs, they take action to promote change and further their goals. For example, members of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) share a common belief that, in turn, influences the actions (e.g., advocacy, public awareness programs, policy research) they use to achieve their goals.Pressure groups are different from political parties. Political parties seek to create change by being elected to public office, while pressure groups attempt to influence political parties. Pressure groups may be better able to focus on specialized issues, whereas political parties tend to address a wide range of issues. Interest aggregation is the activity in which the political demands of groups and individuals are combined into policy programs, as defined by Almond, Powell, Dalton, and Strom. Interest aggregation includes those methods employed by individuals to effect change, commonly called personal interest aggregation, or by groups, to seek the support of or make demands of the government. Jump to: navigation, search Interest articulation is a way for members of a society to express their needs to a system of government.[1] It can range from personal contact with government officials to the development of interest groups (e.g. trade unions, professional associations, religious groups) who act in the interest of larger groups of people. Interest articulation can have different effects in different types of government and can include both legal (i.e.: lobbying, peaceful protest, phone calls and letters to policymakers) and illegal activities (e.g. assassination, riots). Interest articulation leads to interest aggregation.

27) What are the main reasons for changing our capital from Almaty into Astana? On June 10, 1998, we celebrated the unveiling of their new capital, Astana, which means "capital." The city received an official name change in May 1998 from Aqmola, which meant "white grave." The country decided to move the national capital from Almaty to Astana in 1997. The move means the national capital is now in the geographical center of the country, rather than in its largest city.Officially, the government of Kazakhstan said its reasons for moving the capital north to Astana from Almaty in the country's southeast corner were the area's susceptibility to earthquakes and its proximity to the Chinese border. President Nursultan Nazarbayev also hoped that the move will breathe some life into the economies of the northern regions and spread wealth more evenly around the country.

Political problems of an independent Kazakhstan in the context of global processes.Kazakhstan as a country which is geographically located in the center of the Eurasian continent has become the leader in the Central Asian region, and the active agent of globalization processes. The maintenance of national sovereignty is the actual problem in the context of globalization. Today the low level of civic identity and patriotism, the lack of a unified national idea may adversely affect the sovereignty of the state.

And from here, on the one hand, arises the problem of identity of a contemporary Kazakh under the conditions of the world globalization, on the other hand, multi-ethnic and ethnically diverse society.

In this case, one must bear in mind the really complex ethnonational composition of the Kazakh society, its linguistic, cultural, religious heterogeneity. It is important to remember that today we seem to overcome the hidden inner boundary of the “collective man” of a traditional society, in order to achieve socio-cultural characteristics of an “individual man” of a civil society, as the new, civil society, with its heterogeneous polyethnicity needs a new historical personality type.

Thus, the actualnessof the study is as follows: in recent years not only democratically-oriented ideologists, but the authorities have shown interest in the formation of civil society, its values ​​and norms. Social transformations in the 90s in Kazakhstan promote the study of problems related to social role and function of Kazakh citizens in the transforming society.

Political science (politics), its essence, schools and trends.

Political science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state,nation, government, and politics and policies of government. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state.[1] It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior, culture. Political scientists "see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions, and from these revelations they attempt to construct general principles about the way the world of politics works."[2] Political science intersects with other fields; including economics, law, sociology, history, anthropology, public administration, public policy, national politics, international relations, comparative politics, psychology, political organization, and political theory. As a professor or instructor of political science classes at one of the 1,173 accredited political science schools in the country, you play a essential role in shaping the education, and, in effect, the future of this growing field. Below are charts, statistics and analysis of the trends in political science academia which includes political science training at the following levels:

· Political Science Certificate

· Associates degree in Political Science

· Bachelors degree in Political Science

· Masters degree in Political Science

· PhD degree in Political Science

Compare last elections into Majilis 2007 and 2012. What are the strengths and weaknesses?

Elections in Kazakhstan are held on a national level to elect a President and the Parliament, which is divided into two bodies, the Majilis

(Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House). Local elections for maslikhats (local representative bodies) are held every five years.

On 16th November 2011, President Nazarbayev accepted a petition of 53 Majilis Deputies to dissolve parliament and set elections for January 15, 2012. The elections, for both the Majilis (lower house of parliament) and Maslikhats (local bodies), were last held in 2007.Majilis Elections

On 15th and 16th January 2012, the people of Kazakhstan will vote in the country’s elections for Majilis, the Lower House of the Parliament.

107 deputies of the Majilis will be elected in two stages:

On 15th January, political parties will compete for the 98 seats decided by a general vote. At the time of the calling of elections, there were eight registered political parties eligible to participate.

On 16th January, 9 deputies will be elected by the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, a national body established to represent the diverse ethnic groups across the country.

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