Attitudes and approaches to teaching teenage classes 

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Attitudes and approaches to teaching teenage classes

Module name

Age Appropriate Pedagogy


The unit will give an overview of psychological and physiological peculiarities of teenagers and their ability for language acquisition.


Students will learn how to create a lesson structure according to pupils age.

Lesson 1

Attitudes and approaches to teaching teenage classes


The unit will give an overview of:

· attitudes to teaching;

· approaches to teaching;

· psychological and physiological peculiarities of teenagers

It will explain:

· the peculiarities of teenage learners;

· the differences of approaches to teaching foreign languages.

Learning outcomes

Students will learn to choose the appropriate Teaching Methods for Teenagers, studying English.

Сontent of the lesson


1.1 Look at the statements from students below. They are about the ways in which they like or dislike being taught languages. Put a tick next to those you agree with and a cross next to those you disagree with.

1.2 Write two other statements about the way in which you like or dislike being taught languages. Then compare your answers with a partner.


2 Read the article about ages and stages and explain the peculiarities of teenagers` age differentiation.


Face to face

4 Watch the video “What makes a good teacher”. Make a list of suggested answers. Add two other statements of your own.


5.1 The axiom is that teachers usually teach in the way they were taught. Listen to A.J.Hoge, the Director of Effortless English, talking about English Teacher Secrets, which make English classes boring. Decide which of the statements above you would agree with.


5.2 Listen again and make notes in the chart below. Then compare your answers with the partner.

English Teacher Secrets Disadvantages
Using specific textbooks    


5.3 Look at the list below of words and expressions from the video. With a group, write definitions of each one. Then explain them to someone from a different group, as if you were explaining them to students. Would you explain them just by using the definitions or in some other way?

Group N1 Group N2 Group N3
Middle school grading fluent English pair work to do activities worksheet High school testing Standard English group work to lead a class to take notes Higher school score topic to discuss to follow the textbook to control a class planning lessons


6.1 Read the abstract from the article Five Attitudes of Effective Teachers: Implications for Teacher Training byBonni Gourneau (University of North Dakota) and decide, if examining past educational experiences future teachers can decide what they should or should not do with a class of students, if effective attitudes and actions employed by teachers can make a positive difference on the lives of their students.

The responsibility for preparing teachers is assumed to begin with teacher education programs at higher education institutions. However, by the time undergraduate students enroll in an Introduction to Teaching course they have already experienced and survived many teachers and at least fourteen years of schooling. Since these students have achieved this wealth of educational opportunities; they can serve as credible resources in identifying the attitudes and actions that were implemented in prior classrooms by their effective teachers. When preservice teachers or teacher candidates are asked, "Why do you want to be a teacher?" The response is commonly, "I want to be able to make a positive difference in the lives of my students." Many teacher candidates continue to say they also want to be an effective teacher who will be remembered fondly by their former students. Some want to have a chance to be a better teacher than the teachers they personally experienced. However, many researchers (i.e., Frank, 1990; Fulton, 1989; Goodlad, 1990; Handler, 1993) state the axiom that teachers usually teach in the way they were taught. This compelling statement highlights the importanceof reviewing and analyzing students’ prior educational experiences for insight into the effective and ineffective attitudes and actions of teachers. Teachers have the opportunity to leave an indelible impression on their students’ lives. School experiences mold, shape, and, can influence how children view themselves inside and outside of school. These school memories have the potential to last a lifetime in students’ minds and can play a consequential role with present and future decisions. It does not take long for students to realize that teachers make the difference between a long and boring school year and an exciting and challenging year. The effective attitudes and actions employed by teachers ultimately can make a positive difference on the lives of their students, and this belief will serve as the central focus of this paper. By examining past educational experiences, preservice teachers can discuss what they should or should not do with a class of students.

6.2 Complete the chat below with words from article, or words based on them.

Noun Verb Adjective
education educate educated


6.3 Now write 5 sentences, proving that attitudes to teaching are important, using as many words as possible out of each horizontal row. For example:

As teaching is a very responsible profession we should not only understand the importance of our knowledge about attitudes, but have skills to be effectiveteaches.


Then discuss your sentences with your partner.


7 Now discuss with your partner:

· how you were taught English at teenage classes, if the way you learnt was a good way

· if knowledge about attitudes and approaches to teaching teenage classes important for future teachers.

· if teaching teenagers differ from teaching kids

Try to use words and expressions above at appropriate places in your discussion.


8 Watch the video “Motivating students”. Different teachers give their recommendation how to motivate students. Arrange them according to importance when speaking about teaching teenagers. Then discuss them with your partner.


9.1 Listen to Garrett Robinson’s thoughts on teaching teenagers

and read the abstract from the article by Ingrid Veira. What are the common ideas of two authors?

Why is teaching teenagers such a challenge for most teachers? Adolescents are often seen as problem students, but with their great ability for abstract thought and enthusiastic commitment to what they are doing once they are engaged, ‘teens may well be the most exciting students of all’ (Harmer J.) Teenagers have a greater learning potential than young children, but they are much more difficult to motivate and manage. Creating a positive learning environment in which adolescents feel happy, secure, valued and motivated to learn can be incredibly difficult. According to Worgan M., the reasons for this are many: teenagers are going through a lot of physical and emotional changes, including changes in their brains; if they come to class, it may be because that is the place where the rest of their friends are; they have a strong need for peer approval and this can have a very negative effect during a lesson; teens search for identity and they have a need for self-esteem; adolescents need to feel valued and good about themselves. These are just some of the reasons why it can be extremely difficult to work with this age group; however, once a teacher finds the correct balance between respect and authority, teaching teenagers can become a rewarding experience. The key to good teaching, then, is to find out what gets the students' attention and use it to help them learn. Graham R. mentions in one of his articles: ‘you can't teach anybody anything, all you can do is open the door’. The modern version is that you're not teaching English, you're selling it to them!’ In other words, you have to convince students to learn and like English by using the right activities and topics for them.


9.2 The word combinations below are from the passage. Match those in the left-hand column with the appropriate one(s) in the right-hand column.

abstract motivate and manage
enthusiastic commitmentto peer approval
learning valued
difficult to thought
physical and emotional experience
need for changes
search for potential
need for identity
feel what they are doing
rewarding self-esteem

Now read through your answers and tick those that personally you consider to be characteristic of teenagers. Discuss your answers with a partner.


On-line task · Read the article and be ready to answer the questions FOSTERING TEENAGERS’ WILLINGNESS TO LEARN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE byCarmen Fonseca Mora Carmen   1. Why does teaching teenagers constitute a very challenging experience for most teachers? 2. What peculiar characteristics does this age group have? 3. What kind of language learning activities do teenagers need? 4.Why are motivation, language-aptitude skills and self-confidence so necessary for teenagers` learning? 5. Why are such relational elements as teaching style, teacher behavior and the characteristics of the learner group relevant? 6. What view of the teacher as facilitator was presented in the article? 7. Why is engaging teenage learners emotionally so important? 8. Smith’s model to foster willingness to learn a foreign language is named BASICS, whichis an acronym that encompasses six elements: belonging, aspirations, safety, identity, challenge and success. Why are these elements so important for teaching teenagers? · Make up your model to foster teenagers` willingness to learn a foreign language. Name it ATTITUDE (it is also going to be an acronym with 8 elements). Prove that all the elements are necessary in teenage classes. · Be ready to present it in Students` online forum.


10 Look t the headlines of the articles below. What do they suggest the articles are about?


Tips For Teaching TeenagersIngrid Veira


Five Attitudes of Effective Teachers: Implications for Teacher Training Bonni Gourneau


Why Teach Attitude? by Don Berg


On-line task · Read these articles and list the attitudes three authors consider to be important in teenage classes. · Write essay about a teacher who made a positive or negative impression on your life. Include thoughtful examples, descriptions, and details of how you were treated by these teachers.


11 In groups of four orally share your essays. Choose a group member who will keep a written list of the described teacher attitudes and actions. Assess the generated list and decided which five attitudes and actions are most desirable of teachers. Write your list on the chalkboard.


12 Whole class discussion, based on each group’s findings:

“The attitudes and actions demonstrated by effective teachers”.


13.1 Before listening to Diane Larsen-Freeman’s presentation of her bookTechniques & Principles in Language Teaching read the passage below about her. Then answer the question. Can we say that Diane Larsen-Freeman’s is famous all-over the world?


Diane Larsen-Freeman Professor Emerita, School of Education; Professor Emerita, Department of Linguistics, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts; Research Scientist Emerita, English Language Institute   Diane Larsen-Freeman received her PhD in linguistics from the University of Michigan. Following appointments at UCLA and the Graduate SIT Institute (where she remains affiliated as distinguished senior faculty fellow), she returned to the University of Michigan in January 2002 to direct the English Language Institute for six years. She is currently a research scientist emerita at the English Language Institute, as well as a professor of education emerita, a professor of linguistics emerita, and a faculty associate of the Center for the Study of Complex Systems at Michigan. Larsen-Freeman has made presentations in sixty-five countries around the world and is the author of eight books. She was the editor of the journal Language Learning for five years.


13.2 You are going to listen to Diane Larsen-Freeman presenting her book Techniques & Principles in Language Teaching. What do you imagine this book is about? Listen and to see if you guessed correctly.


Why does Diane Larsen-Freeman consider language teaching methods to be an essential part of language teaching education? What are her reasons for studying them?


13.3 Listen again and complete the chart below in note form. Some cells can be unfilled. Then compare and discuss your answers with a partner.

Language teaching method/Approaches The reason of emergence Learner’s role
Audiovisual Method      


14.1 Read the headline of the article. What do you think the article is about?

What is the best teaching method for learning English? According to academic research, linguists have demonstrated that there is not one single best method for everyone in all contexts, and that no one teaching method is inherently superior to the others. Also, it is not always possible – or appropriate – to apply the same methodology to all learners, who have different objectives, environments and learning needs. Methods of teaching English have developed rapidly, especially in the previous 40 years. As a language learner, training manager, or teacher, it is important to understand the various methods and techniques so that you are able to navigate the market, make educated choices, and boost your enjoyment of learning a language. Each teaching method is based on a particular vision of understanding the language or the learning process, often using specific techniques and materials used in a set sequence. What are the Differences? Each method has a different focus or priority, so let’s look at what this means in practical terms in the classroom.  
Method Focus Characteristics
Grammar Translation Written literary texts Translate from English into your native language
Direct Method (Natural Method) Everyday spoken language Student learns by associating meaning directly in English
Audio-Lingual Method Sentence and sound patterns Listening and speaking drills and pattern practice only in English
Cognitive Code Approach Grammar rules English grammar rules deduced and then understood in context
The Silent Way Student interactionrather than teacher Teacher is silent to allow student awareness of how English works
Suggestopedia Meaningful texts and vocabulary Relaxed atmosphere, with music; encourages subliminal learning of English
Community Language Learning Student interaction Understanding of English through active student interaction
Comprehension Approach (Natural Approach, the Learnables, and Total Physical Response) Listening comprehension English speaking delayed until students are ready; meaning clarified through actions and visuals
Communicative Language Method Interaction, authentic communicationand negotiating meaning Understanding of English through active student interaction; negotiating meaning games,information gaps
Content-based, Task-based, and Participatory Approaches What is being communicated, not structure of English Content based on relevance to students’ lives: topics, tasks, problem-solving
Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple Intelligences How to learn Teach learning strategies, cooperation; activities vary according to different intelligences


14.2 The words and expressions below are from the article. Read them and put a tick next to those whose meaning you know. Ask a partner or partners the meaning of the other words and expressions. Keep on asking until you can put a tick against each one.


a) academic research (line 1)

b) teaching method (line 3)

c) objectives, environments and learning needs (line 5)

d) materials used in a set sequence (line 13)

e) to focus or priority (line 15)

f) associating meaning (line 23)

g) sound patterns (line 26)

h) student awareness (line 33)

i) student interaction (line 33)

j) meaningful texts and vocabulary (line 37)

k) subliminal learning (line 38)

l) listening comprehension (line 44)

m) visuals (line 46)

n) authentic communication (line 49)

o) negotiating meaning (line 51)

p) information gaps (line 52)

q) problem-solving (line 56)

r) learning strategies (line 57)



14.3 Talk about one or both of the points below with a partner or partners.

· Has this article helped you to identify Language Teaching Methods?

· Can you speak about their advantages and disadvantages?


15 The article below by Alex Taylor tells about the Principled Eclecticism approach which is followed by many teachers today. Read the article quickly. Then answer the question: what is the main idea of the Principled Eclecticism approach.

The New Principled Eclecticism Method by Alex Taylor Fitting the method to the learner, not vice versa Today the professional language teacher has a good grounding in the various techniques and new approaches, and they know and understand the history and evolution of teaching methodologies. The modern teacher will in fact use a variety of methodologies and approaches, choosing techniques from each method that they consider effective and applying them according to the learning context and objectives. They prepare their lessons to facilitate the understanding of the new language being taught and do not rely on one specific ‘best method’. Some Examples · The teacher proposes a variety of exercises, both written and oral, to improve the learner’s accuracy, fluency and communicative ability. · The teacher corrects errors immediately if the scope of the classroom activity is accuracy, but if the scope of the activity is fluency these errors will be corrected later on. · The teacher develops all four linguistic capabilities (reading, writing, listening and speaking). · To improve pronunciation the teacher uses drills, where students repeat automatically the phrases spoken by the teacher. · The teacher helps the student personalize the use of grammatical and lexical elements used in class. · The teacher understands that a didactic program has to include not only grammar and lexis, but also linguistic functions, colloquialisms, idioms, etc. · The teacher introduces exercises of guided discovery for new grammar rules. · At times the teacher may translate – but only if they know both languages very well and believe it is the most efficient way to provide the meaning of a new concept in that moment, especially for abstract ideas. · The teacher is committed to developing a wide range of resources in order to give relevant, stimulating, and productive lessons. It is impossible to do everything if only one method is used. As a result, professional EFL teachers follow what is described as the Principled Eclecticism approach, where students are also encouraged to be autonomous in their learning. However, some private schools and training companies still prefer to promote a specific in-house branded method or approach, though often mainly for commercial or marketing reasons rather than for didactic reasons.


On-line task · Study the material about Language Teaching Methods: · Watch the video, where 6 main Language Teaching Methods are introduced byDiane Larsen-Freeman.


· Choose one of the modern teaching methods, find the articles devoted to it, give the critical analyses and present your point of view on its effectiveness.

· Project work: taking in consideration everything you have learned about attitudes, approaches and teenage learners choose an appropriate Teaching Method for Teenagers, studying English, justify the attitudes applied. Be ready to present and defend your project in class.







Lesson 2


Language and Competencies


The unit will give an overview of:

· Foreign Language Teachers` Competencies;

· Foreign Language Learners` Competencies.

· Core Competencies for Educators.

It will explain:

· the terms Competence, Teacher’s Competence, Learner’s Competence;

· the necessity of Core Competencies for Educators;

· specific competencies of Foreign Language Teachers` Competencies;

· The difference between Linguistic and Communicative Competences;

· The necessity of organizing the syllabus for Learners` Competencies formation.

Learning outcomes

Students will learn the material about Foreign Language teachers` Competencies and Foreign Language Learners` Competencies, that will help them focus on the functions, tasks, activities etc. necessary for creating a lesson structure.


Сontent of the lesson


My teacher gave a lot of creative tasks.
1.1 Look at the statements from students below. They are about their English teachers` ability to teach. Put a tick next to those you think are necessary for effective teacher.

1.2 Write two other statements about your school teacher(s) of English. Then compare your answers with a partner.

1.3. Discussion

What is the difference between effective and ineffective teacher?



Look at three definition of the word COMPETENCE, taken from three different dictionaries. Which of them do you consider to be more suitable when speaking about LANGUAGE AND COMPRTENCIES? Give your reasons.


competence 1. a.The ability to do something well or efficiently. b.A range of skill or ability: a task beyond his competence. c.A specific ability or skill: a surprising competence in dealing with animals. 2.Law The quality or condition of being legally qualified or fit to perform an act. 3.Microbiology The ability of bacteria to be genetically transformable. 4.Medicine The ability to respond immunologically to bacteria, viruses, or other antigenic agents. 5.Linguistics The knowledge that enables one to speak and understand a language. 6.Sufficient means for a comfortable existence.   American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2011 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


competence 1.the condition of being capable; ability 2.a sufficient income to live on 3.(Law) the state of being legally competent or qualified 4.(Biology) embryol the ability of embryonic tissues to react to external conditions in a way that influences subsequent development 5.(Grammar) linguistics (in transformational grammar) the form of the human language faculty, independent of its psychological embodiment in actual human beings. Compare performance7, langue, parole5 Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003


competence 1.the quality of being competent. income sufficient to furnish the necessities and modest comforts of life. 3.the sum total of possible developmental responses of any group of blastemic cells under varied external conditions. 4.the implicit internalized knowledge of a language that a speaker possesses and that enables the speaker to produce and understand the language. Compare performance (def. 8). 5.the state of being immunocompetent.   Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.


2.2. Formulate your own definitions:

Teacher` s competence  


Learner’s competence


Face to face

3.1 In this article Neil Kokemuller views the difference between three key concepts related to a job search, job performance and evaluation. Read the article through quickly. Then answer the question: What do all three of these concepts have in common?

Difference between Competencies, Tasks, and Qualities by Neil Kokemuller, Demand Media   Competencies, tasks and qualities are all key concepts related to a job search, job performance and evaluation. In essence, your personal qualities may contribute to the competencies required for success in a given position. In a job, you complete certain tasks that shape your role in the organization. Understanding each of these concepts and their importance helps in searching for the right career. Qualities Your personal qualities include traits or attributes that help shape your personality. The combination of qualities you possess help make you unique as a person and employee. Charisma, appearance, humor, kindness and a helpful attitude are among qualities you might bring to the table as an employee. From an employer standpoint, your personal qualities are several competency factors used to assess whether you are the right fit for the company and job. Knowing yourself and your interests also help you ensure you get into an organization and position that matches well with your interests. Competencies Job competencies include the knowledge, skills and abilities and behaviors, as well as qualities necessary for success in a position. Employers often include competencies in a job description to convey the qualifications needed for a successful applicant. This helps job seekers when giving consideration to a job posting. In the interview, hiring managers also use questions to find out whether you have the necessary competencies to do the job well. Competencies are essentially a broader umbrella of job traits that includes your personal qualities. Tasks Job tasks are significantly different from qualities and competencies. A task is a specific duty or action required of someone in a given position. As a marketing analyst, for instance, one of your tasks might be to research competitors and prepare a competitor analysis spreadsheet. Job descriptions and postings usually include thorough lists of common job tasks so you can evaluate whether you want to do the work. When you get hired, you typically collaborate with your supervisor to set performance goals for each key task area. A salesperson usually must sell a certain number of a given product, for instance. Core Differences A major difference between qualities and competencies relative to job tasks is that they are used for assessing potential employees, while tasks are performed once you have the job. Competencies, including qualities, point to what you need to successfully complete the tasks for the position. In theory, if an employer effectively evaluates your competencies in an interview and your personal qualities make you happy and productive in the work, you should achieve success in performing job tasks.

3.2. Read the article again and make notes in the chart below. Then compare your answers with a partner.

  They include… They help to…

3.3 Look at the list below of synonyms to the word COMPITENCE, given in the dictionary. Choose three of the list and explain the difference in the meaning with the core word to your partner, as if you were explaining them to your pupils. Would you explain them just by using the definition or in some other way?

competence Synonyms Capability, ability, competency, capacity, proficiency quality, accomplishment, adeptness, adroitness, knowledge, expertise, expertness, skill, skillfulness, prowess, mastery, resources, faculties, facilities, talent, bent, aptitude, artistry, virtuosity


4. Talking point

· Why do we have to speak about competences when discussing Future Teachers’` Training?


List the core competencies for an effective teacher. Discuss them in groups of four. Choose a group member who will keep a written list of the competencies. Assess the generated list and decided which of them the most important ones are. Write your list on the chalkboard.

On-line task · Watch the video where John Shackleton and Keith Morrow speak on assessing teacher competence. · Write the essay “Why is Continuing Professional Development so important for the teacher?”  

Talking point

· What specificity do core competencies for educators acquire, when speaking about Foreign Language teachers?

Now listen to Dr. Richards. He is an internationally renowned specialist in second and foreign language teaching, an applied linguist and educator, the author of numerous professional books for English language teachers, and the author of many widely used textbooks for English language students. How does he differentiate Linguistic and Communicative Competences? Why are both necessary for the learners?



Language competenceis a broad term which includes linguistic or grammatical competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic or sociocultural competence and what might be called textual competence.

The specific learning outcomes under “Language Competence” deal with knowledge of the language and the ability to use that knowledge to interpret and produce meaningful texts appropriate to the situation in which they are used.

Language competence is best developed in the context of activities or tasks where the language is used for real purposes, in other words, in practical applications.

Although the outcomes isolate these components, language competence should be developed through classroom activities which focus on meaningful uses of the language and on language in context. Tasks will be chosen based on the needs, interests and experiences of students. The vocabulary, grammatical structures, text forms and social conventions necessary to carry out this task will be taught, practised and assessed as students are involved in various aspects of the task itself, not in isolation.

Strategic competence is often closely associated with language competence since students need to learn ways to compensate for low proficiency in the early stages of learning if they are to use language for authentic communication from the beginning.


11.2 The words below are from the passage. Match those in the left-hand column with the appropriate one(s) in the right-hand column.

meaningful outcomes
practical activities
learning communication
social texts
classroom conventions
authentic applications


Now read through your answers and tick those that personally you consider to be important for the lesson. Discuss your answers with a partner.


12. Discussion

· Which element(s) is/are most important in teaching teenagers?

· Should there be specific approaches, strategies, activities etc. while Communicative Competence formation?


On-line tasks · Listen to the lecture of Ph.D F.Tuzi Communicative Competence in SLA.Make a summaryof the lecture in the form of critical presentation. Be ready to discuss the main ideas at the following lesson. · Study the given material before preparing your Assessment.   Students are expected to demonstrate all of the following competencies before finishing their Field Experiences at the College of Education at Wayne State University. They may be demonstrated in many ways, but the culminating activity is in a portfolio review at the end of their student teaching.  




· Write essay “What Foreign Language Learners` Competencies should teenagers posses?’

· Project work Prepare the presentations of Student Teacher Competencies the students are expected to demonstrate before finishing their study at your University








Lesson 3



Classroom activities


The unit will give an overview of:

· classroom activities;

· lesson structure;

It will explain:

· how to create a lesson structure;

· what kinds of activities to use at different stages of the lesson.

Learning outcomes

Students will learn how to choose the appropriate lesson activities for Teenagers, creating a lesson structure.

Сontent of the lesson


1.1. Look at the photographs. Describe what you can see and discuss what kinds of classroom activities they seem to be.







1.2 What do you think creates a successful lesson? Discuss your answers with a partner.



2.1. The material is taken from the bookCreating Effective Language Lessons,writtenby Jack C. Richards and David Bohlke (© Cambridge University Press).The chapter Your lesson is a coherent sequence of learning activities that link together to form a wholewill help you to understand the role of classroom activities in creating a lesson structure.



This phase of the lesson serves primarily to focus the students’ attention on the aims of the lesson, to make links to previous learning, to arouse interest in the lesson, to activate background knowledge, or to preview language or strategies students may need to understand in order to complete activities in the lesson. There are various ways in which a teacher can achieve a successful opening – for example:

J Ask questions to assess the learners’ background knowledge or to develop ideas related to the topic.

J Use brainstorming and discussion activities.

J Show a DVD or video clip related to the lesson theme.

J Give a short test.

J Do or show something unusual to arouse students’ interest in the lesson.


A lesson is normally devoted to more than one type of activity, and teachers often have a “script” or preferred sequence that they follow when teaching a particular type of lesson, such as a speaking lesson, a reading lesson, a writing lesson, or a listening lesson. A common lesson sequence found in many tradi­tional language classes consists of a sequence of activities referred to as P–P–P: Presentation, (new language items are introduced), Practice (students complete guided practice activities using the new language), and Production (students take part in freer, more open-ended activities using the new language). In com­municative language teaching, lessons often begin with accuracy-based activities and move toward fluency-based activities. Reading lessons often follow a format consisting of Pre-reading, While-reading, and Post-reading activities. Listening lessons follow a similar format. Conversation lessons often begin with con­trolled practice activities, such as dialog practice, and move toward open-ended activities, such as role plays. Lessons based on a task-based approach often follow a sequence consisting of Pre-task activities, The task cycle, The language focus, and a Follow-up task. In addition to the lesson sequence suggested by the teaching approach you are using or by the particular language skill you are teaching, other more general considerations will also influence the stages into which you think a lesson should be divided, drawing on principles such as “easier before more difficult activities,” “receptive before productive skills,” or “accuracy activities before fluency activities.” At the same time, when planning a lesson, you will need to consider how you will handle the transitions between the different sequences of the lesson.

Experienced teachers are very skilled at handling the transitions between the different parts of a lesson. They tend to mark the onset of transi­tions clearly – for example, by stating when one activityshould end and when the next will begin; they also make use of a variety of procedures to avoid losing class time as they move from one activity to another – for example, by imple­menting clear procedures for forming groups and for carrying out group work.

Less experienced teachers, on the other hand, tend to blend activi­ties together, not paying sufficient attention to the links between events and taking too long to complete the movement between segments of a lesson. It is important to keep in mind that effective lesson links or transitions help maintain students’ attention during transition times and establish a link between one activity and the next. Planning for transitions involves thinking about how the momentum of the lesson will be maintained during a transition – for example, while moving from a whole-class activity to a group-work activity; another issue that teachers need to consider is what students should do between transitions – for example, if some students complete an activity before the others.


The closing phase of a lesson is also an important part of a lesson sequence. Ideally, it should leave the students feeling that they have successfully achieved a goal they set for themselves or that had been established for the lesson, and that the lesson was worthwhile and meaningful. Sometimes you and your students may have a different understanding of what you were trying to achieve in a les­son. At the end of a lesson, it is usually valuable to summarize what the lesson has tried to achieve, to reinforce the points of the lesson, to suggest follow-up work as appropriate, and to prepare students for what will follow. It is always important to praise the students for their effort and performance. During the closing stage, students may raise issues or problems that they would like to discuss or resolve; at this time, you may also encourage them to ask you for sug­gestions concerning how they can improve.

It is often useful to make students aware of the sequence or structure you have planned for a lesson. One way to achieve this is to write a brief lesson outline on the board before the lesson begins (preferably before the students come to class), listing the activities that the students will take part in and the purpose of each activity. This lets the students know what they will be expected to do during the lesson. It also gives students a sense that they are taking part in a lesson that has been well planned and organized. Another benefit of making sure everyone knows exactly how the lesson will play out is that late-coming students can be oriented to which part of the lesson has already been taught.


Creating Effective Language Lessons

by Jack C. Richards and David Bohlke

© Cambridge University Press 2011



2.2 Prepare the questions as to the content of this chapter. Discuss it in groups.



Face to face

3.1 The article below was written by a teacher. Read it and say what she thinks a lesson plan describes.

Creating Lesson Plans Lesson plans have three primary functions. First, the process of preparing them helps instructors organize their thoughts for each day's work with children. Second, they provide documentation that becomes the basis for reflection and future refinement of the instruction process. Third, they enable instructors to document and exchange specific teaching strategies in a format that is easy for others to understand and follow. If multiple instructors, volunteers, interns, etc. are working with children in a single class, creating a lesson plan ensures that everyone knows how and when the activities will be done, and why they are being done. A lesson plan describes a set of activities that are implemented over the course of a single session. In this context, for example, a lesson plan would describe what happens in an out-of-school program with one group of children on one day. This is distinct from a project, which is a series of interrelated lessons, implemented over sequential sessions that result in a product or group of products. A lesson plan is a working document. Your organization may want to assemble an ongoing "best of" collection of lesson plans that have been rewritten to reflect how they were actually implemented or should have been implemented. Since a lesson plan is first and foremost a personal planning tool for an instructor, each instructor should use a format that works best for him or her. At a minimum, lesson plans should include: · age of children · length of time of activities · objectives (what children will accomplish/produce by the end of the session) · learning outcomes (skills and competencies that children will practice or develop) · activity steps/procedures · materials · strategy for incorporating the use of the Internet and related technologies Other planning areas might include: · introductory activities · transitions (activities that bridge a change of activity or a physical move to another space) · closure (activities that help children process what they have learned, and prepare them for the next day's work) · assessment (how to determine what children have learned)/


3.2 What kinds of activities does the author distinguish?


3.3 In your opinion, what classroom activities can be used as introductory activities, transitions and closure? Write a short list. Discuss it with a partner.


4.1 Look at the headline below. What does it suggest the article is about?


How to Write a Lesson Plan: 5 Secrets of Writing Great Lesson Plans   1.One click! That's all it takes for you to say 'thank you' for the articles you find useful! Use the buttons above to show us your love, we work hard to deserve it! Close Writing a lesson plan will ensure that you are prepared for your class and will make it run more smoothly. It is important to break the material up into several sectionsandchoose activities suitable for each.Knowing approximately how much time an activity will take is important, but after the first lesson you may need to adjust things accordingly. It is best to be flexible seeing as different classes will respond to material differently. If at any point students struggle, you will have to dedicate more time to instruction or drilling before moving on to practice activities. For the purposes of this example let’s assume that an English class is forty-five minutes long. How to Proceed Warm up A warm up activity can be used in a number of ways. It can get your students thinking about material that will be used later on in the class, review material from a previous class, or simply get your students thinking in English, moving around, or awake. This activity should only take up a small portion of your lesson, perhaps five minutes. Introduction A good introduction will create a need for students to learn the material you are going to present and get them interested in the day’s topic. This is the part of the lesson where the teacher does the most talking so try to get students involved and use choral repetition to keep students talking about half the time. Depending on how complex the topic is or how much new vocabulary there is, the introduction could take some time but in most cases, about ten minutes should be sufficient. Practice The practice activity would normally be about ten minutes and have students working individually or in pairs. Practicing model dialogues, completing worksheets, and doing short activities would be appropriate. This may take about ten minutesincluding going over the answers or having some demonstrations. Production In the production activity students should have to produce material on their own. Rather than reading sentences, perhaps they have to answer questions or make their own sentences. Longer activities such as board games, which can be played in groups, or activities for the whole class, where students work in teams, would be best. The remaining class time can be devoted to this activity. Review It is a good idea to plan another five minute activity that can be done at the end of class as a review or used as the warm up in the following lesson. If the production activity does not take up the remaining portion of the class period, you have a backup plan. Important When writing lesson plans, be sure to include what part of the textbook you are covering in the lesson, the target structure, new vocabulary, directions for all the activities youintend to use, and the approximate time each section of your lesson will take. The idea behind a lesson plan is that another teacher could pick it up and successfully teach your class without further instructions. If there is an activity where you plan to ask the students questions so that they use the past tense in their responses, write down the questions you plan to ask. It is more difficult to think of appropriate questions on the spot and you are more likely to ask them a question using vocabulary they are unfamiliar with as well. If there is a group activityin the lesson, write down about how many students should be in each group because two to four students is a lot different than five to ten. Writing out your lesson plan can also help you figure out what material you must prepare for a lesson because if your production activity will only take about ten minutes, then you are obviously going to need an additional activity to end the class with. Not all lessons will be conducted the same. In some instances, the introduction of new material may take an entire lesson or the production activity may be an entire lesson. It is always good to have familiar activities to fall back onin case something doesn’t work quite the way you had planned. If students are playing the board game without actually speaking, in other words just moving their pieces around the board, they are not getting the necessary practice so you may have to either join the group having difficulties or change activities altogether. At any rate, lesson plans are enormously helpful and if the following year you find yourself teaching the same material, preparation will be a breeze. try{_402_Show();}catch(e){}


4.2 Look at the list below of words and expressions from the article. With a group, write definitions of each one. Then explain them to someone from a different group, as if you were explaining them to students. Would you explain them just by using the definitions or in some other way?


Group 1 Group 2
instruction practice activities choral repetition completing worksheets board games directions for the activities drilling warm up activity model dialogues target structure production activity group activity


5.1 Teenagers are notoriously hard to please and teachers are always looking for original activities that will both capture and hold students' interest. Watch the video and make brief notes in the chart below. Then discuss your answers



Name of the activity Objectives Teacher’s instructions
Running dictation      


5.2 Which of those activities could you use at a teenage class? Discuss it in groups.


6.1 The author of the article below suggests activities for teenagers. Read the article.

Activities for teenagers Teenagers are at that important stage between childhood and adulthood. They want to be treated responsibly, but they still enjoy having fun during classes. They can also be easily distracted. It is important to keep the activities varied with teenagers and not to spend too long on any one thing. Try to find material that is relevant to them. For example, it wouldn't be appropriate to base a lesson for teenagers on renting and furnishing an apartment. The following subjects are always popular:
  • The internet
  • Celebrities
  • Music
  • Sports
  • Fashion
  • The media
But don't underestimate your teens – they can deal with more serious subjects too and are often very concerned about world issues. Projects work well if you are teaching teenagers, and they also help them learn about working as a team. The following projects are always good choices:
  • Making mini movies
  • Creating newspapers or magazines
  • Designing surveys and asking people's opinions and writing reports or making presentations of the results
Teaching English to teenagers is great fun. It can be inspiring for the students and the teacher alike, and it opens up a completely new area of employment for you to consider.


6.2. The author suggests subjects he considers to be popular with teenagers and projects he thinks to be good choices. Add the subjects and projects you consider to be appropriate in teenage class. Discuss your answers with your partners.


6.3. The word combinations below are from the passage. Match those in the left-hand column with the appropriate one(s) in the right-hand column.


to be treated distracted
be easily varied
stage between your teens
material responsibly
to keep the activities to be concerned about world issues
working as having fun
to be concerned about world issues childhood and adulthood
enjoy a team
don't underestimate that is relevant


Now read through your answers and tick those that personally you consider to be characteristic of teenagers. Discuss your answers with a partner.


The article below presents Interactive Classroom Activities, which can be used at teenage classes. Each of three groups will have to study three classroom activities (1-3; 4-6; 7-9). Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of them in your group and then in other groups present your activities and get acquainted with other ones.


Interactive Classroom Activities 1.Entry/Exit Tickets Entry & Exit tickets are short prompts that provide instructors with a quick student diagnostic. These exercises can be collected on 3”x5” cards, small pieces of paper, or online through a survey or course management system. Entry tickets focus student attention on the day’s topic or ask students to recall background knowledge relevant to the day’s lesson: e.g., “Based on the readings for class today, what is your understanding of ___________?” Exit tickets collect feedback on students’ understanding at the end of a class and provide the students with an opportunity to reflect on what they have learned. They can be helpful in prompting the student to begin to synthesize and integrate the information gained during a class period. For example, a muddiest point prompt: “What was the muddiest point in today’s class?” or “What questions do you still have about today’s lecture?”. Advantages of entrance and exit tickets include: participation of each student, prompt for students to focus on key concepts and ideas, a high return of information for the amount of time invested, important feedback for the instructor that can be useful to guide teaching decisions (e.g., course pacing, quick clarification of small misunderstandings, identification of student interests and questions). 2.Free Writing/Minute Paper/Question of the Day Exercise These are activities that prompt students to write a response to an open question and can be done at any time during a class. Writing activities are usually 1-2 minutes, and can focus on key questions and ideas or ask students to make predictions. These activities give students the opportunity to organize their own thoughts, or can be collected by the teacher to gain feedback from the students. Advantages include developing students’ abilities to think holistically and critically, and improving their writing skills. 3.Ice Breakers Ice Breakers are low-stakes activities that get students to interact and talk to each other, and encourage subsequent classroom interactions. They can be useful at the beginning of the semester: for example, asking students to introduce themselves to each other and what they would like to learn in the course. Advantages of icebreakers include: participation of each student, the creation of a sense of community and focusing students’ attention on material that will be covered during the class period. 4.Think–Pair–Share This type of activity first asks students to consider a question on their own, and then provides an opportunity for students to discuss it in pairs, and finally together with the whole class. The success of these activities depends on the nature of the questions posed. This activity works ideally with questions to encourage deeper thinking, problem-solving, and/or critical analysis. The group discussions are critical as they allow students to articulate their thought processes. The procedure is as follows: 1. Pose a question, usually by writing it on the board or projecting it. 2. Have students consider the question on their own (1 – 2 min). 3. Then allow the students form groups of 2-3 people. 4. Next, have students discuss the question with their partner and share their ideas and/or contrasting opinions (3 min). 5. Re-group as a whole class and solicit responses from some or all of the pairs (3 min). Advantages of the think-pair-share include the engagement of all students in the classroom (particularly the opport

Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-26; просмотров: 25; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы! Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - (0.011 с.)