Warrior i pose: step-by-step instructions



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Warrior i pose: step-by-step instructions



Медицина


Yoga Poses

Warrior i pose: step-by-step instructions

Stand in Tadasana (Mountain Pose). With an exhale, step or lightly jump your feet 31/2 to 4 feet apart. Raise your arms perpendicular to the floor (and parallel to each other), and reach actively through the little-finger sides of the hands toward the ceiling. Firm your scapulas against your back and draw them down toward the coccyx.

Turn your left foot in 45 to 60 degrees to the right and your right foot out 90 degrees to the right. Align the right heel with the left heel. Exhale and rotate your torso to the right, squaring the front of your pelvis as much as possible with the front edge of your mat. As the left hip point turns forward, press the head of the left femur back to ground the heel. Lengthen your coccyx toward the floor, and arch your upper torso back slightly.

With your left heel firmly anchored to the floor, exhale and bend your right knee over the right ankle so the shin is perpendicular to the floor. More flexible students should align their right thigh parallel to the floor.

Reach strongly through your arms, lifting the ribcage away from the pelvis. As you ground down through the back foot, feel a lift that runs up the back leg, across the belly and chest, and up into the arms. If possible, bring the palms together. Spread the palms against each other and reach a little higher through the pinky-sides of the hands. Keep your head in a neutral position, gazing forward, or tilt it back and look up at your thumbs.

Stay for 30 seconds to a minute. To come up, inhale, press the back heel firmly into the floor and reach up through the arms, straightening the right knee. Turn the feet forward and release the arms with an exhalation, or keep them extended upward for more challenge. Take a few breaths, then turn the feet to the left and repeat for the same length. When you’re finished, return to Tadasana.

King Pigeon Pose: Step-by-Step Instructions

Kneel upright, with your knees slightly narrower than hip width apart and your hips, shoulders, and head stacked directly above your knees. With your hands, press down against the back of your pelvis.

On an inhalation, tuck your chin toward your sternum and lean your head and shoulders back as far as you can without pushing your hips forward. Firm your shoulder blades against your back and lift the top of your sternum. When your chest is maximally lifted, gradually release your head back.

Before you arch all the way back and place your head and hands on the floor, bring your palms together in front of your sternum in Anjali Mudra. Then separate your hands and reach them overhead toward the floor behind you. Bring your hips forward enough to counterbalance the backward movement of the upper torso and head. Keep your thighs as perpendicular to the floor as possible as you drop back. Place your palms on the floor, fingers pointing toward your feet, then lower your crown to the floor as well.

Press your palms, lift your head slightly off the floor and raise your hips, opening your front groins as much as possible. Lifting your pelvis as much as possible, lengthen and extend your upper spine and walk your hands to your feet. As you do, lower your forearms to the floor. If possible, grip your ankles (or, if you’re very flexible, your calves). Dr aw your elbows toward each other until they’re shoulder width apart, and anchor them firmly on the floor. Extend your neck and place your forehead on the floor.

Take a full inhalation to expand your chest. Then, exhaling softly but thoroughly, press your shins and forearms against the floor; as you do, lengthen your tailbone toward the knees and lift your top sternum in the opposite direction.

Hold the pose for 30 seconds or longer, further expanding the chest with each inhale, softening the belly with each exhale. Then release your grip, walk your hands away from your feet, and push your torso back to upright with an inhale. Rest in Child’s Pose for a few breaths.

Упражнение 1

Переведите на русский:

Scapulas/ shoulder blades; coccyx; pelvis; femur; ribcage; sternum; upper torso; groins; tailbone; thigh; shin; calves; hips.

Упражнение 2

Переведите на английский:

Бакасана

1. Присесть на корточки, сдвинув стопы. Подошвы и пятки должны полностью покоиться на полу. Приподнять седалище от пола и балансировать.

2. Раздвинуть колени и наклонить туловище вперед.

3. Выдохнуть, завести руки за согнутые колени и положить ладони на пол.

4. Согнуть локти, поднять пятки от пола, подвинуть туловище еще больше вперед и поместить голени на заднюю поверхность верхней части рук около подмышек. Сделать 2-3 дыхания.

5. Выдохнуть, качнуть тело вперед и оторвать пальцы ног от пола.

6. Выпрямить руки и удерживать вес тела на кистях.

7. Оставаться в этом положении 20-30 секунд, дышать нормально.

8. Выдохнуть, согнуть локти, опустить туловище, опустить ноги от подмышек, встать на корточки и расслабиться.


Ebola

Symptoms

If you've seen the movie "Outbreak," you probably associate viruses like Ebola with massive bleeding coming out of all orifices of the body. While this isn't completely untrue, the actual symptoms of Ebola are not usually that macabre.

When Ebola enters a human it hangs out seemingly harmless for 2-21 days (typically 4-10), until the symptoms start appearing. First come the fever, chill, headache, muscle and joint aches, and tiredness. At this point, unless there is a known outbreak, the disease can often be confused for many other types of illnesses. And given the most common location of infection is in Africa, malaria is often the first disease that health care workers diagnose.

But then the disease quickly takes a turn for the worse. Patients start complaining of bloody diarrhea, severe sore throat, jaundice, vomiting and loss of appetite. When symptoms have been present for five days, about half of Ebola victims will develop a rash on their trunk and shoulders. And after this it can get really ugly.

While massive bleeding is actually rare, one of the prominent components of this infection is that patients start to hemorrhage. Their blood starts to clot all throughout their bodies and that quickly exhausts the supply of proteins that handle clots. So that means when tissue damage occurs in other parts of the body, those proteins aren't available to do their clotting work, resulting in uncontrolled bleeding. Now this happens for only about 50 percent of patients, and the uncontrolled bleeding is mostly internal, in the gastrointestinal tract. So while massive bleeding may occur from other parts of the body, it's pretty uncommon.

All of this trauma very quickly adds up to a bad outcome for many patients. For fatal cases, death occurs 6-16 days after the onset of symptoms. Generally that death is not a result of the hemorrhaging, but from multi-organ failure or shock.

Ebola acts quickly, but causes a lot of pain and suffering in its victims during that time. Since treatment options are unavailable (more on that later), it's safest to just stay away from the virus. Read on to learn what we know about how it started and how it spreads.

Упражнение 1

Переведите на русский:

Orifices of the body; muscle and joint aches; fever; chill; outbreak; diagnose; to take a turn for the worse; bloody diarrhea; jaundice; rash on trunk; to hemorrhage; blood starts to clot; to exhaust the supply of proteins; tissue damage; uncontrolled bleeding; gastrointestinal tract; death occurs; the onset of symptoms; multi-organ failure.

Упражнение 2

Переведите на английский:

Поддерживающая терапия; симптоматическое лечение; пероральная или внутривенная регидратация; повышает выживаемость; ИФА или иммуноферментный анализ; подавлять иммунную систему; вырабатывать антитела к вирусу; ПЦР или полимеразная цепная реакция; чувствителен к загрязнению; репликация/размножение вируса; уменьшить передачу инфекции; назначать вакцину; медикаментозная терапия.

Упражнение 3

Переведите на английский:

Body fluids

Body fluids found at a crime scene might include blood, semen, saliva, and vomit. To identify and collect these pieces of evidence, a CSI might use smear slides, a scalpel, tweezers, scissors, sterile cloth squares, a UV light, protective eyewear and luminol.

If the victim is dead and there is blood on the body, the CSI collects a blood sample either by submitting a piece of clothing or by using a sterile cloth square and a small amount of distilled water to remove some blood from the body. If the blood is on something that can't reasonably go to the lab, like a wall or a bathtub, the CSI can collect it by scraping it into a sterile container using a scalpel. The CSI may also use luminol and a portable UV light to reveal blood that has been washed off a surface.

If there is blood at the scene, there may also be blood spatter patterns. These patterns can reveal the type of weapon that was used -- for instance, a "cast-off pattern" is left when something like a baseball bat contacts a blood source and then swings back. The droplets are large and often tear-drop shaped. This type of pattern can indicate multiple blows from a blunt object, because the first blow typically does not contact any blood. A "high-energy pattern," on the other hand, is made up of many tiny droplets and may indicate a gun shot. Analyzing a blood pattern involves studying the size and shape of the stain, the shape and size of the blood droplets and the concentration of the droplets within the pattern.

Hair and Fiber Collection

Clothing and other materials are carefully packaged in sealed paper bags and sent to a lab. For extraction, the evidence is taken into a processing room, which provides a clean, sealed environment that is temperature- and humidity-controlled. Hair and fibers are removed through a combination of scraping, picking, vacuum sweeping, combing or clipping. Then, they are placed on glass microscopic slides for identification and comparison.

Experts look at a variety of different physical characteristics of hair, including the shaft diameter, pigment granules and cross-sectional shape. They also examine a hair’s cuticle, the translucent outer layer of the hair shaft consisting of scales, and the medulla, a central core of cells present in some hair types.

 

DNA Analysis

A small segment of the DNA chain can be isolated and printed on photographic paper. This “print out” of a person’s genetic code can then be used as evidence to connect a suspect to a crime, or maybe to prove his or her innocence.

DNA is found in body fluids. If liquid blood is being collected, a portion of it will be absorbed onto a clean cotton cloth or swab. A portion of the swab or cloth also will be left unstained to use as a control. After the blood has air-dried it is packed in a clean paper envelope with sealed corners. The exact same process is used to collect dried body fluids, only the cloth or swab is first moistened with distilled water. DNA evidence might also be obtained from other sources such as cigarette butts, chewing gum and envelopes and stamps that have been licked.

Fingerprints

Tools for recovering fingerprints include brushes, powders, tape, chemicals, lift cards, a magnifying glass and Super Glue. A crime lab can use fingerprints to identify the victim or identify or rule out a suspect. There are several types of prints a CSI might find at a crime scene:

Visible: Left by the transfer of blood, paint or another fluid or powder onto a surface that is smooth enough to hold the print; evident to the naked eye.

Molded: Left in a soft medium like soap, putty or candle wax, forming an impression.

Latent: Left by the transfer of sweat and natural oils from the fingers onto a surface that is smooth enough to hold the print; not visible to the naked eye.

Упражнение 1

Прочитайте транслемы и добавьте, где необходимо, неопределенный артикль и частицу “to”. Переведите на русский:

Gun-shot residue; paint residue; collect trace evidence; tweezers; biohazard kit; disposable latex gloves; booties; face mask; gown; biohazard waste bag; body fluids; semen; saliva; vomit; smear slides; scalpel; sterile cloth squares; UV light; protective eyewear; collect a blood sample; distilled water; scrape evidence into a sterile container; blood spatter patterns; cast-off pattern; swing back; droplets; multiple blows from a blunt object; absorb onto a clean cotton cloth; swab; cigarette butts; shaft diameter; cross-sectional shape; hair’s cuticle; scales; medulla; magnifying glass; footwear Impressions; tool marks; make a casting at the scene; let it set.

Упражнение 2

Переведите на английский:

Step-by Step Heart Surgery

For Dr. Jai Raman, an open heart was love at first sight. Twenty years later, he vividly remembers when he was a surgical resident seeing his first open chest cavity, a beating heart before him. "When I saw it, it was one of those things that was almost immediate," he says. "It grabs you."

Both Raman and the field of cardiology have come a long way since then. Raman, who is a cardiac and thoracic surgeon at the University of Chicago Medical Center, helped develop "the wrap procedure," or ventricular containment. This procedure uses a mesh bag to stop the heart from enlarging; it's mainly used in patients with heart failure. He has performed more than 2500 heart operations and more than 700 thoracic procedures (such as removal of part of a lung). Here, Raman walks us through the basics of a surgical how-to. It should go without saying, but: Don't try this at home.

Упражнение 1

Переведите на русский:

The wrap procedure; a cardiac and thoracic surgeon; a ventricular containment; heart failure; analgesia, sedation and paralysis; the patient is under; the sternum; an oscillating saw; to remove casts; a retractor; to disrupt tissue; to burst a vessel; a bypass surgery; sutures; electrocautery / to cauterize; diathermy; the pericardium; the left atrium; a heart-lung machine / cardiopulmonary bypass machine; to oxygenate; an aortic valve; a heart transplant; incisions; soft tissue; absorbable; invasive procedures.

Упражнение 2

Переведите письменно на английский, особо обращая внимание на перевод выделенных словосочетаний:

Пересадка (трансплантация) сердца– комплексная операция по полной пересадке донорского сердечного органа. Основным показанием к трансплантации является терминальная фаза сердечной недостаточности, когда есть прямая угроза жизни больному и нет перспектив выжить без трансплантации.

Привлекательность этой операции, широко разрекламированной в конце 1960-х годов, значительно померкла, когда выяснилось, что она сопряжена с почти непреодолимыми проблемами, которые создает отторжение чужеродных тканей или применение средств, подавляющих реакцию отторжения. Однако в начале 1980-х годов с появлением новых медикаментозных средств, противодействующих отторжению, количество операций по пересадке сердца резко возросло.

Выбирая тактику операции, нужно определить, насколько быстро ухудшается состояние больного и какова вероятность, что он проживет следующие 6-12 мес без трансплантации. В целом, если фракция выброса левого желудочка ниже 15-20% и имеются угрожающие жизни желудочковые аритмии, смертность превышает 50% в год, но в каждом случае оценить прогноз очень трудно. Все более широкое применение операции в условиях нехватки доноров привело к тому, что часто срок ожидания операции превышает 2 года. В это время тщательно наблюдают за общим состоянием больных, водным и электролитным балансом и функцией почек, активно лечат сердечную недостаточность.

Сердце реципиента иссекают, оставляя задние стенки предсердий в местах впадения полых и легочных вен (чтобы не накладывать затем венозные анастомозы). Донорское сердце иссекают аналогичным образом. Сшивают предсердия донора и реципиента, аорту и легочную артерию.

После трансплантации сердца с предшествующим вспомогательным кровообращением смертность в течение года та же, что и без вспомогательного кровообращения.

Упражнение 3

Переведите с листа на английский:

Urinary Tract Infection

Author information

Abstract

The most frequent and best-studied agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) is Escherichia coli, which serves as a useful model pathogen for understanding microbial virulence in relation to UTI pathogenesis. The E. coli strains that cause most UTIs and other extraintestinal E. coli infections represent a highly specialized subset of the total E. coli population. The enhanced virulence potential of such strains, which collectively are known as uropathogenic E. coli or extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), is thought to be caused mainly by their multiple virulence factors. These virulence factors include diverse adhesins, siderophores, toxins, polysaccharide coatings, and other properties that assist the bacteria in avoiding or subverting host defenses, injuring or invading host cells and tissues, and stimulating a noxious inflammatory response. Although the true evolutionary basis for ExPEC is unknown, the virulence factors of ExPEC serve as useful epidemiologic markers and in the future may provide effective targets for anti-UTI interventions.

Abstract

Six adult male nonrefluxing monkeys were experimentally infected by inoculation of P-fimbriated E. coli into the bladder. Eight control monkeys were inoculated with a non-P-fimbriated E. coli strain. Inoculation with the P-fimbriated E. coli resulted in marked leukocytosis, prolonged bacteriuria and loss of renal function with a 66 per cent incidence of pyelonephritis. Death secondary to bilateral pyelonephritis was seen in 2 monkeys inoculated with P-fimbriated E. coli. Pyelonephritis was not seen in any of the monkeys inoculated with non-P-fimbriated E. coli. The study shows that ascending pyelonephritis can occur in monkeys in the absence of vesicoureteral reflux.

Упражнение 1

Переведите на русский:

Urinary tract infection (UTI), Escherichia coli, strains, to avoid or subvert host defenses, inflammatory response, ascending pyelonephritis, inoculation, the bladder, renal function, incidence, death secondary to, to occur in monkeys, gram-negative bacteria, bacteriuria, the causative agent .

Fig.1

E.coli


Клинические испытания

 

Клиническое исследование – научное исследование с участием людей, которое проводится для оценки эффективности и безопасности лекарственного препарата. Все клинические исследования проводятся с соблюдением специальных международных правил надлежащей клинической практики (GCP – Good Clinical Practice).

Упражнение 1

Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующим английским терминам. Дайте определения на английском языке.

Side effects, dosage levels, the efficacy of a drug, randomized trials, control group, blind testing, double blind testing, placebo, placebo-controlled testing.

Упражнение 2

Сделайте реферативный перевод текста «Клинические испытания».

Упражнение 3

Переведите с листа на английский:

Clinical Trials

Упражнение 4

Устный перевод в парах. Студент А зачитывает для перевода текст Inclusion Criteria, студент Б зачитывает текст Exclusion Criteria на стр. ???

Упражнение 5

Переведите письменно на русский:

Subjects

A total of 115 volunteers were recruited for the study. All subjects tolerated the procedure without complication. Recruitment was weighted towards parous females, as this is representative of the patient cohort that usually present for assessment of anal sphincter function (10, 11). Parous females were significantly older than non-parous females (P = 0.001). Within the parous group (N=62), 16 had more than two vaginal deliveries, 3 had two or more deliveries requiring instrumental assistance, 6 had two or more deliveries associated with episiotomy, and 4 had two or more deliveries associated with a perineal tear. Quantitative values for each manoeuvre are shown for all females, nulliparous females, parous females and males in table 3.

Equipment

HRAM was performed using a solid-state catheter (UniTip: UniSensor AG, Switzerland), of external diameter 12 F, incorporating 12 microtransducers, each of which measured circumferential pressure by means of a unidirectional pressure sensor embedded within silicone gel. Ten of these sensors were spaced 0.8 cm apart, spanning 7.2 cm. The most proximal microtransducer was located within a non-latex balloon 3.3 cm proximal to these. The most distal sensor (located 2 cm below the most distal of the central 10 sensors) was used as an external reference.

Before every study, the catheter was immersed in tepid water for at least 3 minutes to pre-wet the sensors. Sensors were then zeroed to atmospheric pressure. Data acquisition, online visualization and signal processing were performed using a commercially available manometric system (Solar GI HRM v9.1, Medical Measurement Systems (MMS), Enschede, Netherlands).

Protocol

Each subject was instructed to defaecate if required prior to investigation. No bowel preparation was given. All subjects were studied in the left-lateral position with knees and hips flexed. Prior to catheter insertion, a digital rectal examination was performed and the ability of the subject to understand the commands “squeeze” and “push” were confirmed.

All test manoeuvres were performed in accordance with published guidelines (2). To perform the study, the catheter was inserted into the anorectum with the distal 2 microtransducers visible (the second most distal being located immediately outside of the anal verge). This is important, as if the second most distal sensor is inserted past the anal verge; interpolation of recorded pressures would provide an artificially elongated anal canal length.

Following a 3 minute run-in period for the purposes of familiarisation, manoeuvres were performed in a standard sequence with a 30 second recovery period between each manoeuvre (figure 1): rest - anorectal pressures were measured with the subject relaxed, lying still and not speaking for a period of 1 minute; squeeze - the subject was instructed to squeeze the anal canal as strongly possible for a period of 5 seconds; endurance squeeze - the subject was asked to squeeze the anal canal as strongly as possible for a period of 30 seconds; push (simulated defaecation) - whilst still lying in the left lateral position, the subject was asked to bear down for 5 seconds as if to defecate; cough - the subject was asked to cough forcefully once on 2 occasions. Duration of the familiarisation period and minimum manoeuvre number were determined from a pilot study of 50 volunteers who underwent an extended protocol (5 minute rest period, five 5 sec squeezes, two 30 sec squeezes, two pushes, and two coughs).

For squeeze, push and cough manoeuvres, the first attempt was used as practice, and the second attempt used for analysis. In the unusual event of poor participant compliance, a further attempt was allowed at the practitioner’s discretion.

Data analysis

For each manoeuvre period, the anal canal area was highlighted as an ‘area of interest’ using the e- sleeve box (figure 2). This allowed the software to derive the maximum pressure recorded over this anal length at each point in time (sampling rate 10 Hz). Averages were then calculated automatically over the duration of the manoeuvre. The variables recorded, together with their respective definitions, are shown in table 1.

Упражнение 6

Переведите письменно на русский:

Выражение признательности

Исследование финансировалось «ИнКьюФарм Юроп Лтд.». Мы выражаем благодарность Норману Биттерлиху и Регине Буш за помощь в проведении исследования. Настоящее исследование зарегистрировано под номером: NCT01233349.


 

Медицина


Yoga Poses

Warrior i pose: step-by-step instructions

Stand in Tadasana (Mountain Pose). With an exhale, step or lightly jump your feet 31/2 to 4 feet apart. Raise your arms perpendicular to the floor (and parallel to each other), and reach actively through the little-finger sides of the hands toward the ceiling. Firm your scapulas against your back and draw them down toward the coccyx.

Turn your left foot in 45 to 60 degrees to the right and your right foot out 90 degrees to the right. Align the right heel with the left heel. Exhale and rotate your torso to the right, squaring the front of your pelvis as much as possible with the front edge of your mat. As the left hip point turns forward, press the head of the left femur back to ground the heel. Lengthen your coccyx toward the floor, and arch your upper torso back slightly.

With your left heel firmly anchored to the floor, exhale and bend your right knee over the right ankle so the shin is perpendicular to the floor. More flexible students should align their right thigh parallel to the floor.

Reach strongly through your arms, lifting the ribcage away from the pelvis. As you ground down through the back foot, feel a lift that runs up the back leg, across the belly and chest, and up into the arms. If possible, bring the palms together. Spread the palms against each other and reach a little higher through the pinky-sides of the hands. Keep your head in a neutral position, gazing forward, or tilt it back and look up at your thumbs.

Stay for 30 seconds to a minute. To come up, inhale, press the back heel firmly into the floor and reach up through the arms, straightening the right knee. Turn the feet forward and release the arms with an exhalation, or keep them extended upward for more challenge. Take a few breaths, then turn the feet to the left and repeat for the same length. When you’re finished, return to Tadasana.



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