Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 18



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 18



on-board environment — бортовое окружение pattern recognition — распознавание образов

TESTS

1. Выберите вариант, который лучше всего выражает глав­
ную идею текста 2.

a) Computers are devices that accept information in the form of instructions.

в) The switches are usualy in one of two states: magne­tized or demagnetized.

c) Computers are remarkable devices serving for process­ing and storage the information and for solving problems.

Вставьте необходимые слова вместо пропусков.

1. Information is given into the computer in the form of

a) ideas; b) characters; c) rules

2. The basic function of a computer is____ information.

a) to switch; b) to keep; c) to process

3. The data needed for solving problems are kept in the

a) memory; b) input device; c) output device

4. Inputting information into the computer is realized by
means of_____ .

a) a printer; b) letters; c) diskettes

5. A computer can carry out arithmetic-logical operations

a) quickly; b) instantaneously; c) during some minutes

6. Computers have become___ in homes, offices, research

institutes.

a) commonwealth; b) commonplace; c) common room

7. Space_____ uses computers widely.

a) information; b) production; c) exploration

8. Computers are used for image____ .

a) processing; b) operating; c) producing

9. Computers help in_____ of economy.

a) invironment; b) management; c) government.


19 Unit 1. Information-Dependent Society

10. Air traffic control depends on computer-__ informa­
tion.
a) generated; b) instructed; c) combined

3. Подберите к терминам, данным в левой колонке, опре­деления, представленные справа.

1. Computera) a machine by which information is re-

ceived from the computer;

2. Datab) a device capable of storing and manip-

ulating numbers, letters and charac­ters;

3. Input devicec) an electronic machine that processes

data under the control of a stored pro­gram;

4. Memoryd) a disk drive reading the information

into the computer;

5. Output devicee) information given in the form of char-

Acters.

 


 


Unit 2

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROELECTRONICS

1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.

applied physics — прикладная физика

generation [d33na'reijn] — создание, формирование, вы­работка

scientific research [saisn'tifik n'satj] — научные исследо­вания

due to the efforts ['dju: ta дэ 'efsts] — благодаря усилиям

manipulation [msenipju'leijn] — управление; обработка;

преобразование

to replace vacuum tubes — заменять электронные лампы a piece of semiconductor ['semiksn'dAkts] — полупровод­никовый кристалл

reduced weight [ri'dju:st 'weit] — уменьшенный вес power consumption ['раиэ kan'sAmpJn] — потребление

(расход) электроэнергии

to carry out ['keen aut] — выполнять; осуществлять solid body — твердое тело; кристалл; полупроводник to respond [n'spond] — отвечать; реагировать at a rate — со скоростью integrated circuit (1С) [mts'greitid 'sakit] — интегральная

схема

batch processing ['bsetf prou'sesirj] — пакетная обработка to assemble [s'sembl] — собирать; монтировать

to lower manufacturing [Чоиэ manju'fasktfanr)] — снизить производительность

to increase reliability ['mkris nlais'bihti] — увеличить на­дежность


21 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics

2. Прочтитетекст и скажите, чтоизучает электроника и какие открытия способствовали ее развитию.

Text 1.DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONICS

Electronics is a field of engineering and applied physics deal­ing with the design and application of electronic circuits. The operation of circuits depends on the flow of electrons for gen­eration, transmission, reception and storage of information.

Today it is difficult to imagine our life without electronics. It surrounds us everywhere. Electronic devices ajre. widely used in scientific research and industrial designing, they control the work of plants and power stations, calculate the trajectories of space-ships and help the people discover new phenomena of nature. Automatization of production processes and studies onliving organisms became possible due to electronics.

The invention of vacuum tubes at the beginning of the 20th century was, the starting point of the rapid growth of modern electronics. Vacuum tubes assisted in manipulation of signals. The development of a large variety of tubes designed for spe­cialized functions made possible the progress in radio commu­nication technology before the World Vfar II and in the creation of early computers during and shortly after the war.

The transistor invented by American scientists WShockly, J.Bardeen and WBrattain in 1948 completely replaced the vac-


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 22

uum tube. The transistor, a small piece of a semiconductor with three electrodes, had great advantages over the best vacuum tubes. It provided the same functions as the vacuum tube but at reduced weight, cost, power consumption, and with high reli­ability. With the invention of the transistor all essential circuit functions could be carried out inside solid bodies. The aim of creating electronic circuits with entirely solid-state components had finally been realized. Early transistors could respond at a rate of a few million times a second. This was fast enough to serve in radio circuits, but far below the speed needed for high­speed computers or for microwave communication systems.

The progress in semiconductor technology led to the devel­opment of the integrated circuit (1С), which was discovered due to the efforts of John Kilby in 1958. There appeared a new field of science — integrated electronics. The essence of it is batch processing. Instead of making, testing and assembling descrete components on a chip one at a time, large groupings of these components together with their interconnections were made all at a time. 1С greatly reduced the size of devices, lowered man­ufacturing costs and at the same time they provided high speed and increased reliability.

3. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис­
пользуя информацию текста.

1. What is electronics? 2, Can you imagine modern life with­out electronics? 3. Where are electronic devices used? 4. What was the beginning of electronics development? 5. What made the progress in radio communication technology possible? 6. What is the transistor? 7. When w?s the transistor invented?

8. What aim was realized with the invention of the transistor?

9. When were integrated circuits discovered? 10. What advan­
tages did the transistors have over the vacuum tubes?

4. Догадайтесь о значении следующих интернациональных

слов и словосочетаний:

Electronics; electrons; physics; information; microelectron­ics; industrial design; to calculate trajectories; phenomena of nature; automatization of production processes; organisms; vac­uum tubes; specialized functions; progress in radio communi­cation technology; transistor; electrode; components; to real-


23 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics

ize; communication system; technology; descrete components; chip.

5. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:

Прикладная физика; передача и прием информации; по­ток электронов; трудно представить; научные исследования; промышленное проектирование; вычислять траекторию кос­мических кораблей; обнаруживать явления природы; благо­даря электронике; отправная точка; способствовать управ­лению сигналами; быстрый рост; разнообразие ламп; создание первых компьютеров; полностью заменил; полу­проводниковый кристалл; уменьшить вес; сократить сто­имость; потребление электроэнергии; высокая надеж­ность; твердотельные компоненты; довольно быстро... но гораздо ниже; высокоскоростной компьютер; микроволно­вые системы связи; полупроводниковая технология; об­ласть науки; интегральная схема; пакетная обработка; сборка дискретных компонентов на кристалле; снизить производственные затраты; обеспечить высокую скорость.

6. Переведите следующие «цепочки существительных».
Запомните, что переводить ряд существительных, не
связанных предлогами, следует, как правило, с конца.

Power consumption; power consumption change; signals manipulation; transistor invention; circuit functions; commu­nication systems, data processing system; integrated circuits development; science field; process control; automatization pro­cesses control; circuit components; size reduction; electronics development; communication means; problem solution; space exploration; pattern recognition; customers accounts; air traf­fic control.

7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

performance [ps'focrnans] — рабочая характеристика; па­раметры; производительность; быстродействие

to predict [pra'dikt] — прогнозировать capability [keips'bihti] — способность; возможность branch of science ['braintf sv 'saisns] — область науки to embrace [imijreis] — охватывать


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 24

circuit assembly ['sakit s'sembh] — сборка схемы

film technique ['film tgk'mk] — пленочная технология

(метод, способ) invisible to unaided eye — невидимый невооруженному

глазу

to react [n'askt] — реагировать

speed of response — скорость реакции (отклика)

advantage / disadvantage [3d'va:ntid3] — достоинство, пре­имущество / недостаток

benefit ['benefit] — выгода, польза; помогать, приносить пользу

to result from [п'глИ fram] — возникать, происходить в результате

packing density ['psekirj 'densiti]— плотность упаковки

small-scale integrated circuit — малая интегральная схе­ма (МИС)

medium-scale 1С — средняя интегральная схема (СИС) large-scale 1С — большая интегральная схема (БИС)

very-large-scale 1С — сверхбольшая интегральная схема (СБИС)

fineline ['fainlam] — прецизионный; с элементами уменьшенных размеров

transmission line — линия передачи

waveguide ['weivgaid] — волновод

to emerge [i'mad3] — появляться, возникать

to displace — перемещать, смещать

mode — вид, метод, способ; режим работы

pattern — шаблон, образец; образ, изображение

power ['раиэ] — мощность, энергия, питание; произво­дительность, быстродействие; способность, возмож­ность


25 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics

8. Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, как вы понимаете терми­ны «микроэлектроника» и «микроминиатюризация». Переведите текст.

Text 2. MICROELECTRONICS AND MICROMINIATURIZATION

The intensive effort of electronics to increase the reliability and performance of its products while reducing their size and cost led to the results that hardly anyone could predict. The evolution of electronic technology js sometimes called a revo­lution: a quantitative change in technology gave rise to qualita­tive change in human capabilities. There appeared a new branch of science — microelectronics.

Microelectronics embraces electronics connected with the realization of electronic circuits, systems and subsystems from very small electronic devices. NJicxaelfifitrQnics jaLa-name ft* extremely small electronic components and circuit assemblies, made by film or semiconductor techniques. A microelectronic technology reduced transistors and other circuit elements to dimensions almost invisible to unaided eye. The point of this extraordinary miniaturization is to make circuits long-lasting, low in cost, and capable of performing electronic functions at extremely high speed. It is_ known that the speed of response depends on the size of transistor: the smaller the transistor, the faster it is. The smaller the computer, the faster it can work.

One more advantage of microelectronics is that smaller de­vices consume less power. In space satellites and spaceships this is a very important factor.

Another benefit resulting from microelectronics is the reduc­tion of distances between circuit components. Packing density increased with the appearance of small-scale integrated circuit, medium-scale 1С, large-scale 1С and very-large-scale 1С. The change in scale was pieasured_by the number of transistors on a chip. There appeared a new type of integrated circuits, micro­wave integrated circuit. The evolution of microwave 1С began with the development of planar transmission lines.Then new 1С components in a fineline transmission line appeared. Other more exotic techniques, such as dielectric waveguide integrat­ed circuits emerged.


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 26

Microelectronic technique is continuing to displace other modes. Circuit patterns are being formed with radiation having wavelength shorter than those of light.

Electronics has extended man's intellectual power. Micro­electronics extends that power still further.

9. Просмотрите текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, ис­
пользуя информацию текста.

1. What would you say about electronics? 2. Why is the de­velopment of electronics called a revolution? 3. What is micro­electronics? 4. What techniques does microelectronics use?

5. What is the benefit of reducing the size of circuit elements?

6. What do you understand by the term of microminiaturiza­
tion? 7. What does the speed of the signal response depend on?
8. What advantages of microelectronics do you know? 9. What
scales of integration are known to you? 10. How are microelec­
tronics techniques developing?

10. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:

Интенсивные усилия; увеличить надежность; увеличить параметры; уменьшить размер и стоимость; вряд ли кто-нибудь мог прогнозировать; количественные и качествен­ные изменения; область науки; пленочная технология; полупроводниковый метод; сокращать элементы схемы; суть миниатюризации в том, что; создать схемы с долгим сроком службы; чрезвычайно высокая скорость реакции; чем меньше, тем быстрее; преимущество; расходовать энергию; польза; уменьшение расстояния между элемен­тами схемы; большая интегральная схема; микроволновая интегральная схема; волновод; линия передач; смещать; изображение схем; расширять возможности человека.

11. Переведите следующие слова. Обратите внимание на
то, что префиксы dis-, in-, un-y поп-, *г- придают сло­
вам отрицательное значение.

dis-: disadvantage; disconnect; disappear, disclose; discom­fort; discontinue; discount; discredit; discriminate; disintegrate.

in-: invisible; inaccurate; inactive; incapable; incompact; insignificant; inhuman; informal; ineffective; indifferent; inde­cisive; inconsumable; incorrect.


27 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics

ил-; uncontrollable; unbelievable; unable; unchanged; un­comfortable; uncommunicative; undisciplined; unexpected; unfavourable; unforgettable; unkind.

поп-: non-effective; non-aggressive; noncomparable; non-computable; nonconstant; noncontrollable; nondigital; nondi-mensional; nonprogrammable; nonusable.

//•-; irregular; irrelative; irresponsive; irrational; irreplaceable; irrecognizable.

12. Вспомните образование страдательного залога — to be
(в нужном времени) + 3-я форма глагола.

А. Найдите пять случаев употребления страдательного залога в тексте 1 и четыре случая — в тексте 2. Переведи-те предложения.

Б. Преобразуйте следующие предложения действительно­го залога в страдательный по образцу:

People widely use electronic devices-Electronic devices are widely used by people.

1. Electronic devices control the work of power stations. 2. They calculate the trajectories of spaceships. 3. People dis­cover new phenomena of nature due to electronic devices.

4. Scientists designed a variety of tubes for specialized functions.

5. American scientists invented the transistor in 1948. 6. Inte­
grated circuits greatly reduced the size of devices. 7. New types
of integrated circuits increased packing density. 8. Electronics
has extended man's intellectual power. 9. Scientists are looking
for new ways for the improvement of integrated circuits tech­
nology. 10. Jack Kilby developed the concept of integrating de­
vice and built the first 1С in 1958.

13. Прочтите текст (по вариантам) и озаглавьте его. Вы­
полните письменный перевод текста по вариантам.

* * *

1. It is well known that the quick development of electron­ics began with the invention of transistors. They replaced elec­tronic tubes due to their numerous advantages. One of the main advantages of the transistors in comparison with the vacuum tube is absence of filament power loss. One of the principal caus-


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 28

es of damages in electronic circuitry is high temperature. The heat causes breakdown of tubes and other circuit elements that are very sensitive to this influence. The transistor, on the other hand, does not heat its surroundings.

Another advantage of the transistor is its long life. The life of the average transistor is more than ten thousand operating hours. Because of its long lifetime and raggedness, the transis­tor is very reliable and has much better efficiency in professional equipment.

2. As we know, transistors replaced electronic tubes due to their numerous advantages. One of the advantages of the tran­sistor is its small dimensions. Because of their small size, the absence of heating and other properties, transistors make it pos­sible to produce compact, small-dimensioned electronic devices which consume very little power.

In conclusion it is important to note that transistors revolu­tionized many fields of technology. They are successfully used for direct transformation of heat energy by means of thermal elements. They are also used to convert radiant energy into elec­tricity with the help of photocells or solar batteries. Light sources and lasers are built on the basis of transistors. They find wide application in computers, automatic devices, aviation, commu­nication, etc.

Notes ________________________________________

Filament power loss — отсутствие энергии на нити нака­ла

TESTS 1. Вставьте необходимые слова вместо пропусков.

1. Transistors have many____ over vacuum tubes.

a) patterns; b) advantages; c) scales

2. They_____ very little power.

a) consume; b) generate; c) embrace

3. An integrated circuit is a group of elements connected
together by some circuit_____ technique.

a) processing; b) assembly; c) manipulation


29 Unit 2. Development of Microelectronics

4. The transistor consists of a small piece of a____ with

three electrods.

a) diode; b) conductor; c) semiconductor.

5. Modern_____ began in the early 20th century with the

invention of electronic tubes.

a) miniaturization; b) electronics; c) microelectronics

6. John Fleming was the______ of the first two-electrode

vacuum tube.

a) generator; b) receiver; c) inventor

7. One of the transistor advantages was lower power___ ,

in comparison with vacuum tubes.

a) consumption; b) reception; c) transmission.

8. Microelectronics greatly extended man's intellectual

a) subsystems; b) capabilities; c) dimensions

2. Раскройте скобки и выберите глагол в требуемом зало­ге: действительном или страдательном.

1. Electronic devices (help; are helped) people discover new phenomena of nature. 2. The transistor (replaced; was replaced) by vacuum tubes thanks to its numerous advantages. 3. Due to transistors all circuit functions (carried out; were carried out) inside semiconductors. 4. Electronic devices (use; are used) in scientific research. 5. Before the invention of the transistor its function (performed; was performed) by vacuum tubes. 6. The reliability of electronic systems (connect; is connected) with the number of descrete components. 7. Semiconductor integrated circuits (helped; were helped) to increase reliability of devices. 8. New types of integrated circuits (have developed; have been developed) lately.


Unit3

HISTORY OF COMPUTERS



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