VIII. Answer the following questions


1. What is the system of higher education in Great Britain? 2. Wha t does higher education consist of? 3. What can you say about the increase of higher education students’ number? 4. How many Universities are there in Great Britain at present? 5. Who is every university responsible to? 6. For how many years are university degree courses taken? 7. What does university teaching combine? 8. Where is a traditional feature of Cambridge and Oxford? 9. How many years do first degree courses last? 10. What courses does University offer? 11. Who does the government encourage? 12. Why does the government encourage young people? 13. What do students on first degree receive? 14. What do parents contribute? 15. What can students take out to help pay their maintenance costs?

IX. Speak on the text ”Higher education in Great Britain”

Grammar

The Past Indefinite Tense

I. Give the forms of the Past Indefinite:

To write, to drink, to speak, to think, to choose, to prepare, to come, to go, to be, to begin, to exist, to become, to show, to have, to do, to make, to find, to save, to know, to rise, to lie, to live, to strike.

II. Give the Negative and Interrogative forms of the Past Indefinite

1. Bob came home late. 2. She gave them her dictionary. 3. He took a shower. 4. Ann brought me a new magazine. 5. He left for London on Monday. 6. He opened the window before classes. 7. Ann translated a lot of foreign letters last week. 8. I finished work at five o’clock. 9. He lived in Kyiv three years ago. 10. They returned home in the evening. 11. It heavily rained on Sunday. 12. My friend lay in the sun last summer. 13. I played chess with him yesterday. 14. She spoke English fluently. 15. He paid the money yesterday. 16. She remembered every word. 17. She got an excellent mark. 18. My parents met me at the station. 19. You thought he was right. 20. They admired her singing very much.

III. Use the verbs below to complete the sentences. Some of the sentences are positive, some are negative, and some are questions

1. Oh, I’m sorry to disturb you. I ... you had a visitor. 2. ... you ... economics when you were at University? 3. She ... ... because the salary was too low. 4. Last week a number of customers ... about slow service. 5. ... you ... the Acropolis when you were on Greece? 6. I am writing with reference to the order I ... with you last week. 7. At last year’s launch party, who ... you ... to do the catering?

 

to accept, to complain, to hire, to place, to realize, to study, to visit.

IV. Translate the following sentences into English , using the Past Indefinite Tense

1. Я подивився на дошку і переписав нові слова. 2. Де ви жили минулого року? Я жив у Києві. 3. Ми вчора не обговорили багато питань. 4. Коли ви в останній раз обговорювали правила дорожнього руху? 5. Вони відповіли на багато листівок минулого місяця. 6. Дівчина зайшла до кімнати і стала біля вікна. 7. Я купив цей годинник п’ять років тому.

V. Change the following sentences into disjunctive questions

1. They met at the cinema five minutes before the showing began. 2. He took his parents way. 3. They listened to a wonderful concert last night. 4. He didn’t go to the country last summer. 5. He began to work at an early age.

The Future Indefinite Tense

VI. Make these sentences negative and interrogative

1. I shall take my examination in English on Monday.

2. He will meet me at the station.

3. They will take a taxi.

4. There will be a concert here today.

5. I shall come home in half an hour.

6. My friend will take a room facing the street.

7. He will be twenty next Sunday.

8. They will enjoy staying here.

VII. Put the following sentences in the Future Tense

1. They came by car. 2. Did you easily find this street? 3. I helped her with her home-reading. 3. He lives on the outskirts of a little town by the sea. 5. Do you study English at the Institute? 6. Where did you buy such a lovely dress? 7. It rains at this time of year. 8. What does your decision depend on?

VIII. Insert the missing conjunctions and comment on the use of tenses in the following sentences (Conjunctions to be used: when, till, before, after, as soon as, while, if)

1. I shall believe it ... I see it. 2. You must wait ... the light changes to green. 3. I shall be ready ... you count ten. 4. He will ring up for the taxi ... you finish packing. 5. I shall tell you a secret ... my brother goes out. 6. We shall be starting immediately ... you finish your dinner. 7. I don’t think he will write ... he arrives. 8. I shall always remember you ... I live. 9. I shall be preparing breakfast ... you are taking a shower. 10. I shall put on my raincoat ... it starts to rain. 11. He’ll tell you ... you ask him. 12. ... you stay in the reading-hall I’ll be working in the laboratory. 13. He will stay here ... you come. 14. ... they show me their homework, I will correct it.



IX. Translate what is given in brackets, using the Present Indefinite or the Future Indefinite

1. You will enjoy yourself if you (поїдете на Кавказ). 2. Ask him if he (поїде на Кавказ). 3. We shan’t be able to go out if (буде сильний дощ). 4. They say (буде сильний дощ) at night, the clouds are gathering. 5. I don’t know when he (прийде), the weather is so nasty . 6. Tell him to wait when he (прийде), I may be late. 7. Tell mother we (нескоро повернемося), it’s much too far away. 8. Tell mother not to worry if we (не скоро повернемося), it’s much too far away. 9. I’ll talk to him about it if I (побачу його сьогодні). 10. I’m not sure if I (побачу його сьогодні). 11. She will take the children out for a walk if she (закінчить роботу раніш). 12. I don’t know if she (закінчить роботу раніш), she has got a lot to do. 13. The rain won’t do him any harm if he (одягне плащ). 14. Ask him if he (одягне плащ), it looks like rain.

 

 

Unit 6

Topic: Economy of Ukraine

Grammar: The Continuous Tenses. Participle I.

I. Read the following words

Natural, resources, minerals, satisfy, energy, structure, considerable , chemical, emphasis, process, equipment, husbandry, wheat, variety, widespread, dairy, interrelated, assertion, centralized, sugar, budget, commercial, privatization, medium.

II. Read and translate the following text

Economy of Ukraine

Ukraine is an agro-industrial country.

Ukraine is rich in natural resources. The main minerals are iron ore, coal, rock salt cement, gypsum uranium, different metals and other natural resources .

Ukraine fully satisfies its needs in minerals but it still has to import some of them. So, oil and gas are imported from Russia and Turkmenistan as the oil and gas deposits of Ukraine cannot satisfy country’s needs in these energy resources.

In the current structure of Ukraine’s industry a great proposition is occupied by heavy industry, especially, the iron, and steel, machine-building and coal industries.

A considerable part is played by the food, light and chemical industries.

Defence industry is being restructured and converted with emphasis on the output of consumer goods.

However, today’s industries are unable to satisfy the consumers’ wants because they are not integrated into the world process of economic , technological and scientific progress. The national industries have low standard in processing raw material and outdated and worn-out production equipment.

Ukraine is one of the world’s most productive farming regions and is known as ”Europe’s granary”.

There are two main branches of agricultural production in Ukraine : crop production and animal husbandry.

Among the crops grown in Ukraine are sugar beet, wheat, rye, barley, oats, corn, sunflower, a large variety of grain cultures, fruit and vegetables.

The most widespread branches of animal husbandry are dairy and beef cattle breeding and pig raising.

Two interrogated processes characterize Ukraine’s economy today, namely its assertion as that of an independent state, and its transition from planned-centralized to market-controlled.

Ukraine has currently achieved macroeconomic stability. Prices, domestic and foreign trade have been liberalized. An austere monetary policy has been introduced. Tax and budget systems are also being reformed. A twin-level banking structure took shape: the National Bank of Ukraine, and commercial banks of all types and forms of property .

”Small-scale” privatization is nearly completed in Ukraine today. Privatization has sped up for large and medium size enterprises, including enterprises in the agro-industrial sector.

Ukraine’s foreign policy is aimed at wide and long-term co-operation. Ukraine is acting on the assumption that this is the most effective way of solving not only economic but also political problems.

Comments

1. to be rich in smth – бути багатим на щось

2. iron and steel industry – чорна металургія

3. outdated and worn-out equipment – застаріле та спрацьоване обладнання

4. Europe’s granary – житниця Європи

5. crop production – рослинництво

6. animal husbandry – тваринництво

7. dairy and beef cattle breeding – розведення молочної та м’ясної худоби

8. pig raising – свинарство

9. transition from planned-centralized to market-controlled – перехід від планово-централізованої до ринково – регульованої

10. austere monetary policy – жорстка монетарна політика

11. twin-level banking structure – дворівнева банківська система

12. to speed up – прискорювати

13. to aim at smth – націлювати на щось

14. wide and long-term co-operation – широкомасштабне і довго­строкове співробітництво

15. on the assumption – виходячи з припущення









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