VII. Translate into English using the Passive Voice

1. Роботу тільки що завершено. 2. Доповідь слухали дуже уважно. 3. Його вчора ніде не бачили. 4. Телеграму отримають лише завтра. 5. На цій вулиці будується нова станція метро. 6. Коли була написана ця стаття ? 7. Його попросили взяти участь у концерті. 8. Про цей фільм багато говорять. 9. Їй порадили написати доповідь англійською мовою. 10. Вас просять до телефону. 11. Мені дали цю книгу лише на 3 дні. 12. Ця книга не перекладена на українську мову. 13. Ця п’єса поставлена в Національному укра­їнському театрі ім. І. Франка. 14. Мене про це ніколи не запи­тували. 15. В дитинстві її навчали музиці. 16. Після лекції нам покажуть фільм про Лондон. 17. Лист ще не відправили. 18. Цікаво , чи сказали йому про це вже, чи ні. 19. З вас будуть сміятися, якщо ви це скажете.


Unit 9

Topic: Why Should We Study Economics?

Grammar: Sequence of Tenses.

I. Read the following words

Enable, cause, carefully, alternative, earn, thirdly, require, relate, particular, adjust, changes, supply, endeavour, obtain, efficiency, survive , intelligent, familiarity, security, scheme, concern, individual, significance , argument, favour, cultural, value, discourse, restaurant, danger, currency , seriousness, unemployment, necessary, eliminate, outlived, usefulness.

II. Read and translate the text

Why Should We Study Economics?

Why should we study Economics? In the first place it may be said that economics is a training in clear thinking. It enables us to trace cause and effect carefully. It teaches us to consider alternatives.

Secondly, knowledge of economics may enable us to earn living.

Thirdly, businessmen require a knowledge of the economic problems that relate to their particular enterprises. A businessman has to adjust himself to changes in the supply of land, labour or capital required for his organisation. He has to endeavour to obtain maximum efficiency in production. He has to know the ”ins and outs” of business economics if he expects to survive.

Fourthly, intelligent citizenship calls for some familiarity with economic problems. Today, there is large-scale collective actions in industry and government. Social security schemes may be the concern of millions of individuals in a nation. People are upon to vote, directly or indirectly, on matters of the greatest economic significance.

A fifth argument in favour of the study of economics has to do with its general cultural value. Economic discourse has become involved in economic argument. Wherever one goes, one may become involved in economic argument. Not only in the classroom, but in the restaurant , on the train, or at the golf club, one is expected to know something about the trend in the cost of living or the dangers of an inflated currency or the seriousness of the unemployment situation. The great Einstein once said: ”Economic institutions exist for man and not man for economic institutions”. It is our task then to study these institutions since they have been designed for our good, to reform them when they need reforming, and it necessary to eliminate such of them as may have outlived their usefulness.


1. a training in clear thinking – навчання чіткому мисленню

2. to trace cause – простежити (виявити) причину

3. to effect carefully – діяти обережно

4. to consider alternative – обміркувати альтернативу

5. to earn living – заробляти на прожиття

6. to require knowledge – потребувати знання

7. to relate to – стосуватись, мати відношення до чогось

8. to adjust oneself to – пристосуватись до чогось

9. supply – пропозиція, постачання

10. to endeavour – намагатися

11. to obtain efficiency – досягти ефективності

12. ”ins” and ”outs” – за і проти

13. to call for – вимагати

14. large-scale – широкомасштабний

15. social security – соціальна безпека

16. in favour of – на користь

17. economic discourse – економічне обговорення

18. economic argument – економічний довід (дискусія, опір)

19. to eliminate – усувати (помилки)

III. Find the English in the right-hand column for the following

1. вартість життя 1. a knowledge of economies

2. широкомасштабні колективні дії 2. to relate to a particular enterprise

3. його загальна культурна цінність 3. to adjust oneself to changes

4. розумна громадськість 4. inflated currency

5. знання економіки 5. to outlive one’s usefulness

6. досягти максимальної 6. the seriousness of the

ефективності unemployment situation

7. навчання чіткому мисленню 7. the cost of living

8. простежити причину 8. its general cultural value

9. ”за” і ”проти” ділової економіки 9. large-scale collective actions

10. стосуватись певного підприємства 10. intelligent citizenship

11. серйозність становища 11. to obtain maximum

безробіття efficiency

12. пристосуватись до змін 12. ”ins” and ”outs” of business economics

13. інфляційна валюта 13. to trace cause

14. пережити корисність 14. a training in clear thinking

IV. Complete the following sentences

1. Economics teaches us to earn money. 2. Businessmen require knowledge of economics to develop their business successfully. 3. Every businessman tries to make as much profit as possible out of his business. 4. Intelligent citizenship has to be aware of some economic concepts and problems. 5. One may be involved in economic argument in the restaurant, on the train or at the golf club. 6. Economic institutions exist for man and not man for economic institutions. 7. We must study economic institutions and eliminate such of them as may have outlived their usefulness.

VI. Fill in blanks with necessary prepositions:

1. Economics is a training ... clear thinking. 2. Businessmen require knowledge ... the economic problems that relate ... their particular enterprises. 3. A businessman has to adjust himself ... changes ... the supply ... land, labour, or capital required ... his business. 4. Intelligent citizenship calls ... some familiarity ... economic problems. 5. Wherever one goes one may become involved ... economic argument.

VII. Answer the following questions

1. Why should we study economics?

2. What does economics enable us?

3. What does economics teach us?

4. What do businessmen require?

5. What does a businessman have to adjust himself?

6. Why does intelligent citizenship call for some familiarity with economic problems?

7. What can you say about the cultural value of knowledge in economics?

8. Where may be a person involved in economic argument?

9. What did Einstein say about economic institutions?

10. What should we do with those economic institutions?


VIII. Speak on the text ”Why should we study Economics?”


Sequence of Tenses. Indirect Speech

I. Change the following sentences into indirect speech

1. He asked angrily, ”Why are you smiling to yourself and don’t answer my questions at once?”. 2. The girl said, ”I am thinking of the summer spent in the south of France”. 3. She said to Nick, ”When are you going to get a car?” ”I haven’t enough money”, replied Nick. 4. Mary said, ”I’m making a new dress, I want to wear it at our party”. 5. Ann said, ”We are thinking of going out”. 6. The teacher asked, ”Are you listening carefully, John?”. 7. She asked him, ”Is Robert coming tomorrow?”. 8. I said, ”Is John studying for an examination now?”. 9. Father said, ”Mary is doing her morning exercises, I don’t want to disturb her”. 10. Mother said, ”You are forgetting your manners, John”.

II. Put the verbs in the principal clause into the Past Indefinite Tense and make the necessary changes in the subordinate clause

1. He says he doesn’t even know such problems exist. 2. The newspaper writes that he is without any doubt, the best actor of the year. 3. I think the game’s worth the candle. 4. Do they say it is an established fact? 5. It’s really surprising that the factory was built in record time. 6. We are surprised to hear that your question wasn’t answered at once. 7. They write that preliminary contacts have already been established. 8. He says the detective parts have been replaced. 9. We are surprised to see that nothing has been changed. 10. The experts find the construction will cost an enormous sum. 11. Everybody understands the new project will require a great effort. 12. They write that they will be able to give us an idea of the cost of project when they receive all the necessary documents.

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