XIII. Fill in the blanks with ”every” and ”each”. Remember that ”each” may be the subject, an object, or an attribute while ”every” may only be an attribute

The bridge had a tower at ... end. 2. My friend goes to the institute ... morning. 3. ... wants to become happy. 4. ... of you must prepare a home-reading. 5. Our professor shook hands with ... student. 6. ... has a bicycle in this town. 7. ... student has to attend lectures.



Unit 3

Topic: We study a foreign language.

Grammar: modal verbs

I. Read the following words

Foreign, language, German, during, century, Danish, influence, Norman, Latin, reason, interesting, politics, science, learning, native, tongue, flexible, knowledge, ancient, occupy, period, conquer, servant, pronunciation, throughout, impose, commence, desire.

II.Read and translate the following text

We study a foreign language

The students of our Institute study one of four foreign languages. I studied English at school so I’m going to perfect it at the Institute. But my friend Galina studies German, and Natasha studies French.

The total number of languages in the world is about 5000. The most widespread languages are Chinese, English, Spanish, Russian and others. These languages are alive, i.e. they are in use. In addition to these, there are ”dead” languages which are no more means of communication. There are old Greek, Latin, Old Slavonic. There is also a number of artificial or universal or world languages. The world-known artificial language is Esperanto. There are also programming languages that are used in computers. These are specialized languages.

English is one of the richest languages and spoken practically all over the world. But the language itself has a long history of development.

The ancient inhabitants of Great Britain were the Celts. The language then was not like the English of today. Only a few their words remained in the language now, spoken by the English people. Then G.B. was occupied by the Romans. The Roman period of British history lasted 465 years. The Romans brought a few Roman words into the English: Street, Lincoln, Doncaster and some other names. Then the Saxons came and settled down in the land they conquered. These Germans were the founders of the English nation. By and by came other Germanic tribes who settled on different parts of the coast. Among these tribes were people called the Angles. When the Angles and Saxons grew into one, they were called Anglo-Saxons or Angles (English). The general name they gave to the country in which they had settled was England. The Saxons as well as the Angles called their speech English.

The Normanns came then. Though the Normanns became the masters of England and the Saxon became their servants, the Saxons didn’t want to speak their language and the Normanns had to learn English to make the English people understand their orders. In this way Anglo-Saxons’ changed a little by the Normanns became real English language of the future, and that’s why the pronunciation of English words differs so much from their spelling.

Now English is the mother tongue throughout the continent of North America (the USA and Canada) in the British Isles, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.

For a long time English was the most important of the languages of the colonial countries in Africa, Asia, Australia and Oceania. English was imposed of the enslaved nations as the only means of communication. With the growth of national liberation movement most of the former British colonies have gained their independence. With the end of the British Empire, English, however, has not lost it’s dominant position in the former colonies.

English is also the international language of commerce. It is one of five languages used in the United Nations Organisation. English is studied as a foreign language in our secondary and higher schools. I am a first year student of State TAX Service Academy . I study English. It is one of my favourite subjects.

At our English lessons we learn to speak English. We study pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar.

I can understand spoken English all right, but I find it difficult to speak. My great desire is to have a good knowledge of English & to speak English fluently: I’d like to visit G.B. too.


1. The total number – загальна кількість

2. the most widespread languages – найпоширеніші мови

3. alive – живий

4. in addition – на додаток

5. all over the world – в усьому світі syn. throughout the world

6. the ancient inhabitants – древні жителі

7. to occupy – займати

8. to settle down – оселитись

9. to conquer – захоплювати

10. that’s why – ось чому

11. to differ from – відрізнятись

12. spelling – правопис

13. to impose – нав’язувати

14. as the only means of communication – як єдиний засіб спіл­кування

15. liberation movement – визвольний рух

16. to gain one’s independence – здобути свободу

17. to speak fluently – розмовляти вільно

III. Find the Ukrainian in the right-hand column for the following

1. to perfect a language 1. всесвітньовідома штучна мова

2. the total number of languages 2. господарі та слуги

3. means of communication 3. вимова відрізняється від

4. the world-known artificial language правопису

5. practically all over the world 4. міжнародна мова комерції

6. to bring into (торгівлі)

7. the founders of the English nation 5. колишні колонії

8. to grow into 6. вивчати вимову, слова, граматику

9. the masters and the servants 7. удосконалювати мову

10. in this way 8. засоби спілкування

11. the pronunciation differs from the 9. практично в усьому світі

spelling 10. загальна кількість мов

12. the growth of national liberation 11. засновники англійської

movement нації

12. таким чином

13. the international language of 13. приносити

commerce 14. ріст національно-визвольного

14. the former colonies руху

15. to study pronunciation, vocabulary 15.зростати

and grammar

IV. Complete the following sentences

1. The total number of languages in the world is ... . 2. The most widespread languages are ... . 3. The world-known artificial language is ... . 4. First G.B. was occupied by the Romans then by ... . 5. The Saxons called their speech ... . 6. The pronunciation of English words differs from their ... . 7. Now English is spoken ... . 8. English is one of five languages used ... . 9. English is studied as a foreign language in our ... . 10. At our English lessons we study ... .

V. Say if it is right

1. There are alive and dead languages. 2. English is spoken on the American continent only. 3. Chinese is the most wide-spread language. 4. The ancient inhabitants of G.B. were Angles and Saxons. 5. The Roman period lasted 465 years. 6. Germanic tribes were the founders of the English nation. 7. The English people made the Normanns learn their language. 8. English was imposed on the people in the colonial countries. 9. English has not lost its dominant position in the former colonies. 10. English is the international language of commerce and one of five languages used in the United Nations Organisation.

VI. Fill in the prepositions

1. The total number ... languages ... the world is ... 5000. 2. There is also a number ... artificial or universal languages. 3. English is one ... the richest languages and spoken practically all ... the world. 4. The Romans brought a few Roman words ... the English. 5. English was imposed ... the enslaved nations as the only means ... communication.

VII. Answer the following questions

1. What languages do our students study?

2. What is the total number of languages in the world?

3. What are the most widespread languages?

4. What is a ”dead” language?

5. What ”dead” languages do you know?

6. Where are programming languages used?

7. Who were the ancient inhabitants of G.B.?

8. Who was G.B. occupied by?

9. What did the Romans bring into English?

10. Who were the founders of the English nation?

11. Who named the country England?

12. Why did the Normanns have to learn English?

13. What countries is English spoken in?

14. Is English spoken in the former colonies?

15. What fields is English used?

16. Is it studied in this country?

17. What do you do at your English lessons?

VIII. Speak on the text ”We study a foreign language”


Modal verb can (could)

I. Read and translate

1. Jack can run for two hours without a rest. 2. Ann can give you good advice. 3. Ann can speak three languages. 4. You can address the teacher and ask him about his problem. 5. It is raining. You can take my raincoat. 6. Can I help you? 7. Can I ask a question? 8. He can’t be an accountant, he can’t add up.

II. Make these sentences (a) interrogative, (b) negative

Patterns: It can be raining today.

Can it be raining today?

It cannot be raining today.

1. He can speak English quite well. 2. It can type this letter for you. 3. She can read English book now. 4. They can do it for you today. 5. We can speak English a little. 6. It can be paid in dollars. 7. It can be cold today. 8. We could offer you advertising materials.

III. Read and memorize

1. Can I reserve a ticket for the 6th of April? 2. Could you tell me how to get to the Ukrainian Institute for Economics and Finance? 3. Can I book a single room from now until Monday? 4. Where can I book a ticket for a train? 5. Where can I exchange money? 6. Can I take a message? 7. Can I speak to Mr. Smith? 8. Could you ask him to call me? 9.We can’t speak about it over the phone. 10. We can sign the contract tomorrow. 11. Can you reduce the time of delivery? 12. Could you speak up the delivery? 13. Could you reduce the price? 14. We can’t allow this situation to continue.

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