IV. Translate into English from Ukrainian

Pattern: Не може бути, щоб Емілі сказала це.

Emily can’t have said it.

1. Не може бути, щоб ви це зробили.

2. Не може бути, щоб ви даремно гаяли час.

3. Не може бути, щоб вони порушили ваші плани.

4. Не може бути, щоб Лінда нас бачила.

V. Translate into Ukrainian (to be able to)

1. I shall be able to go skiing next weekend. 2. You are able to go swimming. 3. We’ll be able to help you next week. 4. She was able to go to her friend’s place. Will you be able to get there in time?

Modal verb may (might)

VI. Read and translate

1. You may go with me. 2. May i sit here. 3. You may ring me up if you need my help. 4. You may open the window if it is hot. 5. You may not smoke here. 6. You may not take the book home. 7. Ann may have taken little money with her. 8. Jack may have been in Kyiv on the 1st of May. 9. You may take a biscuit.

VII. Give short affirmative and negative answers

1. May I come in? 2. May I go out? 3. May I have a cup of coffee? 4. May I speak to you now? 5. May I smoke here? 6. May we take this opportunity to congratulate you on your appointment?

VIII. Use ”might” in these sentences

1. The weather was fine, the children (walk) in the park. 2. If he (answer) the last question more correctly, he (pass). 3. If you (send) the parcel by air, it (arrive) a week slower than it did.

IX. Memorize the proverbs

1. You may break the body, but you cannot break the spirit. 2. A fool may ask more questions than a wise man can answer. 3. One false move may lose game.

Modal verb must, need

X. Read and translate into Ukrainian

1. You must work systematically. 2. He must be attentive at the lessons. 3. You have worked hard all day, you must be tired. 4. He must be waiting for you already. 5. Must I pay in advance? 6. You must pay extra.

XI. Read the following dialogue. Pay special attention in the use of ”must”, ”mustn’t” and ”needn’t”

Nick: We are having a meeting at the Institute, Mary. Will you come?

Mary: Thanks. I’d like to come but I have lectures in the afternoon. Must I come at 4 o’clock?

Nick: Oh no, you needn’t come at four, you mustn’t be too late on all the best cakes will be eaten.

Mary: But I must go home first to put on another frock.

Nick: Oh, you needn’t do that. You will be late if you do. The frock you are wearing is very nice.

Mary: Oh, yes, I must change my frock, but you needn’t worry, I shan’t be very late, I’ll be there by half past four.

Have to

XII. Change the following sentences into the negative and interrogative

1. Students often have to work at the laboratory after classes. 2. To­ ny had to take entrance exams in August. 3. You will have to come here twice a week. 4. She had to spend a lot of money on books. 5. They had to stay there for a long time. 6. Ann always has to get up early. 7. He has to work hard at his pronunciation. 8. Lucy has to help her little brother and sister to prepare their lessons. 9. You will have to join some sports society. 10. She has to clean the flat herself.

XIII. Fill in the spaces in the following sentences by inserting ”must” on the present, past or future forms of ”have to”

1. The buses were too full, I ... get a taxi. 2. Railway notice: Passengers ... be in possession of a ticket. 3. You ... read this book. It’s really excellent. 4. She felt ill and ... leave early. 5. Tell them that they ... be here by six. I insist on it.

To be to

XIV. Translate into Ukrainian

1. I am to make report next week. 2. We were to meet our friends at the station. 3. The students are to come for the consultation at 3. 4. He is to make his report at next seminar.

XV. Practice the following according to the model

What were your instructions about phoning Bill? I was to phone him at 6.00.

What were your instructions about ... 1. Reporting? 2. Posting the documents? 3. Meeting George? 4. Contacting Willy? 5. Learning?

Should, Ought to

XVI. Translate the sentences

1. They ought to pay us the money they owe. 2. We ought to meet and discuss the forms of cancelling our agreement. 3. He should visit Head office. 4. It should be a nice day tomorrow. 5. You should be more careful. 6. They were taught to solve such problems, so they ought to know how to do it.

XVII. Put ”can”, ”may”, ”must”, ”should”, ”ought to”, ”have to”, ”be to”, ”be able to” (or negative forms) and ”needn’t” in the spaces

1. If you don’t know the meaning of the word you ... use a dictionary. 2. Years ago I ... swim well. 3. ... you help me with my homework? Yes, I ... . 4. You ... see the new musical on Broadway. 5. The matter ... be discussed in tomorrow’s debate. 6. They ... do all the exercises; it will be sufficient if they do four of them. 7. He’s tired. He ... work hard. 8. You ... keep that book. It doesn’t belong to you. 9. ... I get a visa? 10. Do I ... to fill a lot of forms? 11. She was feeling unwell yesterday; she have gone to the Institute. 12. I’ll ... to go to the supermarket. 13. ... you pass the cheese?

XVIII. Translate into English from Ukrainian

1. Ви можете дістатися до інституту на метро? Ні. 2. Ви не могли б передати мені цього ділового листа? 3. Вона, мабуть, мало працювала протягом семестру, тому так погано склала екзамени. 4. Вам нічого хвилюватись. 5. Вам немає необхідності робити це. 6. Можливо, вона мені вчора дзвонила. 7. Можливо, ви закінчили писати статтю. 8. Мені потрібно зателефонувати містеру Флону. 9. Взяти з собою парасолю? Ні, це не потрібно. Дощу, мабуть, не буде. 10. Вам треба бути уважнішим на лекціях. 11. Ви могли б мене попередити раніше про те, що сталось. 12. Вам не слід було гуляти під дощем. Тепер вам доведеться провести кілька днів удома.


Unit 4

Topic: Higher Education in Ukraine.

Grammar: Indefinite tenses (The Present Indefinite Tense)

I. Read the following words

Recognize, prepare, realize, human, potential, enrich, society, various, technology, economics, specialized, scientific, knowledge, research, bureau, excellent, facilities, industry, agriculture, exist, include , receive, accommodation, extra-mural.

II. Read and translate the following text:

Higher education in Ukraine

Higher education is generally recognized as preparing individuals to realize more fully their human potential, enrich their understanding of life and make them more productive to society.

Future specialists in various fields of science, technology, economies and art get a fundamental general and specialized training, all students regardless of their specialty study foreign languages.

Apart from educational work and schooling Ukrainian higher schools carry out a great deal of scientific work in all branches of knowledge. They have either a students’ research Society (Club) or a Technological Design Bureau which provide excellent facilities for young researches.

Our country needs specialists in all fields of science and all branches of industry and agriculture. Institutes exist not only in big cities like Kyiv, Kharkiv, Lviv, but in many towns of Ukraine like Irpin.

Higher educational establishments of our country fall into three main types. The first type includes the universities and institutes where there are only full-time students, which receive state grants. Students who do not live at home get accommodation in the hostels.

The second and third types of higher schools provide educational facilities for factory and office workers who combine work with studies. The second type of higher education in establishments includes evening faculties and evening higher schools for those who study in their spare time.

The third type covers extra-mural higher schools where students take correspondence courses. Every year extra-mural students receive from 30 to 40 days’ leave to prepare for their exams.

The diplomas by the evening faculties and extra-mural higher schools have the same value as the diplomas of all other institutes and universities.

The period of study at higher schools is from 4 to 6 years. According to the subjects studied there exist three groups of higher schools’ universities, polytechnic and specialized institutes.


1. to realize more fully their human potential – повніше реалізувати людський – потенціал

2. to enrich their understanding of life – їхнє розуміння життя

3. in various fields – в різних сферах

4. regardless of – незважаючи на

5. apart from – поряд з

6. a great deal of scientific work – великий обсяг наукової роботи

7. to provide excellent facilities – забезпечувати відмінні умови

8. higher educational establishment – вищий навчальний заклад

9. full-time students – студенти стаціонару

10. to receive state grants – одержувати державні пільги

11. to combine work with studies – поєднувати роботу з навчанням

12. to take correspondence courses – навчатися заочно

13. to receive a leave – отримувати відпустку

14. according to – відповідно до

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