I. Remember the forms and functions of Participle II

Форми Функції Приклади
1. Для правильних дієслів : 1. An attribute   Look at the cup broken by you
Infinitive без ”to” + ed solve – solved 2. The predicative He felt disappointed
2. Для неправильних дієслів: див. таблицю неправильних дієслів , ІІІ форма 3. An adverbial modifier 4. A part of the predicate When asked he always helped me They had made a fire before the sun set

II. Form Participle II of the following verbs

To become, to choose, to pay, to study, to take, to keep, to send, to spend, to decide, to solve, to translate, to write, to give, to express, to get, to make, to do.


III. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the function of Participle II

1. His speech was received with great applause, mixed with cries. 2. This great dark smoky house crowded to the ceiling with poor inhabitants astonished her highly. 3. Surrounded by difficulties and uncertainly, a boy longed for his parents. 4. I had been seated at the desk for a long time, lost in thought. 5. Absorbed in her book, she did not hear my question. 6. If asked he always helped me. 7. She was expensively dressed. 8. She said nothing as if she was deeply impressed by my words. 9. He is not a manager now. He is retired.

The Perfect Tenses

IV. Make these sentences negative and interrogative

1. I have just seen him. 2. I have already been to the laboratory. 3. They have already finished breakfast. 4. She already seen the sea and wants to go to the Carpathians. 5. The bell has just gone. 6. We have been there before.

V. Choose the proper place of the adverb

1. He has not finished his work ( yet). 2. I have not received any letters from them ( за останній час). 3. Have you been to London ( even )? 4. She has spoken to him (already). 5. The delegation has arrived (just). 6. She has not read very much (recently).7. I have met her (never). 8. Have you read this book ( yet )? - No, I have begun it (just). 9. I have seen him at lectures ( never ). 10. She has not seen this film, but has heard a lot about it (yet).

VI. Transform the following sentences into the sentences with Present Perfect

1. Our delegation arrived in New York last week. 2. She learns English hard. 3. We work at the library every morning. 4. Did you finish this work yesterday? 5. He speaks English quite fluently. 6. He knocks at your door every morning. 7. We write dictation every week. 8. I write letters to my parents twice a week. 9. He smokes a great deal. 10. The train comes at 5 o’clock. 11. It often rains in autumn. 12. He always thanks for help.13. He heard this news yesterday. 14. They walk in the park every evening. 15. I wake up early in the morning.

VII. Replace the infinitives in brackets by the required tenses

1. The telegram ( to arrive ) five minutes after you ( to leave ) the house. 2. It ( to rain) hard last night. 3. He ( to leave ) Kyiv ? – No, he is still in Kyiv. 4. He ( to be ) in hospital for ten days. 5. The goods ( to arrive ) yesterday. 6. I ( to buy ) this book in London. 7. They ( to discuss ) this important problem since 5 o’clock. 8. We ( to speak ) to him the other day. 9. She ( to bring ) us some interesting books. 10. He is not here, he ( to go out ). 11. They ( to receive ) our telegram last week 12 . We ( to have ) no news from him since he ( to leave ) home. 13. I cannot give you a definite answer as I not (to discuss ) the matter with manager. 14. This delegation (to visit) our Institute some days ago.

VIII. Translate the following sentences into English

1. Вона відчинила вікно, ось чому у кімнаті досить холодно. 2. Мій брат живе в Черкасах з минулого року. 3. Студенти тільки що повернулися з колгоспу. 4. Вони вже повідомили про виконання роботи? 5. Він приніс листа від сестри. 6. Дощ скінчився. 7. Вони ще не повернулися .8. Я бачила його тільки двічі. 9. Я розірвала папір навпіл. 10. Вона вже написала цього листа. 11. Він не бачив цих документів. 12. Я уважно прочитав його доповідь.

IX. Replace the infinitive in the brackets by the required tense

1. We (to translate) this article by five o’clock. 2. They not (to finish) their work by last Friday. 3. You (to ship) the good by that time? 4. The plant (to fulfil) its yearly plan by the middle of December . 5. He told me that he (to speak) to the manager about it. 6. We (to finish) our work as he (to loose) his old one. 8. We looked through the catalogues which they (to send) us. 9. As we not (to receive) an answer to our letter we sent them a telegram. 10. They informed us that they (to charter – фрахтувати) the ship for the transportation of goods. 11. He told me that he (to buy) a new TV set. 12. He drove to the hotel where he (to reserve) a room. 13. She told me that she just (to return) from India. 14. He came home late in the evening as he (to visit) the Historical Museum and (to be) to a concert. 15. After the sun (to set) we decided to return home.

X. Translate the following sentences into English

1. Я згадав про це, коли вони вже пішли. 2. Ми вже відванта­жили товари, коли прийшла ваша телеграма. 3. Коли секретар отримав телеграму, він одразу ж показав її директору. 4. Підписавши лист, він попросив секретаря відправити його. 5. Вона вийшла з кімнати після того, як вимкнула світло. 6. Після того, як вони перерахували ящики, вони відправили їх на склад. 7. Ми вже лягли спати , коли вони прийшли. 8. Ми прийшли до згоди (to come to an agreement) відносно умов оплати до того, як ви приїхали . 9. Він знову прочитав контракт раніше, ніж підписав його. 10. Ди­ректор повернувся до того, як вона надрукувала всі листи. 11. Ми прийшли на станцію до того, як стемніло. 12. Коли я зайшов до нього, він хворів вже кілька днів. 13. Я міг рекомендувати його як дуже здібного спеціаліста, оскільки знав його майже десять років. 14. Вони вже повернулися додому, як пішов дощ.15. Ми вже пообідали, коли вона прийшла.

XI. Do as in the pattern:


Future Perfect

Infinitive Affirmative Interrogative Negative
to solve we shall have shall we have solved we shall not have solved
  solved many many problems by many problems by
  problems by October? October


1. To pass the examination by 4 o’clock tomorrow. 2. To prepare a report by Monday. 3. To get the tickets by 2 o’clock. 4. To speak about modern painting before he comes. 5. To finish translating this article by the time you arrive.

XII. Refer to the future as in the pattern:

By the end of the term we had learnt many new words. By the end of the term we shall have learnt many new words.


1. We had translated the first part of the book by the end of the month. 2. When we entered the theater the play had already began. 3. Every body had finished his work by the appointed time. 4. The doctor had examined ten patients by 5 o’clock. 5. The delegation had arrived in our city by 2 o’clock. 6. When I came back from the Institute my parents had already learned the news . 7. We had repeated all the examination topics by the time of the exam.

XIII. Translate these sentences into English

1. Я вже закінчу свою роботу до шостої години. 2. До 1 липня наступного року вони вже складуть вступні іспити. 3. Я закінчу цю роботу до того, як ти прийдеш додому. 4. Вона не перекладе цей роман. 5. Ми не повернемося з поїздки до кінця тижня. 6. Студенти перекладуть текст про ринкову економіку до кінця уроку. 7. Вони збудують нові гуртожитки до початку навчального року.

Unit 8

Topic: US Economy

Grammar: The Passive Voice

I. Read the following words

Produce, though, exhaust, power, plastics, processing, husband ry, maize, tobacco, branch, scientific, technique, freeze, packaging, industrialized, heavy, prevail, textile, clothing, metallurgical, research, labour-saving, machine, increase, double, mechanization, automation, intensify, further, growth, discovery, physics, chemistry, range, unevenly , spread, transportation, facility, communication.

II. Read and translate the following text

US Economy

The United States is rich in natural resources the main being iron ore, coal and oil. The nation produces more than 100 million tons of iron a year. Four fifths of the ore mined in the USA comes from the Great Lakes region. Though a great deal of the ore has been used up, it resources have not been exhausted, most of the coal mined in the USA is used by power plants to produce electricity. Coal is also used in the chemical industry for the manufacture of plastics and other synthetics. The production, processing and marketing of such oil products as petrol (called “gasoline” or “gas” in the USA) make up one of America’s largest industries. The basic metals and minerals mined in the United States are zinc, copper and silver.

There are two branches of agriculture in the United States. They are crop production and animal husbandry. Some of the main crops grown in the USA are wheat, maize, cotton, tobacco and fruit. Cattle breeding and pig raising make up an important branch of America’s agriculture.

To make the farmer’s work more productive scientific methods of farming are employed and modern technique of freezing, canning and packaging farm products is used.

The United States is a highly industrialized country with various branches of heavy industry prevailing, namely the mining, metallurgical , automobile and chemical industries as well as engineering. Many branches of light industry are also developed, among them are the textile, clothing, food and wood-working industries.

A great deal of attention in American industry is devoted to research and emphasis is made on the use of labour saving machines, in the past few years the number of workers has increased only a few per cent, while the number of scientists and engineers in the plants has almost doubled.

Mechanization and automation do away with thousands of office jobs, intensify production and increase labour productivity. But they also bring about a further growth of unemployment.

New industries are created as new discoveries are made in physics , chemistry and other sciences. Atomic energy, for example, has created a wide range of new industries. Electronics has become a major industry . Great emphasis is being made on the war industry.

American industry is distributed unevenly. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the eastern part of the country. But industry is spreading out as there is a tendency to build factories far removed from the home plant and closer to natural resources and markets. Good transportation facilities and rapid communication systems make it possible for factories.

The leading US exports are industrial machinery, electronics equipment, textiles, iron, coal, oil products and chemicals, grain and other farm products.


1. to mine coal ( ore etc.) – видобувати вугілля (руду тощо)

2. to exhaust smth. – виснажувати, вичерпувати щось

3. power plant – електростанція

4. to process smth. – обробляти щось

5. to employ smth. – використовувати, застосовувати

6. technique – техніка, методи

7. to can smth. – консервувати щось

8. to package smth. – пакувати щось

9. research – наукові дослідження, науково-дослідна робота

10. labour-saving machine – машина, що заощаджує час

11. in the past few years – за останні декілька років

12. to do away with smth. – покінчити з чимось, ліквідувати щось

13. labour productivity – продуктивність праці

14. to make discovery – робити відкриття

15. unevenly – нерівномірно


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