II. Read and translate the following text


I. Read the following words

Economist, cashier, financier, society, important, book-keeper, special, saving, busy, realize, corner-stone, science, economics, special ty .

II. Read and translate the following text

I am a student

I am Kovalenko Katya. So, I am a student now. I’m a first-year student of the day-time department. I’ve entered State Tax Service Academy of Ukraine after finishing a secondary school. You know, that was my dream to enter this Institute. No wonder, as all members of our family are economists.

My father taught me to understand and love mathematics. I realize now mathematics is a corner-stone of all sciences. My father works as a financier at the Planning Economic Department of the plant.

My mother is a book-keeper at a book-keeping department of the factory. She likes her specialty very much. I love a sister. She is twenty. And she is also an economist. She works as a cashier at the post-office savings-bank. She combines her work with studies at the Institute. She is a second-year student of non-resident instruction at this Institute.

As you see, I took my parents way. I worked hard to pass my entrance examinations well. And now I’ve become a happy member of the great, young family of students.

Many new things and notions came into my life with it. At first, I didn’t know what they meant. Now I became familiar with such words as “a freshman”, “a sophomore”, “an undergraduate” and such terms as “a period”, “a seminar”, “labworks”. I know what it means “to make notes”, “to pass thousands”, etc.

I’m still to know more, and first of all how to save time to be able to not only study well, but to take an active part in the students’ life, to join some students’ scientific society and to sing in our Academy choir, to become a member of our Academy famous football team and to visit interesting students’ evening-parties.

I’m fond of everything at my Academy. I like its great beautiful building, sport complex, it’s lecture halls, laboratories, studies.

I’m a freshman, as they call the first-year students. It’ll take time to take time to know everything about our Academy.

Comments

1. a student of the day-time department – студент денного відділення ; syn. a student of resident instruction; a full-time student

2. no wonder – не дивно

3. all the members – всі члени; syn. whole – увесь; remember: the whole world but all the students; the whole family but all the books

4. the Planning Economic Department – планово-економічний відділ

5. a book-keeper – бухгалтер; syn. – an accountant; a book-keeping department – бухгалтерія

6. a cashier – касир; syn. a teller; cash – гроші (готівка) syn. money

7. the post-office savings-bank – ощадбанк на поштампі

8. non-resident instruction – заочне навчання; syn. extra-mural education, education by correspondence

9. to take somebody’s way – піти чиїмось шляхом

10. at first – спочатку; first of all – перш за все

11. ...became familiar with... – дізналась

12. a freshman – a first-year student; a sophomore – a second-year student; undergraduate – student of senior courses

13. I’m still to know more –я маю дізнатись ще більше

14. to join some students’ scientific society – стати членом сту­дентського наукового гуртка

to join the army – піти до армії

to join a team – увійти до складу команди (спортивної)

15. students’ evening-parties – студентські вечори

16. a lot more – багато іншого; a lot of – багато

a lot of books, a lot of time

syn. many, much, a great deal of, plenty of

17. to be fond of – любити, подобатись; syn. to like

18. like – подібно як; to be like – бути схожим

He is like his father – Він схожий з батьком.

He likes skating – Він любить кататися на ковзанах

He is a student like me – Він, як і я, студент

19. it’ll take time – знадобиться час

III. Find the Ukrainian equivalents in the right-hand column for the following

1. the planning economic department 1. студент першого курсу

2. the post-office savings-bank 2. денне відділення

3. a sophomore 3. вступати до інституту

4. a book-keeping department 4. планово-економічний відділ

5. to take one’s parents’ way 5. бухгалтерія

6. a freshman 6. ощадбанк на поштамті

7. to pass ”thousands” 7. студент другого курсу

8. the day-time department 8. піти шляхом батьків

9. a lot more 9. студент старшого курсу

10. an undergraduate 10. здавати ”тисячі”

11. to enter the Institute 11. студентський науковий гурток

12.it’ll take time to know 12. ще більше

13.students’ scientific society 13. знадобиться час, щоб дізнатися

IV. Use the words and word combinations given in Ex. III in the sentences of your own

V. Translate the following sentences

А) 1. He took his brother’s way and became an economist. 2. How much does it take you to get to the Institute? It takes me ten minutes. 3. How much will it take you to get to Lviv by train? It will take me 14 hours. 4. It will take him two hours to translate this article. 5. He takes after his father. 6. When going to the Institute he takes a bus. 7. She took the shortest way to get to the library. 8. It’ll take time to forget this event.

B) 1. He is like his father. 2. He likes Political Economy very much. 3. My friend does this work like me. 4. It looks like snow. 5. This book costs something like 1 dollar. 6. They mustn’t talk like that. 7. He was running like a sportsman. 8. My sister likes dancing. 9. I should like to take my father’s way. 10. He should like to be the first student in his group.

C) 1. I’ll join you in your work. 2. My friend joined the National Guard. 3. The best students of our group joined Scientific Societies. 4. My junior brother will soon join the school volley-ball team.

VI. Complete the following sentences

1. Kate has become a student of ... . 2. All the members of her family are ... . 3. Her father works as ... . 4. Her sister works ... . 5. Kate ... worked hard to pass ... . 6. She became familiar with ... . 7. Kate is still to know how ... . 8. She will take an active part in ... .

VII. Say if it is right

1. Kate’s dream was to enter the Medical institute. 2. Kate’s mother is a doctor. She works at a hospital. 3. Kate’s sister works at a plant. She is a freshman. 4. Kate didn’t take her parents’ way. 5. Kate doesn’t know what it means ”to make notes”, ”to pass thousands”.

VIII. Answer the following questions

1. What higher school has Kate entered? 2. Is she a sophomore or a freshman? 3. Whose way did she take? 4. What are all the members of her family? 5. Who taught her to understand and love mathematics? 6. Where does Kate’s father work? 7. What is Kate’s mother? 8. What does Kate’s sister work as? 9. Is Kate’s sister a full-time student? 10. Why did Kate pass her entrance exams well? 11. What did Kate become familiar with? 12. What is Kate still to know more? 13. What does it mean to take an active part in the student’s life at the Institute? 14. What does Kate like at the Academy?

IX. Speak about yourself using the lexics of the text

Grammar Exercises

I. Fill in the blanks with the proper form of the verb to be

1. Ben ... my friend. 2. He ... a teacher. 3. I ... in my room. 4. ” ... Tom­ my and Billy babies?”. ”Yes, they ... ”. 5. We ... students. 6. She ... a teacher. 7. ... you a student? 8. ” ... they doctors?”. ”No, they ... not. They ... students”. 9. This ... a cup. It ... yellow. 10 .The spoons ... on the table. The table ... in the room. 11. ... those men friends?

II.Translate into English

1. Вона лікар? –Так. 2. Ій 17 років? –Ні. 3. Йому 14 чи 15? – Йому 14. 4. Цей м’яч маленький. 5. Вони зайняті, чи не так? 6. Його немає вдома. 7. Це важкий чи легкий текст? 8. Зараз 11 година. 9. Хо­лодно. 10. Холодно? 11. Холодно, чи не так? 12. Мені холодно. 13. Холодно чи жарко в залі? 14. В залі не жарко, чи не так?

 

III. Learn the expressions and use them in the sentences of your own

to be angry, to be hungry, to be thirsty, to be cold (hot), to be in (out), to be fond of, to be interested in, to be well (bad), to be about, to be away, to be late for, to be in time for.

IV. Make these nouns plural :

Hand, branch, school, film, class, place, price, fox, glass, dish, leaf, knife, roof, lady, money, toy, hero, tomato, foot, tooth, man, deer, cattle, shelf.

V. Do you know the plurals of the following words ?

terminus – termini, basis – bases , memorandum – memoranda, analysis – analyses, datum – data, crisis – crises, nucleus – nuclei, index – indices, phenomenon – phenomena.

XI. Translate these sentences. Explain the absence of the article with the nouns in bold type

1. He never showed any fear in face of danger. 2. What cold rainy weather we are having! 3. We turned west and soon sighted land in the distance. 4. When tea was ready we sat down to table. 5. Winter is almost gone; spring is coming soon. 6. The apple tree was in full blossom. 7. Elbrus is the highest mountain in the Caucasus. 8. Snow covered the ground.

 

Unit 2

Topic: Our Academy

Grammar: Pronouns, adjectives

I. Read the following words

Purpose, serve, graduate, various, industry, specialist, ocean, market , citizen, property, social, scholarship, access, season, management, enterprise, labour, marketing, subject.

State TAX Service Academy

Our educational establishment has a long history. It was founded in 1921 in Kyiv for training specialists in peat developing. After Great Patriotic War it was removed to a small town not far from Kyiv, Irpin. For three decades it was known as a technical secondary school, then a college. And in 1996 it was charted as the Ukrainian Institute for Economics and Finance in march of 2000 it has got the name.

There are four departments at our Academy at present: Law Department, Accounting Department, Finance Department and Tax Militia Department.

The purpose of the Institute is to educate students to serve in the branches of economy. The graduates from the Institute will work at various branches of industry, agriculture, finance and banking system accounting and statistics computing information, State Tax Authorities . Our graduates are specialists of new formation. They keep up with progress and are able to run in the ocean of commodity and market relations.

The overwhelming majority of the students receive state scholarship and are provided with hostel accommodation. The students have free access to the libraries, reading-rooms, laboratories, compu­ting center, studies, sport facilities etc.

Many young people prefer to combine studies with work for various reasons. They are admitted to the Institute extra-mural depart­ment.

The course of studies at the Academy lasts for four, five years. The academic year is divided into two terms. The students have an examination session at the end of each term. At the end of their studies they have to submit a graduation paper and take the state exami­nations. The Academy offers a curriculum of economic subjects:

Finance Statistics, Accounting, Economics and Management of Enterprises, Enterprise Business, Labour Resources, Marketing, Computer Information System, International Relations, Taxation, Insurance.

The instructors and professors of our Academy take into account the experience of West countries in the field of training specialists at the Universities of the USA, Germany.

Comments

1. to be founded – бути заснованим

2. peat – торф

3. to chart – створювати, засновувати (на основі указу)

4. to run – керувати, вести;

to run a business – вести справу;

to run a factory – керувати фабрикою;

to run an enterprise – керувати підприємством

5. hostel accommodation – місце в гуртожитку

6. have free access – можуть безкоштовно користуватись

7. a curriculum – програма

8. to take into account – брати до уваги

Grammar Exercises

Unit 3

Topic: We study a foreign language.

Grammar: modal verbs

I. Read the following words

Foreign, language, German, during, century, Danish, influence, Norman, Latin, reason, interesting, politics, science, learning, native, tongue, flexible, knowledge, ancient, occupy, period, conquer, servant, pronunciation, throughout, impose, commence, desire.

We study a foreign language

The students of our Institute study one of four foreign languages. I studied English at school so I’m going to perfect it at the Institute. But my friend Galina studies German, and Natasha studies French.

The total number of languages in the world is about 5000. The most widespread languages are Chinese, English, Spanish, Russian and others. These languages are alive, i.e. they are in use. In addition to these, there are ”dead” languages which are no more means of communication. There are old Greek, Latin, Old Slavonic. There is also a number of artificial or universal or world languages. The world-known artificial language is Esperanto. There are also programming languages that are used in computers. These are specialized languages.

English is one of the richest languages and spoken practically all over the world. But the language itself has a long history of development.

The ancient inhabitants of Great Britain were the Celts. The language then was not like the English of today. Only a few their words remained in the language now, spoken by the English people. Then G.B. was occupied by the Romans. The Roman period of British history lasted 465 years. The Romans brought a few Roman words into the English: Street, Lincoln, Doncaster and some other names. Then the Saxons came and settled down in the land they conquered. These Germans were the founders of the English nation. By and by came other Germanic tribes who settled on different parts of the coast. Among these tribes were people called the Angles. When the Angles and Saxons grew into one, they were called Anglo-Saxons or Angles (English). The general name they gave to the country in which they had settled was England. The Saxons as well as the Angles called their speech English.

The Normanns came then. Though the Normanns became the masters of England and the Saxon became their servants, the Saxons didn’t want to speak their language and the Normanns had to learn English to make the English people understand their orders. In this way Anglo-Saxons’ changed a little by the Normanns became real English language of the future, and that’s why the pronunciation of English words differs so much from their spelling.

Now English is the mother tongue throughout the continent of North America (the USA and Canada) in the British Isles, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.

For a long time English was the most important of the languages of the colonial countries in Africa, Asia, Australia and Oceania. English was imposed of the enslaved nations as the only means of communication. With the growth of national liberation movement most of the former British colonies have gained their independence. With the end of the British Empire, English, however, has not lost it’s dominant position in the former colonies.

English is also the international language of commerce. It is one of five languages used in the United Nations Organisation. English is studied as a foreign language in our secondary and higher schools. I am a first year student of State TAX Service Academy . I study English. It is one of my favourite subjects.

At our English lessons we learn to speak English. We study pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar.

I can understand spoken English all right, but I find it difficult to speak. My great desire is to have a good knowledge of English & to speak English fluently: I’d like to visit G.B. too.

Comments

1. The total number – загальна кількість

2. the most widespread languages – найпоширеніші мови

3. alive – живий

4. in addition – на додаток

5. all over the world – в усьому світі syn. throughout the world

6. the ancient inhabitants – древні жителі

7. to occupy – займати

8. to settle down – оселитись

9. to conquer – захоплювати

10. that’s why – ось чому

11. to differ from – відрізнятись

12. spelling – правопис

13. to impose – нав’язувати

14. as the only means of communication – як єдиний засіб спіл­кування

15. liberation movement – визвольний рух

16. to gain one’s independence – здобути свободу

17. to speak fluently – розмовляти вільно

V. Say if it is right

1. There are alive and dead languages. 2. English is spoken on the American continent only. 3. Chinese is the most wide-spread language. 4. The ancient inhabitants of G.B. were Angles and Saxons. 5. The Roman period lasted 465 years. 6. Germanic tribes were the founders of the English nation. 7. The English people made the Normanns learn their language. 8. English was imposed on the people in the colonial countries. 9. English has not lost its dominant position in the former colonies. 10. English is the international language of commerce and one of five languages used in the United Nations Organisation.

Grammar

Modal verb can (could)

I. Read and translate

1. Jack can run for two hours without a rest. 2. Ann can give you good advice. 3. Ann can speak three languages. 4. You can address the teacher and ask him about his problem. 5. It is raining. You can take my raincoat. 6. Can I help you? 7. Can I ask a question? 8. He can’t be an accountant, he can’t add up.

II. Make these sentences (a) interrogative, (b) negative

Patterns: It can be raining today.

Can it be raining today?

It cannot be raining today.

1. He can speak English quite well. 2. It can type this letter for you. 3. She can read English book now. 4. They can do it for you today. 5. We can speak English a little. 6. It can be paid in dollars. 7. It can be cold today. 8. We could offer you advertising materials.

III. Read and memorize

1. Can I reserve a ticket for the 6th of April? 2. Could you tell me how to get to the Ukrainian Institute for Economics and Finance? 3. Can I book a single room from now until Monday? 4. Where can I book a ticket for a train? 5. Where can I exchange money? 6. Can I take a message? 7. Can I speak to Mr. Smith? 8. Could you ask him to call me? 9.We can’t speak about it over the phone. 10. We can sign the contract tomorrow. 11. Can you reduce the time of delivery? 12. Could you speak up the delivery? 13. Could you reduce the price? 14. We can’t allow this situation to continue.

VI. Read and translate

1. You may go with me. 2. May i sit here. 3. You may ring me up if you need my help. 4. You may open the window if it is hot. 5. You may not smoke here. 6. You may not take the book home. 7. Ann may have taken little money with her. 8. Jack may have been in Kyiv on the 1st of May. 9. You may take a biscuit.

IX. Memorize the proverbs

1. You may break the body, but you cannot break the spirit. 2. A fool may ask more questions than a wise man can answer. 3. One false move may lose game.

Modal verb must, need

Have to

Unit 4

Topic: Higher Education in Ukraine.

Grammar: Indefinite tenses (The Present Indefinite Tense)

I. Read the following words

Recognize, prepare, realize, human, potential, enrich, society, various, technology, economics, specialized, scientific, knowledge, research, bureau, excellent, facilities, industry, agriculture, exist, include , receive, accommodation, extra-mural.

II. Read and translate the following text:

Higher education in Ukraine

Higher education is generally recognized as preparing individuals to realize more fully their human potential, enrich their understanding of life and make them more productive to society.

Future specialists in various fields of science, technology, economies and art get a fundamental general and specialized training, all students regardless of their specialty study foreign languages.

Apart from educational work and schooling Ukrainian higher schools carry out a great deal of scientific work in all branches of knowledge. They have either a students’ research Society (Club) or a Technological Design Bureau which provide excellent facilities for young researches.

Our country needs specialists in all fields of science and all branches of industry and agriculture. Institutes exist not only in big cities like Kyiv, Kharkiv, Lviv, but in many towns of Ukraine like Irpin.

Higher educational establishments of our country fall into three main types. The first type includes the universities and institutes where there are only full-time students, which receive state grants. Students who do not live at home get accommodation in the hostels.

The second and third types of higher schools provide educational facilities for factory and office workers who combine work with studies. The second type of higher education in establishments includes evening faculties and evening higher schools for those who study in their spare time.

The third type covers extra-mural higher schools where students take correspondence courses. Every year extra-mural students receive from 30 to 40 days’ leave to prepare for their exams.

The diplomas by the evening faculties and extra-mural higher schools have the same value as the diplomas of all other institutes and universities.

The period of study at higher schools is from 4 to 6 years. According to the subjects studied there exist three groups of higher schools’ universities, polytechnic and specialized institutes.

Comments

1. to realize more fully their human potential – повніше реалізувати людський – потенціал

2. to enrich their understanding of life – їхнє розуміння життя

3. in various fields – в різних сферах

4. regardless of – незважаючи на

5. apart from – поряд з

6. a great deal of scientific work – великий обсяг наукової роботи

7. to provide excellent facilities – забезпечувати відмінні умови

8. higher educational establishment – вищий навчальний заклад

9. full-time students – студенти стаціонару

10. to receive state grants – одержувати державні пільги

11. to combine work with studies – поєднувати роботу з навчанням

12. to take correspondence courses – навчатися заочно

13. to receive a leave – отримувати відпустку

14. according to – відповідно до

Grammar

Unit 5

Topic: Higher Education in Great Britain

Grammar: The Past Indefinite Tense

I. Read the following words

Generally, considerable, amount, equivalent, experienced, expansion , enjoy, autonomous, responsible, regulations, governing, similarities, Oxford, Cambridge, various, faculty, degree, course, lectures, tutorials , feature, mainly, medicine, broad, range, academic, vocational, humanities , science, technology, government, encourage, choose, require, comparable , tuition, maintenance.

II. Read and translate the following text:

Comments

1. post-school education – освіта, одержана після закінчення школи

2. in fact – фактично, насправді

3. part-time studies – навчання без відриву від виробництва

4. full-time studies – навчання з відривом від виробництва

5. as well as – також, як і

6. to enjoy academic freedom – мати (користуватись) навчальну свободу

7. to responsible to – бути відповідальним перед

8. to take a course – вивчати курс

9. a broad range of academic and vocational subjects – широкий вибір навчальних та професійних предметів

10. humanities – гуманітарні предмети

11. teacher training college – педагогічні інститути

12. to carry on – продовжується, здійснюється

13. to provide knowledge – забезпечувати знання

14. to receive government grants – одержувати пільги від уряду

15. maintenance expenses – витрати на утримання

VI. Say if it is right

1. Part-time and full-time studies are carried on only at Universities . 2. British higher education consists of degree and equivalent courses. 3. The number of higher education students has increased recently. 4. Every University is autonomous and responsible to its government body. 5. There are great difference between various Universities. 6. University degree are generally being taken for four years. 7. Lectures and practical classes are traditional for teaching at Oxford and Cambridge. 8. First degree courses are both full-time and part-time. 9. Universities offer courses in a broad range of academic and vocational subjects. 10. All students on first degree receive government grant. 11. Students can take out loans to help pay their maintenance costs.

Grammar

The Past Indefinite Tense

I. Give the forms of the Past Indefinite:

To write, to drink, to speak, to think, to choose, to prepare, to come, to go, to be, to begin, to exist, to become, to show, to have, to do, to make, to find, to save, to know, to rise, to lie, to live, to strike.

The Future Indefinite Tense

Unit 6

Topic: Economy of Ukraine

Grammar: The Continuous Tenses. Participle I.

I. Read the following words

Natural, resources, minerals, satisfy, energy, structure, considerable , chemical, emphasis, process, equipment, husbandry, wheat, variety, widespread, dairy, interrelated, assertion, centralized, sugar, budget, commercial, privatization, medium.

Economy of Ukraine

Ukraine is an agro-industrial country.

Ukraine is rich in natural resources. The main minerals are iron ore, coal, rock salt cement, gypsum uranium, different metals and other natural resources .

Ukraine fully satisfies its needs in minerals but it still has to import some of them. So, oil and gas are imported from Russia and Turkmenistan as the oil and gas deposits of Ukraine cannot satisfy country’s needs in these energy resources.

In the current structure of Ukraine’s industry a great proposition is occupied by heavy industry, especially, the iron, and steel, machine-building and coal industries.

A considerable part is played by the food, light and chemical industries.

Defence industry is being restructured and converted with emphasis on the output of consumer goods.

However, today’s industries are unable to satisfy the consumers’ wants because they are not integrated into the world process of economic , technological and scientific progress. The national industries have low standard in processing raw material and outdated and worn-out production equipment.

Ukraine is one of the world’s most productive farming regions and is known as ”Europe’s granary”.

There are two main branches of agricultural production in Ukraine : crop production and animal husbandry.

Among the crops grown in Ukraine are sugar beet, wheat, rye, barley, oats, corn, sunflower, a large variety of grain cultures, fruit and vegetables.

The most widespread branches of animal husbandry are dairy and beef cattle breeding and pig raising.

Two interrogated processes characterize Ukraine’s economy today, namely its assertion as that of an independent state, and its transition from planned-centralized to market-controlled.

Ukraine has currently achieved macroeconomic stability. Prices, domestic and foreign trade have been liberalized. An austere monetary policy has been introduced. Tax and budget systems are also being reformed. A twin-level banking structure took shape: the National Bank of Ukraine, and commercial banks of all types and forms of property .

”Small-scale” privatization is nearly completed in Ukraine today. Privatization has sped up for large and medium size enterprises, including enterprises in the agro-industrial sector.

Ukraine’s foreign policy is aimed at wide and long-term co-operation. Ukraine is acting on the assumption that this is the most effective way of solving not only economic but also political problems.

Comments

1. to be rich in smth – бути багатим на щось

2. iron and steel industry – чорна металургія

3. outdated and worn-out equipment – застаріле та спрацьоване обладнання

4. Europe’s granary – житниця Європи

5. crop production – рослинництво

6. animal husbandry – тваринництво

7. dairy and beef cattle breeding – розведення молочної та м’ясної худоби

8. pig raising – свинарство

9. transition from planned-centralized to market-controlled – перехід від планово-централізованої до ринково – регульованої

10. austere monetary policy – жорстка монетарна політика

11. twin-level banking structure – дворівнева банківська система

12. to speed up – прискорювати

13. to aim at smth – націлювати на щось

14. wide and long-term co-operation – широкомасштабне і довго­строкове співробітництво

15. on the assumption – виходячи з припущення

V. Say if it is right

1. Ukraine is rich in iron ore, coal gas and oil. 2. Ukraine fully satisfies its needs in minerals. 3. The main industries are heavy industry, the iron and steel, machine building and coal industries. 4. The national industry has low standard in processing raw materials. 5. An austere monetary policy has been introduced. 6. Small-scale privatization has been completed in Ukraine. 7. Wide and long-term co-operation is the most effective way of solving not only economic but also political problems.

Grammar

XI. Translate the following

1. Вчора ввечері йшов дощ, тому я залишився вдома. 2. Він телефонував мені, коли ми вечеряли. 3. Сонце сідало за гори, коли я підійшов до села. 4. Петро питав, коли я ввійшов. 5. Я не працював увечері. 6. Ми розмовляли про Джіммі, коли він вбіг до кімнати. 7. Елісон та Енні розмовляли на східцях.

Unit 7

Topic: British economy

Grammar: The Perfect Tenses

I. Read the following words

Manufactured, employed, agriculture, mining, building, provide, natural, resources, richly, cultivation, sheep breeding, pig raising, soil, fertile, quality, expensive, characteristic, semi-finished, cheap, mostly, precision, equipment, chemicals, woollen, leather, synthetic, original, coal mining, iron steel, engineering, particularly, aircraft, automobile, atomic, reactor, emphasis.

II. Read and translate the following text:

British Economy

The United Kingdom is one of the world’s largest exporters of manufactured goods per head of population. For every person employed in agriculture eleven people are employed in mining, manufacturing and building.

Apart from coal and iron ore Britain has very few natural resources. Its agriculture provides only half the food it needs. Most of if the raw materials such as oil and various metals (copper zinc, uranium ore and others) have to be imported. Britain also has to import timber, cotton, fruit and farm products.

Britain used to be richly forested, but most of the forests were cut down to make more room for cultivation. The greater part of land is used for cattle and sheep breeding, and pig raising. Among the crops grown on the farms are wheat, barley and oats. The fields are mainly in the eastern part of the country. Most of the farms are small. Farms tend to be bigger where the soil is less fertile.

Britain produces high quality expensive goods, which has always been characteristic of its industry. A shortage of raw materials, as well as the high cost of production makes it unprofitable for British industry to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles. Britain mostly produces articles, requiring skilled labour, precision instruments, chemicals. Britain high quality consumer goods and articles made of various kinds of synthetic (man-made) materials.

The original basis of British industry was coal mining, and the early factories grew up not far from the main mining areas.

Glasgow and Newcastle became great centres of engineering and shipbuilding . Lancashire produced cotton goods and Yorkshire woollens , with Sheffield concentrating on iron and steel. Birmingham developed light engineering. There appeared a tendency for industry and population to move to the south, particularly to the London area. Britain’s industry is now widely dispersed. Great progress was made in the development of new industries, such as the aircraft, automobile, electronic industries and others. A number of atomic power reactors were made.

Great emphasis was made on the development of the war industry .

Comments

1. manufactured goods – промислові товари

2. per head of population – на душу населення

3. apart of smth. – крім чогось

4. used to be smth. – був кимось колись

5. used to do smth. – робив щось колись

6. to make room for smth. – звільняти простір (місце) для чогось

7. to breed smth. – розводити, вирощувати (тварин)

8. to tend to do smth. – мати тенденцію робити щось

9. article – виріб, товар, предмет виробництва

10. to require smth. (doing smth.) – вимагати, потребувати чогось (робити щось)

11. precision instruments – точні інструменти

12. to be widely dispersed – широко розповсюджуватись

13. to make emphasis on smth. – надавати чомусь особливого значення , приділяти комусь особливу увагу

V. Say if it is right

1. The United Kingdom is the largest exporter of manufactured good. 2. Britain is rich in very few natural resources. 3. Britain has to import coal and iron ore. 4. The greater part of land is used for sheep breeding, pig raising and flower growing. 5. Britain produces high quality cheap goods. 6. Britain mostly produces articles requiring skilled labour, precision instruments and electronic equipment. 7. Britain exports cotton and woollen goods but not leather goods. 8. Coal mining was the original basis of British industry. 9. Aircraft, automobile and electronic industries are new Britain’s industries. 10. Glasgow is famous for engineering and shipbuilding.

Grammar

Participle II

The Perfect Tenses

IV. Make these sentences negative and interrogative

1. I have just seen him. 2. I have already been to the laboratory. 3. They have already finished breakfast. 4. She already seen the sea and wants to go to the Carpathians. 5. The bell has just gone. 6. We have been there before.

V. Choose the proper place of the adverb

1. He has not finished his work ( yet). 2. I have not received any letters from them ( за останній час). 3. Have you been to London ( even )? 4. She has spoken to him (already). 5. The delegation has arrived (just). 6. She has not read very much (recently).7. I have met her (never). 8. Have you read this book ( yet )? - No, I have begun it (just). 9. I have seen him at lectures ( never ). 10. She has not seen this film, but has heard a lot about it (yet).

Pattern

Future Perfect

Infinitive Affirmative Interrogative Negative
to solve we shall have shall we have solved we shall not have solved
  solved many many problems by many problems by
  problems by October? October
  October    

 

1. To pass the examination by 4 o’clock tomorrow. 2. To prepare a report by Monday. 3. To get the tickets by 2 o’clock. 4. To speak about modern painting before he comes. 5. To finish translating this article by the time you arrive.

XII. Refer to the future as in the pattern:

By the end of the term we had learnt many new words. By the end of the term we shall have learnt many new words.

 

1. We had translated the first part of the book by the end of the month. 2. When we entered the theater the play had already began. 3. Every body had finished his work by the appointed time. 4. The doctor had examined ten patients by 5 o’clock. 5. The delegation had arrived in our city by 2 o’clock. 6. When I came back from the Institute my parents had already learned the news . 7. We had repeated all the examination topics by the time of the exam.

Unit 8

Topic: US Economy

Grammar: The Passive Voice

I. Read the following words

Produce, though, exhaust, power, plastics, processing, husband ry, maize, tobacco, branch, scientific, technique, freeze, packaging, industrialized, heavy, prevail, textile, clothing, metallurgical, research, labour-saving, machine, increase, double, mechanization, automation, intensify, further, growth, discovery, physics, chemistry, range, unevenly , spread, transportation, facility, communication.

US Economy

The United States is rich in natural resources the main being iron ore, coal and oil. The nation produces more than 100 million tons of iron a year. Four fifths of the ore mined in the USA comes from the Great Lakes region. Though a great deal of the ore has been used up, it resources have not been exhausted, most of the coal mined in the USA is used by power plants to produce electricity. Coal is also used in the chemical industry for the manufacture of plastics and other synthetics. The production, processing and marketing of such oil products as petrol (called “gasoline” or “gas” in the USA) make up one of America’s largest industries. The basic metals and minerals mined in the United States are zinc, copper and silver.

There are two branches of agriculture in the United States. They are crop production and animal husbandry. Some of the main crops grown in the USA are wheat, maize, cotton, tobacco and fruit. Cattle breeding and pig raising make up an important branch of America’s agriculture.

To make the farmer’s work more productive scientific methods of farming are employed and modern technique of freezing, canning and packaging farm products is used.

The United States is a highly industrialized country with various branches of heavy industry prevailing, namely the mining, metallurgical , automobile and chemical industries as well as engineering. Many branches of light industry are also developed, among them are the textile, clothing, food and wood-working industries.

A great deal of attention in American industry is devoted to research and emphasis is made on the use of labour saving machines, in the past few years the number of workers has increased only a few per cent, while the number of scientists and engineers in the plants has almost doubled.

Mechanization and automation do away with thousands of office jobs, intensify production and increase labour productivity. But they also bring about a further growth of unemployment.

New industries are created as new discoveries are made in physics , chemistry and other sciences. Atomic energy, for example, has created a wide range of new industries. Electronics has become a major industry . Great emphasis is being made on the war industry.

American industry is distributed unevenly. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the eastern part of the country. But industry is spreading out as there is a tendency to build factories far removed from the home plant and closer to natural resources and markets. Good transportation facilities and rapid communication systems make it possible for factories.

The leading US exports are industrial machinery, electronics equipment, textiles, iron, coal, oil products and chemicals, grain and other farm products.

Comments

1. to mine coal ( ore etc.) – видобувати вугілля (руду тощо)

2. to exhaust smth. – виснажувати, вичерпувати щось

3. power plant – електростанція

4. to process smth. – обробляти щось

5. to employ smth. – використовувати, застосовувати

6. technique – техніка, методи

7. to can smth. – консервувати щось

8. to package smth. – пакувати щось

9. research – наукові дослідження, науково-дослідна робота

10. labour-saving machine – машина, що заощаджує час

11. in the past few years – за останні декілька років

12. to do away with smth. – покінчити з чимось, ліквідувати щось

13. labour productivity – продуктивність праці

14. to make discovery – робити відкриття

15. unevenly – нерівномірно

 

V. Say if it is right

1.The United States is not reach in natural resources. 2. Ore is mined in the Great Lakes region. 3. Coal is used by power plants to produce electricity. 4. Coal is used in the light industry to produce clothes. 5. The basic metals and minerals in the United States are zinc, copper and silver. 6. Cattle breeding and sheep breeding make up an important branch of America’s agriculture. 7. The United States branches of heavy and textile industries. 8. Mechanization and automation bring about a further growth of unemployment. 9. Throughout American industry great emphasis is being made on management training. 10. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the western part of the country .

Grammar

The Passive Voice

Unit 9

Topic: Why Should We Study Economics?

Grammar: Sequence of Tenses.

I. Read the following words

Enable, cause, carefully, alternative, earn, thirdly, require, relate, particular, adjust, changes, supply, endeavour, obtain, efficiency, survive , intelligent, familiarity, security, scheme, concern, individual, significance , argument, favour, cultural, value, discourse, restaurant, danger, currency , seriousness, unemployment, necessary, eliminate, outlived, usefulness.

Comments

1. a training in clear thinking – навчання чіткому мисленню

2. to trace cause – простежити (виявити) причину

3. to effect carefully – діяти обережно

4. to consider alternative – обміркувати альтернативу

5. to earn living – заробляти на прожиття

6. to require knowledge – потребувати знання

7. to relate to – стосуватись, мати відношення до чогось

8. to adjust oneself to – пристосуватись до чогось

9. supply – пропозиція, постачання

10. to endeavour – намагатися

11. to obtain efficiency – досягти ефективності

12. ”ins” and ”outs” – за і проти

13. to call for – вимагати

14. large-scale – широкомасштабний

15. social security – соціальна безпека

16. in favour of – на користь

17. economic discourse – економічне обговорення

18. economic argument – економічний довід (дискусія, опір)

19. to eliminate – усувати (помилки)

Grammar

Unit 10

Topic: My Speciality

Grammar: Revision of Tenses

I. Read the following words

Accounting, department, qualified, specialist, organisation, finance , statistics, budget, identifying, measuring, function, reveal, deviate, future, responsible, acquire, cash, flow, analyses, expenditure, assets, machinery, charge, tax, advise, financial, mutually, without, minimise, properly, effectively, orient, ministry.

My Speciality

I study at the Accounting Economic Department of the State Tax Service Academy of Ukraine . This Department is one of the oldest departments of our Institute. It trains highly qualified, specialist with deep knowledge, in economics, organisation and management of production, accountancy, the analysis of economic activity, etc.

A part from the Accounting Economic Department there is the Finance Economic Department. It is not so old as the Accounting Economic Department, but it is the longest as to the number of students, studying there. My friends studies there.

We study general and special subjects. Among the special subjects, the following may be named: Accountancy, Statistics, Management, Marketing, Finance, Budget, etc.

What is Accounting? Accounting is the process of identifying, collecting, measuring and reporting information on business activity. Thus, it is possible to speak about three functions of accounting:

1) reporting on past operations of the enterprise, company, firm, etc.;

2) revealing the extent to which past activities deviated from budgeted plans;

3) planning and budgeting future activities of the enterprise, company, firm, etc.

What is Finance? Finance is the function in a business that is responsible for acquiring funds for the firm and managing funds within the firm (for example, preparing budgets, doing cash flow analyses) and planning for the expenditures of funds on such assets as plant, equipment and machinery. Most organisations have a manager in charge of financial operations. His duties are: planning, budgeting, obtaining funds, controlling funds (funds management), collecting funds (credit management), auditing, managing taxes and advising top management on financial matters.

Can you see the link between accounting and finance?

They are mutually supportive functions in a firm. A firm cannot get along without accounting but neither, can it prosper without short- and long-term financing, managing its funds well, minimising its taxes, and investing, its funds properly.

The tasks of all the economists are to use the new economic activity effectively, as well as new economic levers and stimuli.

The subjects studied orient the future specialists to the broad use of electronic and computational techniques. The graduates of the economic departments will work at different accounting offices, departments, banks, ministries, etc.

Comments

1. highly qualified specialist – висококваліфікований спеціаліст

2. management of production – керівництво виробництвом

3. accountancy – облік

4. to identify information – ототожнювати інформацію

5. to measure information – вивіряти інформацію

6. to report information – звітувати

7. to reveal the extent – виявити розмір

8. to deviate – відхилятися

9. to be responsible for – бути відповідальним

10. to acquire funds – придбати фонди

11. cash flow analyses – аналіз потоку готівки

12. expenditures – витрати

13. assets – активи

14. to be in charge of – бути відповідальним за

15. to obtain funds – діставати фонди

16. auditing – аудит

17. taxes – податки

18. economic levers and stimuli – економічні важелі та стимули

Grammar

Additional Reading

Lesia Ukrainka

Larissa Kossach (pen-name Lesia Ukrainka) was born in Novgorod-Volynsky on February 25, 1871 which is now in Zhytomir Region. Her father was a lawyer and her mother was a Ukrainian writer (pen-name Olena Pchilka). Her sister was married to Mykhailo Dragomanov, a scholar public figure and political figure, who was to play a great role in Lesia's life

When Lesia was nine, her parents moved to the town of Lutsk and settled at an estatenear Kovel. Because of weak health and the absence of school with instruction in the Ukrainian language, Lesia received education at home.She had a remarkable aptitude for the humanities.

Lesia's close ties with distinguished public and cultural figures of her time played a positive role in her formation as a poet. Apart from Dragomanov and Franko, the Kossaches friends included the composer M. Lysenko, the poet, playwright and one of the founders of the Ukrainian professional theatre

N. Starytsky, the bibliographer M. Komarov, and the poet V. Samiylenko. Such a milieu made Lesia try her hand at writing poetry early. At the age of nine she wrote her first verses, and at 13 her first poem was published in the Lviv magazine “Zoria”. From then on her poetry appeared regularly in the Ukrainian, publications.

Unfortunately, the outset of her literary career coincided with the first symptoms of what was then an incurable disease tuberculosis of the bones. Her poor health made her travel from one warm country to another Vienna, Crimea, Italy, Georgia, Egypt.

In 1893 her book of verse, “On Wings of Songs”, was published. It was favourably received both by the readers and critics. Then followed her books of verse “Thoughts and Dreams”, “Responses”, which earned her, alongside I. Franko, a leading place in Ukrainian literature at the turn of this century. Just then she toned to playwriting. Her first works of drama were based on subjects from the Bible. Among her best plays are “The Forest Song” and “The Stone Host”.

Beginning with 1894 Lesia 1ived in Kyiv. Here she started learning foreign languages. Later on she read and spoke English as well as Ukrainian. With a full command of German, French Italian and English she could write not only prose, but also poetry in all these languages.

L. Ukrainka died on August 1, 1913 in Georgia, and was buried in Kyiv. Her works reveal the dominant feature of her talent exceptional public sensitivity and the ability to grasp and express in vivid images the idea and tendencies of her time.

 

Bohdan Khmelnytsky

Khmelnytsky, Bohdan (Fedir) Zinovii, was born in 1695-6, died 6 August 1657 in Chyhyryn. Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host from 1648 to 1657, founder of the Hetman state (1648-1782). By birth he belonged to the Ukrainian lesser nobility and bore the Massalski, and later the Abdank, coat of arms. His father, M.Khmelnytsky, served as an officer under the Polish crown hetman S. Zolkiewski and his mother, according to some sources, was of Cossack descent. Little Is known about Khmelnytsky's education. Apparently, he received his elementary schooling in Ukrainian and his secondary and higher education in Polish at a Jesuit college, possibly in Jaroslaw, but more probably In Lviv. He completed his schooling before 1620 and acquired a broad knowledge of world history and fluency in Polish and Latin. Later he acquired a knowledge of Turkish, Tatar and French. The Battle of Cecora (1620), in which he lost his father and was captured by the Turks, was his first military action. After spending two years in Istanbul, he was ransomed by his mother and returned to Ukraine.

There is no reliable information about Khmelnytsky's activities from 1622 to 1637. Only one fact is certain — that in the 1620s he Joined the registered Cossacks. Sometime between 1625 and 1627 he married Hanna Somko, a Cossack's daughter from Pereiaslav, and settled on his patrimonial estate in Subotiv near Chyhyryn. By 1637 he attained the high office of military chancellor. By the Ordinance of 1638 the Polish, king revoked the autonomy of the Zaporozhian Host and placed the registered Cossacks under the direct authority of tire Polish military command in Ukraine. The office of military chancellor, which Khmelnytsky had held, was abolished and Khmelnytsky was demoted to a captain of Chyhyryn regiment. In the fall of 1638 he visited Warsaw with a Cossack delegation to petition King WIadyslaw IV Vasa to restore the former Cossack privileges.

In the next few years Khmelnytsky, devoted his attention mostly to his estates 1ft the Chyhyryn region, but in, 1645 he served with a detachment of 2.000 - 2.500 Cossack in France, and probably took part in the siege of Dunkirk. By this time his reputation for leadership was such that King WIadyslaw, in putting together a coalition of Poland, Venice, and other states against Turkey, turned to him to obtain the support of the Zaporozhian Cossacks. These events contributed to his reputation in Ukraine, Poland, and abroad, and provided him with wide military and political contacts.

Khmelnytsky, however, had been regarded with suspicion for many years by the Polish magnates in Ukraine who were politically opposed to King WIadyslaw. In spite of the fact that Khmelnytsky received a royal title to Subotiv in 1646, the Chygyryn assistant vicegerent Czaplinski raided the estate, seized movable property, and disrupted the manor's economy. Khmelnytsky's small son was severely beaten at the marketplace In Chyhyryn. Under these conditions of violence and terror Khmelnytsky's wife died in 1647.

At the and of December 1647 Khmelnytsky departed for Zaporlzhia with a small (300-500-man) detachment. There he was elected hetman. This event marked the beginning of a new Cossack uprising, which quickly turned into national revolution.

The great uprising of 1648 was one of the most cataclysmic events in Ukrainian history. It Is difficult to find an uprising of comparable magnitude, intensity, and impact in the history of early modern Europe. A crucial element in the revolt was the leadership of Hetman B.Khmelnytsky, whose exceptional organisational, military, and political talents to a large extent accounted for its success.

Khmelnytsky was married three times. His first wife, who was the ''mother of all his children, died prematurely. His second wife, Matrona, whom he married in early 1649, was the former wife of his enemy D.Czaplinski. In 1651 while Khmelnytsky was away on a military campaign, she was executed for conspiracy and adultery by his son Tymish. In the summer of 1651 Khmelnytsky married Hanna Zolotarenko, a Cossack woman from Korsun and the widow of Col Pylyp (Pylypets). Surviving him by many years, she entered a monastery in 1671 and adopted the religious name of Anastasia. Khmelnytsky had two sons and four daughters. Khmelnytsky was buried on 25 August 1657 in St. Elijahs Church in Subotiv, which he himslelf had built.

Khmelnytsky’s greatest achievement in the process of national revolution was the Cossack Hetman state of the Zaporothian Host (1648-1782). His statesmanship was demonstrated in all areas of state-building – in the military. administration, finance, economics and culture .

STATE EDUCATION IN BRITAIN

All state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment for their studies. Nine million children attend 35.000 schools in Britain. Education is compulsory from 5-16 years. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a pre-school playgroup to pre­pare them for the start of compulsory education. Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are 11. Most children are taught together, boys and girls in the same class. At 11most pupils go to secondary schools called comprehensives which accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds and religious and ethnic groups. Ninety per cent of secondary schools in England, Scotland and Wales are co-educational. At 16 pupils take a national exam called 'GCSE' (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and then they can leave school if they wish .This is the end of compulsory education. Some 16-year-olds continue their studies in the sixth form at school or at a sixth form college. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called 'A' level (advanced level) at 18.You need 'A' level to enter a university. Other 16-year olds choose to go to a college of further education to study for more practical (vocational) diplomas relating to the world of work, such as hairdressing, typing or mechanics. Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with 'A' levels from 18. Students study for a degree which takes on average three years of full-time study. Most students graduate at 21 or 22 and are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony.

PRIVATE EDUCATION

Seven per cent of British schoolchildren go to independent private schools called independent schools. There are 2.400 independent schools and they have been growing in number and popularity since the mid-1980s.

Parents pay for these schools, and fees vary from about Ј250 a term for a private nursery to Ј3.000 a term or more for a secondary boarding school (pupils board, i.e. live at the school). Most independent schools are called prep schools because they prepare the children for the Common Entrance Exam which they take at the age of 11. This exam is for entry into the best schools. The most famous schools are called 'public schools' and they have a long history and tradition. It is often necessary to put your child's name on a waiting list at birth to be sure he or she gets a place. Children of wealthy or aristocratic families often go to the same public school as their parents and their grandparents . Eton is the best known of these schools.

The majority of independent secondary schools, including public schools, are single-sex, although in recent years girls have been allowed to join the sixth forms of boys' schools. Independent schools also include religious schools (Jewish, Catholic, Muslim etc.) and schools for ethnic minorities.

BRITISH INDUSTRY

THE NORTH-SOUTH DIVIDE

The diffe









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