Учебное пособие «Английский язык в профессиональной деятельности» - В.Т.Малыгин, Н.Д.Якушева


Учебное пособие «Английский язык в профессиональной деятельности» - В.Т.Малыгин, Н.Д.Якушева

Учебное пособие подготовлено на основе действующего Федерального государственного образовательного стандарта высшего профессионального образования. Пособие включает шесть тематических блоков, состоящих из неадаптированных текстов и упражнений, способствующих формированию у обучаемых общекультурных и профессиональных компетенций.

Предназначено для студентов 2 курса направлений «Государственное и муниципальное управление», «Управление персоналом», «Менеджмент», «Экономика», изучающих английский язык в сфере профессиональной деятельности на продвинутом уровне. Может быть рекомендовано лицам, владеющим английским языком, в качестве бизнес курса.

 

Рецензент:

Е.Е.Лабцова, зав. кафедрой второго иностранного языка и методики обучения иностранным языкам ВлГУ, кандидат филологических наук, доцент

 

 

ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Предлагаемое учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2 года обучения направлений «Государственное и муниципальное управление», «Управление персоналом», «Менеджмент», «Экономика», успешно освоивших общий курс английского языка, и владеющих им на продвинутом уровне. Цель пособия - обеспечить студентам возможность свободного общения на английском языке в рамках профессиональной деятельности.

Данное пособие состоит из 6 разделов: Предпринимательство, Компания, Менеджмент, Маркетинг, Управление кадрами, Бизнес-коммуникация. Каждый раздел состоит из аутентичных текстов, источником которых послужили англоязычные интернет-ресурсы, а также из комплекса разнообразных упражнений, обеспечивающих отработку языкового материала и использование его в реальной речевой коммуникации. В конце каждого раздела предусмотрена ролевая игра на основе заданной ситуации, в которой студенты имеют возможность проявить творческие способности. В предложенных заданиях основной упор делается на неподготовленную речь, умение участвовать в дискуссии, высказывать собственную точку зрения, находить дополнительные сведения в интернет-источниках.

Каждый раздел пособия сопровождается аудио- и видеоматериалами, направленными на развитие умения восприятия иноязычной речи на слух.

В конце учебного пособия авторы приводят список всех сайтов, которые были задействованы при его составлении. Они могут служить студентам и преподавателям источником дополнительной информации по изучаемым проблемам.

U N I T 1

Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurs are the new rock stars. For those who have the right stuff, the journey of creating, running, and growing a business can be an exciting and highly rewarding experience. This is a journey for champions, a journey for warriors. The modern entrepreneur is more than a business owner. The modern entrepreneur is on a path to change the world. Are you ready to change the world?

Do you know what entrepreneurs do? How can they change the world? Do they help the society solve its problems? Can you give any examples? Can you name any entrepreneurs who have changed the world? What do you know about them?

Ex.1.Study the vocabulary and watch Video 1:

to overcome – преодолеть

obstacle - препятствие

to make a difference – внести свой вклад, изменить мир к лучшему

individual – человек

proof - доказательство

to own - владеть

vision – представление, видение

tough – жесткий, суровый

cluttered with obstacles - загромождено преградами

turbulence – вихревой поток

opportunity – возможность

to seize the opportunity – воспользоваться возможностью

success achievement – достижение успеха

to achieve success – достичь успеха

reward – награда

to run a business – управлять бизнесом

to support – поддерживать

tools – инструменты

to stay connected –оставаться на связи

to solve a problem –решить проблему

within your reach – в пределах досягаемости

Ex.2. Answer the questions:

1. Do you agree that one individual can make a difference?

2. The history of what country does the narrator describe speaking about immigrants?

3. Why did they immigrate?

4. Why did those people have to become entrepreneurs?

5. Is it easy to overcome obstacles?

6. Do obstacles help you achieve success?

7. Can you take risks?

8. How do you understand the statement: “Everything is within your reach”?

9. Why do children and adults act differently?

10. What is the main thing about becoming successful?

Ex.3. Translate into English:

1. Каждый человек в своей жизни должен преодолеть много преград, чтобы достичь успеха.

2. Управлять бизнесом нелегко, бизнесмену приходится решать много проблем.

3. Если мы поддержим друг друга, вместе мы преодолеем трудные времена.

4. Воспользуйся возможностью встретиться с этим знаменитым человеком. Я уверен, ты изменишь свое представление о мире.

5. Твой успех – это доказательство тому, что все в твоих руках. Каждый человек получает награду за свои усилия.

Ex.4. Watch Video 2. Read the script below to make sure you understood everything.

Secrets of Successful Entrepreneurs

Running a one-person business is a creative, flexible and challenging way to become your own boss and chart your own future. It is about creating a life, as it is about making a living. It takes courage, determination and foresight to decide to become an entrepreneur. From the relatively safe cocoon of the corporate world, where paychecks arrive regularly, you will be venturing into the unchartered territories of business.

Is there a way to determine whether you can be a successful entrepreneur, or you are better off to work for somebody else? Alas, there is no formula for success. However, most successful entrepreneurs share these ten characteristics. Check if you possess any one of them:

Think success.

To attain the kind of success that you want, you need to dream big. Every success story starts with big dreams. You need to have big dreams for yourself – which you want to be somebody rich, famous or fulfilled. You need to have a clear vision of what you want to achieve. But it doesn’t stop in dreaming alone. You should actively visualize success in your mind that you can almost feel it, touch it or it is within your reach. Play this image back at every opportunity. What does it feel to triple your current income? How will your life change? What will your business look like if you achieved the million-dollar mark?

Successful entrepreneurs possess an attitude of openness and faith that you can have what you want if you can simply envision it as the first step on the path of action to acquiring it. Management gurus have taught us the power of visualization – seeing yourself in your mind as having accomplished your dreams. If you want to be a successful writer, envision yourself signing books for a throng of people who have lined up to have your autograph. If you want to be rich, picture yourself in luxurious surroundings holding a fat bank account. And the process of envisioning success for you should be a constant activity! You need to think that you are successful (or will be one) every single waking hour. A personal development coach shared me her secret to help her continuously visualize her goals for the moment: when climbing stairs, recite your goal with every step you take. So if you want more money, say “I will have money” in every step of the stairs. This technique will reinforce your goal and keep it fresh in your consciousness.

Focus on your strengths.

Let’s face it; you cannot be everything to everybody. Each of us has our own strengths and weaknesses. To be effective, you need to identify your strengths and concentrate on it. You will become more successful if you are able to channel your efforts to areas that you do best. In business, for example, if you know you have good marketing instincts, then harness this strength and make full use of it. Seek help or assistance in areas that you may be poor at, such as accounting or bookkeeping. To transform your weakness to strength, consider taking hands-on learning or formal training.

Plan accordingly.

You have a vision, and you have enough faith in yourself to believe that you can achieve your vision. But do you know how to get to your vision? To achieve your vision, you need to have concrete goals that will provide the stepping-stone towards your ultimate vision. Put your goals in writing; not doing so just makes them as intangible fantasies. You need to plan each day in such a way that your every action contributes to the attainment of your vision. Do you foresee yourself as the next Martha Stewart of hand-made home furnishings? Perhaps today, you need to see an artist to help you conceptualize the new line of hand-made linens that you hope to launch. Intense goal orientation is the characteristic of every successful entrepreneur. They have a vision, and they know how to get there. Your ability to set goals and make plans for your accomplishment is the skill required to succeed. Plan, plan and plan – because without it failure is guaranteed.

6. Work hard!

Every successful entrepreneur works hard, hard and hard. No one achieves success just by sitting and staring at the wall every single day. Brian Tracy puts it out this way, “You work eight hours per day for survival; everything over eight hours per day is for success.” Ask any successful businessperson and they will tell you immediately that they had to work more than 60 hours per week at the start of their businesses. Be prepared to say goodbye to after-office drinks every day, or a regular weekend get-away trip. If you are in a start-up phase, you will have to breathe, eat and drink your business until it can stand on its own. Working hard will be easy if you have a vision, clear goals, and are passionate with what you do.

Willingness to Learn.

You do not need to be a MBA degree holder or PhD graduate to succeed in your own business. In fact, there are a lot of entrepreneurs who did not even finish secondary education. Studies show that most self-made millionaires have average intelligence. Nonetheless, these people reached their full potentials achieved their financial and personal goals in business because they are willing to learn. To succeed, you must be willing to ask questions, remain curious, interested and open to new knowledge. This willingness to learn becomes more crucialgiven the rapid changes in technologies and ways of doing business.

Persevere and have faith.

No one said that the road to success is easy. Despite your good intentions and hard work, sometimes you will fail. Some successful entrepreneurs suffered setbacks and resounding defeats, even bankruptcy, yet managed to quickly stand up to make it big in their fields. Your courage to persist in the face of adversity and ability to bounce back after a temporary disappointment will assure your success. You must learn to pick yourself up and start all over again. Your persistence is the measure of the belief in yourself. Remember, if you persevere, nothing can stop you.

Discipline yourself.

Thomas Huxley once said, “Do what you should do, when you should do it, whether you like it or not.” Self-discipline is the key to success. The strength of will to force yourself to pay the price of success – doing what others don’t like to do, going the extra mile, fighting and winning the lonely battle with yourself.

Ex.5. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and word-combinations:

Управлять бизнесом; зарабатывать на жизнь; иметь ясное представление; достигать (2); мысленно представлять (2); доход; банковский счет; начать дело; компетентный; задача; достигнуть успеха (2); иметь что-либо против; деятельность; сильная сторона; слабая сторона; усилия; бухгалтерский учет; сдаваться; вносить вклад; способности; уверенность; минимизировать риск; прибыль; вера в себя ( 2); предвидеть; запустить в производство; ставить цель; ориентированность на достижение цели; неудача; выживание; управленческая команда; совет директоров; стратегический партнер; безопасное финансирование; связь; обладать; способность заводить знакомства и связи; расширять контакты; желать; любопытный; решающий; потерпеть неудачу; терпеть спад; банкротство; преуспеть; собраться c силами; настойчивость; самодисциплина; ключ к успеху; сила воли; заставить себя.

Ex.10. Which of the secrets of successful entrepreneurs do you consider to be the most important? Make a list of 5 most important secrets. Compare your list with your partner’s. Discuss your choice with your partner.

Ex.12. Watch Video 3. Try to write down 10 myths of entrepreneurship shown there. Compare your results with your partner’s. Watch the video another time. Make the list of the myths complete. Expand on the ideas of the video. Discuss them with your group.

Ex.13. Role-play.

A university graduate is going to start a business. His parents are trying to talk him out of it because they know how extremely difficult it is going to be. His friends are sure he is going to succeed. They give their own arguments. Have a talk and decide which way to take. Work in groups of three.

U N I T 2

Company

A company is a type of business. The definition of the term varies by country. In general, a company is same as a corporation. It is a business organization which makes goods in an organized manner and sells them to the public for profit. A company hires many people to be the staff of the company.

Ex.1. Study the vocabulary.

Accounts Department department responsible for administering a company's financial affairs
A.G.M.UK abbr. Annual General Meeting of a company's shareholders
board of directors group of people chosen to establish policy for and control a company
chairmanUK person who heads a Board of Directors; head of a company; chairperson
director a member of the board of directors
executive officerUS person managing the affairs of a corporation - chief executive officer (CEO)
headquarters a company's principal or main office or centre of control
manager person responsible for day-to-day running of a dept.; executive officerUS
managing directorUK senior director after the chairman responsible for day-to-day direction
Marketing Dept. department that puts goods on market, inc. packaging, advertising etc
organization chart a table or plan showing a company's structure graphically
Personnel Dept. department responsible for recruitment and welfare of staff or employees
presidentUS the highest executive officer of a company; head of a company
Production Dept. department responsible for physical creation of product
Purchasing Dept. department that takes care of finding and buying everything for a company
R & D Department department responsible for Research and Development of (new) products
reception the place where visitors and clients report on arrival at a company
Sales Department department responsible for finding customers and making sales
shareholder person who holds or owns shares in or a part of a company or corporation
vice presidentUS any of several executive officers, each in charge of a separate division

Ex.2. What is the English for:

Отдел, ответственный за что-то(3), акция (доля), акционер, клиент, производство, развитие, исследование, продажа, персонал (2), производство, сотрудники, набор персонала, реклама, председатель, совет директоров, возглавлять, головной офис, финансовые дела, бухгалтерский отдел, отдел закупок (материально-технического обеспечения).

Ex.3. Answer the questions.

1.What do we call a person who holds shares in a company? 2.What department is responsible for making sales? 3. What department is in charge of physical creation of product? 4. What department is responsible for finding and buying everything for the company? 5. What do we call a group of people elected to establish policy for a company? 6. What department is responsible for research and development of products? 7. What do we call a person managing the affairs of a corporation? 8. What department is in charge of recruitment and welfare of staff or employees? 9. What do we call a person who heads a Board of Directors? 10. What department takes care of a company's financial affairs?

Ford Organizational Chart

Board of Directors       Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Chief Operating Officer (COO)  
Chief Technical Officer, Research and Advanced Engineering (CTO)
Chief Financial Officer (CFO)  
Executive Vice President, Global Marketing Sales and Service  
Group Vice President, Procurement (Global Purchasing)  
Group Vice President, Manufacturing and Labor Affairs  
Group Vice President, Human Resources and Corporate Services
Group Vice President, Quality and New Model Launch

History

Ex.14. Role-play.

You are taking part in a business meeting. Your company needs new investments. Try to interest the proposed investors in your ideas. Be ready to answer any questions about your company they might be interested in. Work in groups of four.

 

U N I T 3

Management

Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of coordinating the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. (Wikipedia)

Ex.3. Read the text.

Ex.5. Answer the questions.

1.Why can we describe management as art? 2.Why is it science at the same time? 3.What are the four basic pillars of management? 4. What is the value of management? 5.What does management start with? 6.What questions should be answered while planning? 7.How can you make the plan happen? 8.Why can we compare directing people with conducting an orchestra? 9.What should be done if something doesn’t go according to the plan? 10.Can one improve management skills, do you think?

Levels of management

Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks.

They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and stakeholders.

According to Lawrence S. Kleiman, the following skills are needed at the top managerial level: broadened understanding of how: competition, world economies, politics, and social trends effect organizational effectiveness .

Top management's role is:

· Lay down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise.

· Issue necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules, etc.

· Prepare strategic plans and policies for the enterprise.

· Appoint middle level executives, i.e., departmental managers.

· Control and coordinate activities of all departments.

· Maintain contact with the outside world.

· Provide guidance and direction.

· Answer to shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.

Middle-level managers( general managers, branch managers and department managers). They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company's policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance. Their functions include:

· Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems.

· Define and monitor group-level performance indicators.

· Diagnose and resolve problems within and among work groups.

· Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior.

First-level managers

Consist of supervisors, section leads, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and up channeling employee problems, etc. First-level managers are role models for employees that provide:

· Basic supervision

· Motivation

· Career planning

· Performance feedback

Ex.10. Video 6 presents one of the ways to become a manager in an American company. Do you think her advice is applicable in Russia? What would you do in a different way? Discuss the ideas with your partner. Draw with your partner a path to management in Russia.

Leadership

Leadership is "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal". The leader may or may not have any formal authority.

A leader is a person who has a vision, a drive and a commitment to achieve that vision, and the skills to make it happen. Leaders see a problem that needs to be fixed or a goal that needs to be achieved. It may be something that no one else sees or simply something that no one else wants to tackle. Whatever it is, it is the focus of the leader's attention.

It is not enough to just have a vision. Lots of people see things that should be done, things that should be fixed, great step forward that could be taken. What makes leaders different is that they act. They take the steps to achieve their vision.

Leaders have the strength to move their vision forward despite all the obstacles, despite all the people saying it can't be done, it's too costly, we tried that before, or a dozen other excuses. The true leader perseveres and moves forward.

If you make the transition from manager to leader, you will achieve the success you truly want in your management career.

Results

Style A = Autocratic Leadership Style

Style B = Bureaucratic Leadership Style

Style C = Democratic Leadership Style

Style D = Laissez Faire Leadership Style

Style E = Paternalistic Leadership Style

 

U N I T 4

Marketing

Ex.1. Read the text.

Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers, for the purpose of selling the product or service. It is a critical business function for attracting customers.

From a societal point of view, marketing is the link between a society’s material requirements and its economic patterns of response. Marketing satisfies these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships. It is the process of communicating the value of a product or service through positioning to customers. Marketing can be looked at as an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, delivering and communicating value to customers, and managing customer relationships in ways that also benefit the organization and its shareholders. Marketing is the science of choosing target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer buying behavior and providing superior customer value.Market segmentation is the process of classifying a market into distinct subsets (segments) that behave in similar ways or have similar needs.

Marketing people should be involved in all aspects of marketing mix.These aspects are called four Psproduct, price, place, promotion. Product – they should decide what product or service to sell in the first place; price – they should set prices that are attractive to particular groups of customers and that are profitable for the company; place – they should find suitable distribution channels to reach these customer groups; promotion – they should do everything to support the product, from advertising to after-sales service.

Marketing has become a key factor in the success of companies. Its role in determining company policy, influencing product development, pricing, methods of distribution, advertising and promotion techniques is increasing.

 

Ex.4. Answer the questions.

 

1. What is marketing? Give several definitions from the text. Give your own definition of marketing. 2. Who benefits from marketing? 3. What is a target market (target group)? 4. What is market segmentation? 5. What are the components of marketing mix? 6. What principle should be observed in setting prices? 7. What ways of product promotion do you know? 8. Do you agree that marketing is the main factor in business success?

 

Ex.7. Watch Video 7 (“How To Determine Your Target Audience”). Write down what aspects should be taken into account when you try to determine your target audience. Together with your group make up a list of key things one should remember while determining the target demographic.

Advertising

Ex.10. Read the text.

Advertising or advertizing is a form of communication for marketing and used to encourage, persuade, or manipulate an audience (viewers, readers or listeners; sometimes a specific group) to continue or take some new action.

In Latin, ad vertere means "to turn the mind toward." The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media; including mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media such as blogs, websites or text messages.

Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding," which involves associating a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers.

Modern advertising was created with the innovative techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most significantly with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, which is often considered the founder of modern, Madison Avenue advertising.

As the world of advertising becomes more and more competitive, advertising becomes more and more sophisticated. Yet the basic principles behind advertising copy remain – that it must attract attention and persuade someone to take action. And this idea remains true simply because human nature doesn't really change. To persuade people to do something, you still need to grab their attention, interest them in how your product or service can help them, and then persuade them to take the action you want them to take, such as buying your product or visiting your website.

The acronym AIDA is a handy tool for ensuring that your copy, or other writing, grabs attention. The acronym stands for:

· Attention (or Attract)

· Interest

· Desire

· Action.

These are the four steps you need to take your audience through if you want them to buy your product or visit your website.

 

Ex.15. Role-play. Work in groups of four. Each group is a team in the Marketing (or Advertising) Department of a company. You are going to promote a new product. Think, what kind of product it is going to be, what its target market is, what methods of advertising you are going to use, what celebrities are going to endorse it, what slogan you are going to invent, how you are going to market your product. If possible, make a television commercial or a presentation of the product for the next lesson.

Branding

Ex.16. Discuss the following issues:

What is “brand”? What famous brands do you know? What sportswear brands are the most popular with your friends? Do you buy products because of their well-known brands? Why? Are they different from other products? Are they of higher quality?

U N I T 5

Human Resources

Ex.3. Read the text.

Personnel management or human resource management (HRM, or simply HR) is the management of an organization's workforce, or human resources. It is responsible for the attraction, selection, training, assessment, and rewarding of employees, while also overseeing organizational leadership and culture, and ensuring compliance with employment and labor laws.

HRM is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.

Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization's goals and objectives.

 

Ex.4. Answer the questions.

1. What do we call people working for an organization? Give 3 synonyms.

2. What is HRM responsible for?

3. What can HR managers do to attract new employees?

4. How do they select new employees?

5. What do HR managers assess?

6. How can employees be rewarded?

7. What kind of reward would be the most suitable for you?

8. How can effective HR management contribute to the accomplishment of the organization’s goal?

Ex.5. Watch Video 8.What things had you learnt from the text before you started watching the video?

Write down what new things about HRM you have learnt from it. Compare your list with your partner’s.

Goals

· What are your main goals in the life?

· Tell me about a friend/relative that you consider successful

· Does "success" have any meaning to you?

· Does "failure" have any meaning to you?

· Do you consider yourself successful?

· Do you set goals in the job/life?

· What do you do to reach a goal?

· Tell me about a job experience in which you had to use communication skills

Flexibility

· How did you handle the changes?

· Do you like the risks?

· How important is the adaptability on your job?

· How do you handle the problems in the workplace?

· Have you ever worked with unpleasant co-workers?

Stress

· How do you meet the deadlines in the workplace?

· Have you ever worked in a stressful environment?

· What does "stress" mean for you?

· Have you ever taken difficult decisions?

· Could you tell me the most difficult situation you have faced on your last job?

Manageability

· Have you ever had a trouble with your boss?

· How do you handle the problems with your boss?

· How do you handle criticism?

· Could you tell me when was the last time that one of your ideas has been criticized?

· What are those things that your boss did and you disliked?

· Have you ever been unfairly criticized by your boss? How did you handle it?

Ex.12. Search the Internet for information about interview etiquette. You can go tohttp://www.job-interview.net. Share with the group what you have found.

U N I T 6

Business Communication

Ex.1. Read the text.

 

Business communication is an important part of every organization. No business can function in the absence of a strong and able communication. Good communication skills (or soft skills) can boost one’s career and lead him/her up the ladder of success. Effective business communication can be defined as a well-organized process of sharing business ideas, proposals, information, facts within an organization or outside it to achieve a predetermined goal. It is the flow of messages within an organization among its employees and with its customers, clients, etc., ensuring its smooth running.

Here are some tips that would help you to communicate better in your professional setup:

· Understand your target audience, as the information, mode and tone, language of communicating varies with the people it has to be done with.

· In today’s world, time is the most precious thing, so we should respect others’ time. Be concise and precise while communicating as no one has the patience to read 100 lines of information which could have been dealt in just 30.

· It is important to understand that communication is a bidirectional process that not only requires one to talk but listen to the ideas, thoughts, queries of others.

· Be confident while addressing the listeners, as for them to have faith in your ideas, you should have it too.

· It is important to be responsive to problems and complaints that your clients, customers and financiers face, and cater to their needs and issues effectively and on time.

· Be polite while facing questions and interruptions, make an eye contact with your listeners and make them feel comfortable while communicating with them.

· Keep any form of communication simple and professional.

(Read more at http://www.buzzle.com/articles/effective-business-communication.html)

Ex.2. Find in the text the following words and word-combinations, explain their meaning or give synonyms. You can usehttp://www.learnersdictionary.com. Illustrate the use of the words with your own examples.

 

Soft skills, to boost, to lead up the career ladder, to ensure, flow, professional setup, to vary, precious, concise, precise, bidirectional, query, confident, faith, responsive, complaint, to cater.

 

Ex.7. Do you follow these tips communicating with your peers (ровесники)? Why? Together with your partner give tips that would help adults to better communicate with teenagers. Share your ideas with the group. Together make a list of things adults should observe communicating with teenagers.

Level of formality.

Another thing to think about when talking on the telephone is formality. It's important to use the right level of formality – if you are too formal, people might find it difficult to feel comfortable when they talk to you. On the other hand, if you are too informal, people might think you are rude!

Generally speaking, if you are talking to someone in a business context, you should use could, can, may or would when you make a request: 'Could I speak to Jason Roberts, please?' 'Can I take a message?' 'Would next Wednesday be okay?'. You should also use please and thank you or thanks very much whenever you ask for, or receive, help or information. It's important to show politeness by using words like would, could, please, thank youetc. But it's also okay to use some of the features of informal/spoken English - short forms, phrasal verbs and words like okayand bye- in other words - everyday English! So phrases like I'm off to a conference..., no problem, bye! and hang on a moment and I'll put you through are perfectly acceptable, as long as the overall tone of the conversation is polite.

One last tip - it's better to ask for help or clarification when you're having a telephone conversation, than to pretend you understand something that you didn't. It's perfectly acceptable to use phrases like 'Could you repeat that, please?' 'Could you speak a little more slowly, please?'and 'would you mind spelling that for me please?'Using phrases like these will help make sure that you have a successful phone call, and may save you from lots of problems later on. You could always say that the line's very bad today if you can't hear very well. And it's also a good idea to practise words, phrases and vocabulary before you make the call!

 

Ex.22. Role play.

1.You are at your local airport, but you have left your passport on your desk. Phone your colleague to explain the problem and ask him/her to bring your passport to the airport as soon as possible.

Points to consider:

Flight - departs in 4 hours

Where to meet - Check-in desk 5, Terminal 1

Where your passport is – next to your computer

 

2.You are going to travel to London for a meeting next week and you want to book a hotel room. Phone the hotel Holiday Inn to make a reservation. Pay by credit card.

Points to consider:

Number of nights – 2

Room – standard single, non-smoking

Credit card details – number 2356 981 7856 0853, expiry date - August 17, 2016

 

3.You bought a lap-top computer from an on-line retailer, but when it was delivered it was faulty. After receiving no response to your emails, call the company to discuss the situation.

Points to consider:

Express your dissatisfaction

Explain nature of problem

Demand refund

Ex.23. Read the text.

One of the most important skills anyone can hold in daily life is the ability to negotiate. In general terms, a negotiation is a resolution of conflict. We enter negotiations in order to start or continue a relationship and resolve an issue. In the world of business, negotiating skills are used for a variety of reasons, such as to negotiate a salary or a promotion, to secure a sale, or to form a new partnership. As they often say in business, everything is negotiable. Here are a few examples of different types of negotiations in the business world:

  • Manager and Clerk: Negotiating a promotion
  • Employer and Potential Employee: Negotiating job benefits
  • Business Partner A and B: Making decisions about investments
  • Company A and Company B: Negotiating a merger
  • Customer and Client: Making a Sale

Preparing to Negotiate

Lack of preparation in a negotiation almost always sets a person up for failure. First and foremost, each party must clearly define their own goals and objectives. Secondly, each party must anticipate the goals of the opposition. This may require doing some background research. Finally, each party must come up with various alternatives to their main objectives.

Here are some preparatory questions to ask yourself before beginning talks with the other party:

  • What is my main objective?
  • What are all of the alternatives I can think of?
  • Why do I deserve to have my goals met?
  • What will my opponent's counterproposal likely consist of?
  • How can I respond to this counterproposal?
  • When would I like to have this issue resolved?
  • What is my bottom-line?
  • What market research/homework do I need to do to back up my cause?
  • What is my bargaining power compared to my opponent's?
  • What do I know about the principles of negotiating?

Ex.36. Role play.

An employee A. wants a promotion and a higher salary and asks his boss to arrange a meeting to discuss the issue. The employer isn’t willing to discuss the matter, but at the same time he is afraid that A will quit if he doesn’t. So he agrees to talk to him on Monday. A. prepares for the negotiation carefully: he asks himself preparatory questions (Ex.23). The employer understands that A. is a good worker but doesn’t want to meet his needs.

 

Vocabulary

Unit 1

Entrepreneurship

entrepreneur – предприниматель

to run a business – управлять бизнесом

to overcome – преодолеть

to own - владеть

obstacle - преграда

to seize the opportunity – воспользоваться возможностью

to achieve success / to succeed – достичь успеха

support – поддерживать, поддержка

tools – инструменты

to solve a problem –решить проблему

to make a living – зарабатывать на жизнь

to have a clear vision – иметь ясное представление

to visualize/ to envision – представлять себе

income– доход

bank account - банковский счет

to start a business - начать дело

competent - компетентный

task - задача

to mind - иметь что-либо против

effort - усилие

accounting - бухгалтерский учет

to give up - сдаваться

to contribute - вносить вклад

capabilities - способности

to minimize risk - минимизировать риск

profit- прибыль

confidence - вера в себя

foresee - предвидеть

to launch - запустить в производство

to set a goal - ставить цель

goal orientation - ориентированность на достижение цели

to fail - потерпеть неудачу

failure - неудача

survival - выживание

management team - управленческая команда

board of directors - совет директоров

strategic partner - стратегический партнер

secure funding - безопасное финансирование

alliance - связь

to possess - обладать

good networking skills - способность заводить знакомства и связи

to expand contacts - расширять контакты

to suffer setbacks - терпеть спад

bankruptcy – банкротство

to make it big - преуспеть

key to success - ключ к успеху

 

Unit 2

Company

public company – открытое акционерное общество

Accounts Department – финансовый отдел

Marketing Department – отдел маркетинга

Personnel Department (Human Resources Department) – отдел кадров

Production Department – производственный отдел

Purchasing Department – материально-технический отдел (отдел закупок)

Research and Development (R&D) Department – научно-исследовательский

отдел

Sales Department – отдел продаж

Сhairman – председатель

Chief Executive Officer (CEO) – главный исполнительный директор

headquarters/ head office – головной офис

organization chart – структура управления компанией

share – акция

shareholder – акционер

market share – доля компании на рынке

to be responsible for - отвечать за что-то

to be in charge of – быть ответственным за что-то

to run a company – управлять компанией

staff – персонал

recruitment – набор персонала

advertising – реклама

financial affairs – финансовые дела

to report to smb – отчитываться перед кем-либо

to invest – инвестировать; investor, investment

supplier – поставщик

subsidiary – филиал, дочернее предприятие

competitor– конкурент

to manufacture – производить ; manufacturer

multinational – многонациональный

to maintain controlling interest – держать контрольный пакет акций

to fund – финансировать

production volume – объем выпускаемой продукции

venture – коммерческое предприятие

profit margin – чистая прибыль

profitability – прибыльность, рентабельность

 

Unit 3

Management

to monitor – отслеживать, следить за состоянием

retail –розничная торговля

to improve – улучшить

to succeed – добиться успеха

to go bankrupt – обанкротиться

to hire – нанимать

benefit– выгода

to handle – обращаться, справляться

merchandise - товары

to prevent – предотвратить

to evaluate – оценивать

to deliver – доставлять (delivery - доставка )

equipment – оборудование

resources – ресурсы

available – имеющийся в наличии

to execute a plan – осуществить план

to rent – арендовать

to adjust the plan – корректировать план

contingency – непредвиденная ситуация

rewarding experience – ценный опыт

top-level manager – менеджер высшего звена

middle-level manager – менеджер среднего звена

first-level manager – менеджер низшего звена

hierarchy of authority – иерархия власти

to perform a task – выполнить задание

to develop (a goal, a plan) – разработать (цель, план)

to make a decision - принять решение

accountable to - подотчетен кому-л.

enterprise – предприятие

to issue instructions – составлять инструкции

budget – бюджет

stakeholder – заинтересованная сторона

effectiveness – эффективность

to provide guidance – обеспечить руководство

executives – руководители, руководство

performance – результативность, показатели работы

reward system – система поощрений

to implement – осуществлять, претворять в жизнь

to supervise – руководить, курировать

supervision – надзор, управление, контроль

feedback – обратная связь, отзыв

to achieve a goal – достичь цели

drive – энергия, напористость

to encourage – поощрять

deadline – крайний срок

to meet a deadline – уложиться в срок

to appreciate – ценить

to share – делить(ся)

to praise – хвалить

on schedule – по графику (ahead of schedule – опережая график)

Unit 4

Marketing

to attract attention –привлекать внимание (attractive – привлекательный)

to communicate the value – разъяснить полезность

service – услуга, служба

critical – критический, решающий

link – связь, связующее звено

requirement – требование

to satisfy the needs – удовлетворять потребности

to exchange – обменивать

to position – определять место

target market – потенциальный круг покупателей, рынок сбыта

market segmentation – сегментация рынка

buying behavior – покупательское поведение

to consume – потреблять ( consumer – потребитель)

consumer goods – потребительские товары

consumption - потребление

long term – долгосрочный

marketing mix – формула маркетинга

to set prices – устанавливать цены

distribution – распределение, распространение

promotion – продвижение

after-sales service – послепродажное обслуживание

advertising – реклама

advertisement – рекламное объявление (сокращ. - ad)

pricing – ценообразование

demographic– группа населения

income level – уровень доходов

to market smth to smb - предлагать, рекламировать

to afford - позволить себе

luxury item - предмет роскоши

background – (здесь) основные сведения о человеке

to persuade - убеждать, уговаривать

viable– конкурентоспособный

sponsor - спонсор

television commercial - рекламный ролик

outdoor advertising - наружная реклама

to increase – повышать(ся)

competitive - конкурентный

sophisticated – изощренный, замысловатый

to take action - предпринять действия

endorse -рекламировать с помощью «звезд»

to achieve a goal – достичь цели

to encourage – поощрять, стимулировать

to appreciate – ценить

to share – делить, поделиться

to praise – хвалить

on schedule – по графику, ahead of schedule – с опережением срока

 

Unit 5

Human Resources

(work) experience – опыт работы

personal qualities – личные качества

traits of character - черты характера

to assess - оценивать, анализировать, assessment - оценка

issue – вопрос, проблема

workforce - работники предприятия, трудовой коллектив

personnel – штат, кадры

to contribute to something – вносить вклад, способствовать

asset– актив, ресурс, ценность

wellness – оздоровление

to reward – награждать, вознаграждать

to enable – позволять, давать возможность

to oversee – обеспечивать контроль, курировать

compliance – согласие, соответствие

to train – обучать, training - обучение, подготовка

to select - отбирать

safety - безопасность, надежность

to apply for the position of … - подавать заявление о приеме на должность

applicant- кандидат, претендент, соискатель

job description - должностные обязанности

resume – резюме, анкета, краткая автобиография

CV (Curriculum Vitae) – краткое жизнеописание, резюме (брит.)

cover letter - сопроводительное письмо

interview - собеседование

reference – (здесь) лицо, дающее рекомендацию

avai









Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-07; Нарушение авторского права страницы

infopedia.su не принадлежат авторские права, размещенных материалов. Все права принадлежать их авторам. Обратная связь