Ex.2. Complete the sentences with the words of Exercise 3.

1. Nurses constantly __________the patient's heart rate.

2. We ________the training program as effective.

3. She has a job in ____________.

4. Can exercise and a healthy diet __________ heart disease?

5. There are many financial ____________ to owning your own home.

6. She __________ the mail on my street.

7. Fresh fruit is ___________ during the summer.

8. The ___________will arrive by truck at noon.

9. Maybe we'll buy a house when our financial situation __________.

10. You can _________ where others failed.

Ex.3. Read the text.

What is management? What do managers do? How do I manage?

By F. John Reh, http://management.about.com

These are standard questions that most of us in the management profession have been asked more than once. And questions we asked once in our careers too. Here, then, is a basic look at management.

Art and Science
Management is both art and science. It is the art of making people more effective than they would have been without you. The science is in how you do that. There are four basic pillars: plan, organize, direct, and monitor.

Make Them More Effective
Four workers can make 6 units in an eight-hour shift without a manager. If I hire you to manage them and they still make 6 units a day, what is the benefit to my business of having hired you? On the other hand, if they now make 8 units per day, you, the manager, have value.

The same analogy applies to service, or retail, or teaching, or any other kind of work. Can your group handle more customer calls with you than without? Sell higher value merchandise? Impart knowledge more effectively? etc. That is the value of management - making a group of individuals more effective.

Basic Management Skill № 1 - Planning

Management starts with planning. Good management starts with good planning. And proper prior planning prevents… well, you know the rest of that one.

Without a plan you will never succeed. If you happen to make it to the goal, it will have been by luck or chance and is not repeatable. You may make it as a flash-in-the-pan, an overnight sensation, but you will never have the track record of accomplishments of which success is made.

Figure out what your goal is (or listen when your boss tells you). Then figure out the best way to get there. What resources do you have? What can you get? Compare strengths and weaknesses of individuals and other resources. Will putting four workers on a task that takes 14 hours cost less than renting a machine that can do the same task with one worker in 6 hours? If you change the first shift from an 8 AM start to a 10 AM start, can they handle the early evening rush so you don't have to hire an extra person for the second shift?

Look at all the probable scenarios. Plan for them. Figure out the worst possible scenario and plan for that too. Evaluate your different plans and develop what, in your best judgement, will work the best and what you will do if it doesn't.

Basic Management Skill № 2 - Organize

Now that you have a plan, you have to make it happen. Is everything ready ahead of your group so the right stuff will get to your group at the right time? Is your group prepared to do its part of the plan? Is the downstream organization ready for what your group will deliver and when it will arrive?

Are the workers trained? Are they motivated? Do they have the equipment they need? Are there spare parts available for the equipment? Has purchasing ordered the material? Is it the right stuff? Will it get here on the appropriate schedule?

Do the legwork to make sure everything needed to execute the plan is ready to go, or will be when it is needed. Check back to make sure that everyone understands their role and the importance of their role to the overall success.

Basic Management Skill № 3 - Direct
Now flip the "ON" switch. Tell people what they need to do. I like to think of this part like conducting an orchestra. Everyone in the orchestra has the music in front of them. They know which section is playing which piece and when. They know when to come in, what to play, and when to stop again. The conductor cues each section to make the music happen. That's your job here. You've given all your musicians (workers) the sheet music (the plan). You have the right number of musicians (workers) in each section (department), and you've arranged the sections on stage so the music will sound best (you have organized the work). Now you need only to tap the podium lightly with your baton to get their attention and give the downbeat.

Basic Management Skill № 4 - Monitor
Now that you have everything moving, you have to keep an eye on things. Make sure everything is going according to the plan. When it isn't going according to plan, you need to step in and adjust the plan, just as the orchestra conductor will adjust the tempo.

Problems will come up. Someone will get sick. A part won't be delivered on time. A key customer will go bankrupt. That is why you developed a contingency plan in the first place. You, as the manager, have to be always aware of what's going on so you can make the adjustments required.

This is an iterative process. When something is out of sync, you need to Plan a fix, Organize the resources to make it work, Direct the people who will make it happen, and continue to Monitor the effect of the change.

Is It Worth It
Managing people is not easy. However, it can be done successfully. And it can be a very rewarding experience. Remember that management, like any other skill, is something that you can improve at with study and practice.

Ex.4. Find in the text sentences with the following words and word-combinations and translate them into Russian.

Monitor, retail, improve, success, succeed, successful, , according to the plan, go bankrupt, hire, benefit, handle, customer, merchandise, prevent, resources, strength, weakness, rent, evaluate, deliver, equipment, available, purchasing, execute the plan, make sure, keep an eye on, adjust the plan, contingency, fix, rewarding experience.


Ex.5. Answer the questions.

1.Why can we describe management as art? 2.Why is it science at the same time? 3.What are the four basic pillars of management? 4. What is the value of management? 5.What does management start with? 6.What questions should be answered while planning? 7.How can you make the plan happen? 8.Why can we compare directing people with conducting an orchestra? 9.What should be done if something doesn’t go according to the plan? 10.Can one improve management skills, do you think?

Ex.6. Give the main ideas of the text.

Ex.7. Study the functions of management at different levels.

Levels of management

Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks.

Top-level managers (board of directors, president, vice-president, CEOs, etc.)

They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and stakeholders.

According to Lawrence S. Kleiman, the following skills are needed at the top managerial level: broadened understanding of how: competition, world economies, politics, and social trends effect organizational effectiveness .

Top management's role is:

· Lay down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise.

· Issue necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules, etc.

· Prepare strategic plans and policies for the enterprise.

· Appoint middle level executives, i.e., departmental managers.

· Control and coordinate activities of all departments.

· Maintain contact with the outside world.

· Provide guidance and direction.

· Answer to shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.

Middle-level managers( general managers, branch managers and department managers). They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company's policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance. Their functions include:

· Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems.

· Define and monitor group-level performance indicators.

· Diagnose and resolve problems within and among work groups.

· Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior.

First-level managers

Consist of supervisors, section leads, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and up channeling employee problems, etc. First-level managers are role models for employees that provide:

· Basic supervision

· Motivation

· Career planning

· Performance feedback

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