Read the following words correctly

honour, chancellor, quote, fluent, psychology, champagne, bath, asphalt, psalm, guide, chronicles, chef, technology, basic, architecture, question, chief

______________________________________________________________________Lesson 15. the evaluation of industry

Prepositional phrasal verbs

Translate the sentences keeping in mind that the prepositions after the verbs change their familiar meaning

Break

1. My car broke down on the way to work.

2. She broke down in tears when she heard the news.

3. He broke off in the middle of his speech.

4. Some people broke out of New York downtown auto crash last night.

5. The crowds managed to break through the police barriers.

6. She’s broken up with her boyfriend.

7. Can you help me break up this box to make firewood?

8. The class is broken down into 5 lessons. They walk users through the rest

steps.

9. The trip made a pleasant break.

10. What a pity! The weather has broken.

11. Just give him a break!

12. It was hard for him to break into the publishing world.

Word formation

Translate the words keeping in mind their suffixes

Memorize the words with the same stem

evolve – evolution evolutionist – evolutionism –evolutionary – evolutional

environ – environment – environmentalism – environmentalist – environs

 

Give antonyms to the following words

misunderstand, dislike, unlock, nonprofitable, irregular, truthless, dissatisfied, illegal, useless, indifferent, lawless, unskilled, misfortune, nonessential, important, meaningful, displeased, imperfect, unfair, inactive, indefinite.

10. Speaking Practice.Business Practices.

Match the halves of the following questions.

Could you not smoking, please?

Would you mind switch off your laptop, please?

Can you tell me make sure the letter is received?

Would you please what is the time now, please?

Could I ask you send an e-mail?

Is there somewhere I could borrow your mobile?

to wait for me outside?

 

Additional information from practitioners. Read and express your own opinion on the following. What will you do in your business to better deal with an economical downturn?

“With a $100 million company, it is vital that I’m tuned in to what’s happening in our industry and with national and global economic trends, so I can take steps

both in marketing and pricing that will lead my competitors. I look at least six

months ahead. To deal with economic downturns, you must be less aggressive

with pricing. You plan for these times by marshalling your resources and

building up liquidity to take care of the rainy day. The trick is to accurately predict what is happening out there, and to decide whether to scale back on capital expenditures or new acquisitions. Knowing when to pull back differentiates the successes from the potential disasters. And when you can see the bottom of the downturn, resume a more aggressive approach.”

Andre Tatibouet, President, Aston hotels

10.3 What is your opinion of the following?

Quan­tity of goods should be replaced with quality of life.

 

Discuss this statement with your partner.

Read the text and underline the main concerns of the environmentalists. Discuss them with your partner. Explain the italisized phrase in the most detailed manner

Environmentalism is an organized movement of concerned citizens and government to protect and enhance people’s living environment. Environmentalists are the public concerned with strip mining, forest depletion, factory smoke, billboards; with the loss of recreational opportunity; and with the increase in health problems caused by bad air, water, and chemically sprayed food. Environmentalist is a person who tries to prevent the environment from being spoilt. Environmentalists are not against marketing and consumption; they simply want businesses and consumers to operate on more ecological principles. They think the goal of the marketing system should be to maximize life quality of the environment. They require business to invest in antipollution device, taxing nonreturnable bottles, and banning high–phosphate detergents. These measures are as necessary to induce businesses and consumers to act in environmentally sound ways.

 

Essential grammar. Revision

MODAL VERBS WITH PERFECT INFINITIVE.

Translate the sentences

1. A knowledgeable investor should have disregarded a plan with such statement.

2. You could have seen this by looking at the example of the photocopier.

3. The competition may have come from many sources.

________________________________________________________________________Lesson 15. the evaluation of industry

 

4. Watching you competitors could have helped you understand what customers

want.

5. It is comforting to imagine that widget customers ought to have bought your product instead of the competitor’s.

6. The objective features of your product or service may have been a relatively

small part of the competitive picture.



7. You should have gathered data to support your plan.

SHOULD, WOULD

Translate the sentences

1. Anything else should be negotiated as part of your lease.

2. Your home office should reflect your business if customers or clients are

going to visit.

3. You should develop a rewarding social life that’s completely separate from

business life.

4. You should not go into business with friends.

6. I would hate to start a product in a distribution system I didn’t know.

7. In taste tests we got a very high response to the soft drink, but it would have

been beyond our resources to get distribution for a soft drink.

Should ought need

Translate the sentences

1. You should work at your English as much as possible.

2. You needn't take part in this research, if you don’t want to.

4. You needn't devote particular attention to this phenomenon, as we have

already studied its effect.

5. The results of the experiments should be checked up very carefully.

6. Every researcher ought to be interested in the results of work.

14. Translate the sentences into English

1. Можно войти в комнату? – Да, пожалуйста.

2. Вам следует прослушать курс лекций этого профессора.

3. Вы должны быть внимательнее к его советам.

4. Я должен буду встретить его на заседании нашего научного общества.

5. Вам следует сделать все, чтобы удовлетворить требования вашего

юриста.

6. Cтатья профессора Хиггинса должна быть опубликована на следующей

неделе.

7. Вам не нужно возвращать эти книги в библиотеку на следующей неделе.

Вы можете держать их до конца семестра.

8. Джеймс не смог прочесть все необходимые статьи. Он сможет сделать

это только к концу месяца.

9. Рэй хорошо знает этот предмет, и он сможет сдать экзамен и получить

отличную оценку.

10. Вам разрешат присутствовать при его опытах.

11. Вам следовало быть более убедительным при подаче документов на

грант.

15. would

Translate the sentences into English

1. At the university our professor would give us a new material for every lesson.

2. Thomas Edison would carefully repeat his experiments to be sure of the

results.

3. I asked my friend to help me but he wouldn't; he said I could do everything

without his help.

4. Light would pass through glass but would not pass through wood.

 

Self-Study

CUMULATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES

16. Translate the sentences into English in a written form

1. You ought to remember the names of the scientists who have contributed to

the development of your speciality.

2. Honestly evaluating your competition may have helped you better understand

your own product or service.

2. Companies with significant financial resources, highly motivated or creative

personnel, and other optional assets may have proved to be tough, enduring

competition.

3. If no competition truly existed at the time they were invented, it would have

meant no market for photocopiers existed.

4. To clarify your company’s focus as part of the business plan process you

should define a Statement of Mission.

5. You should be more persuasive when submitting documents for granting.

6. You should have planned for economic downturns by marshalling your

resources and building up liquidity to take care of the rainy day.

7. The future of public relations could be better predicted and prepared if trends

in its history were identified and understood.

8. When faced with an upcoming battle, Julius Caesar would rally public support

through assorted publications and staged events.

9. Business Etiquette is generally accepted behavior, which may be open to

dispute.

10. The professional behavior may be based on custom and morality.

11. Executives are supposed to maintain a high sense of values and conduct

honest and fair practices with the public.

12. There are social guidelines and manners to be followed in business situation

when dealing with others.

________________________________________________________Lesson 16

 

1. Read the text

MANAGErial issues

No matter what you sell,

You're selling your people.

1. Your people determine your success. People are the heart of every business and the experience, skills, and personalities of the management team have a greater impact on the long-term fortunesof acompany than the product or service provided. Many investors know that and base their investment choices almost entirely on the strength of the people involved in the enterprise.

2. For this reason, investors and lenders are likely to review the management portion of a business plan before they read many other sections and make decision on investment. They read this section thoroughly, carefully scrutinizing the qualifications of the people behind a business. They look not only to see if the management team has the expertise necessary to run the business, but also if the internal structure makes maximum use of the talents of team members.

3. Most entrepreneurs give serious thought to choosing people for key positions. They may undertake extensive recruitment efforts, often using professional executive search firms, to find just the right person. But all too often, no one gives careful consideration to creating clear lines of organizational responsibility and developing a management style that motivates employees. Even the very best people will only do their best work in a system that encourages, recognizes, and rewards achievement. If you can create such an atmosphere, you can give yourself a true competitive edge.

4. Two main areas in management is, thus, the people who run your business and your own management structure and style. Together, these two thrusts represent the core of your management system.

5. There always exist many questions that a manager should ask him/herself. Some of them are: How to actually run the company? How will decisions be made? What are the lines of authority? What voice do employees have when company policies and goals are set?

6. A company’s organization and management style act as powerful invisible force shaping both the daily working atmosphere and the future of the company. But all too often managers, especially new managers, pay only cursory attention to the development of their structure and style.

7. Formal and informal lines of authority.When examining their organization, managers usually begin with the formal structure – the official lines of authority. They decide how employees will be supervised and how job functions will be allocated. While clear lines of authority are vital in large organizations, they are equally important in small companies. A frequent source of tension in partnerships is the failure to plainly delineate areas of responsibility and decision-making. Some questions to ask when examining your company’s structure are:

· Should responsibilities be allocated by functional area, product line, or geographic divisions? For example, should all your marketing efforts be assigned to a marketing department, or should each division handle all aspects of a product or service, including marketing?

· Which employees will each manager supervise, and over what functions will each manager have responsibility?

· Will you use a production line or team approach in producing your product or service? Thus, will each worker be responsible for one particular task, or will a group be responsible for many tasks?

Think of a possibility to communicate your management structure through a graphic organizational flow chart.

8. But every business also has an informal structure which can have at least as much impacton the company and you should look at less formal relationships within your company when undertaking internal planning. When you evaluate your informal organization ask yourself such questions as:

· Which managers have the most impact on decisions?

· Which managers have ready access to the president or members of the Board of Directors?

· Do others effectively translate decisions at the top into action?

· Which subordinates have substantial influence on their superiors?

· Which divisions or groups of employees have the greatest morale problems? Who do they report to?

Generally, you want to evaluate how authority is distributed and how decisions are made in reality, not just on paper.

9. Management style. All managers have management styles, even if they’ve never thought about their approach to management. Most managers define their jobs in terms of the tasks to be done rather than the methods to be used. They see their role as making widgets, rather than motivating and aiding the widget makers. Thus, their management styles are usually just extensions of their personal styles.

10. Managing people is far too important to be left to chance. Your employees are one of your valuable resources. Just as you need to take care of other resources

in your company, such as equipment and materials, you must make certain you are not wasting your human resources. Moreover, you want to develop a management style that is independent of the personalities of your key managers and that instead fits your corporate culture. Your corporate culture should permeate every aspect of your business and should reflect how you want your employees and customers to see you.

11. Your management style should reinforce your corporate culture and company message. If you are selling computers, for instance, and your corporate culture emphasizes creating an efficient tool for business, you might utilize a hierarchical management style with clearly defined tasks for each employee. On the other hand,

 

____________________________________________________________________________________Lesson 16. MANAGERIAL ISSUES

 

if your computer company has a corporate culture centering on being an “alternative” to stuffy business computers, a more open management style accentuating the personal creativity of staff members may be more appropriate.

12. For most companies, especially smaller companies, building a sense of teamwork is essential. Help your employees feel they are an important part of the organization and that their contribution matters. Communication is a vital ingredient in team building; if employees know what’s going on in the company, they feel a part of the whole picture.

13. Regardless of your management style, remember that everyone, whether mailroom clerk or company president, wants to feel important. Recognizeachievement, both privately and publicly. Reward initiative with both monetary and nonmonetary awards. Acknowledge jobs well done. Solicit suggestions, and be responsive to concerns.

14. Here are the five most important elements of your management style:

· Clear Policies

· Communication

· Employee Recognition

· Employee’s Ability to Affect Change

· Fairness

To gain more information on the topic of the lesson read Supplementary Texts on pp .

2. Key vocabulary / expressions

allocate ['æləֽkeit] – v размещать, распределять; назначить

cursory ['kз:sәri] – adj. беглый, поверхностный

delineate [di'liniֽeit] – v устанавливать, очерчивать

executive [ik´zekjutiv]– adj. исполнительный, административный

hierarchical [ֽhaiә'ra:kikәl] – adj. иерархический

monetary – adj. денежный, валютный

scrutinize ['skru:tiֽnaiz] – v внимательно рассматривать; тщательно

исследовать

stuffy – adj неинтересный, скучный; загруженный

supervise ['sju:pəֽvaiz] – заведовать, наблюдать

thrust – зд. положение; опора

 

3. Read the words paying attention to different pronunciation of letter c and t. Translate the words

crucial, beneficiary, presidential, specific, special, concept, sociology, associate, initial, license, financial, medicine, perception, artificial, process, percent

 

Prepositional phrasal verbs









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