Introducing a point Expressing doubt and disagreement
In a discussion
This may seem impossible to you but… I see what you mean but…
I can assure you that… I agree with you on the whole but…
Wouldn’t you agree/ admit that…? Oh, but don’t you think that…?
It seems quite clear/ obvious that… You haven’t convinced me that…
I’m absolutely certain/ sure that… I can’t accept that.
Expressing agreement. Do you accept me to believe that…?
I fully agree with what you’ve just said. I take your point but on the other hand…
That’s exactly what I was thinking.
That certainly sounds like a good idea.
It all sounds quite interesting/ convincing.
29. Think of the appropriate endings for the following sentences. Write them down.
1. We didn’t go in for skiing yesterday because__________.
2. They had to stop their tennis tournament because__________.
3. As sport is an essential part of his life_________.
4. In summer I go swimming and rowing when_________.
5. Of all outdoor games I prefer basketball, but________.
6. Personally I don’t do a lot of sports, ____________.
7. I’m not a professional, just an ordinary amateur, but____________.
30. Put four kinds of questions to the following sentences.
1. A very stout woman was very fond of skating.
2. Many kinds of sport originated from England.
3. Jennet goes to the swimming pool every Sunday.
31. Read the words in columns paying attention to the reading of c
32. Imagine you are at the hostel with your English friends talking about traveling. Say what way of traveling you prefer give good and bad points. Use the chart below.
Example: I prefer traveling by…because it…, but…
Ways of traveling Good points Bad points
33. Read and memorize the following words:
travel– подорож, поїздка return ticket – зворотний квиток
(to) travel – їхати, подорожувати one-way ticket – квиток в один напрям
abroad [ə´brכ:d] – за кордон through ticket – транзитний квиток
by ship – кораблем check- room – камера схову
tour[ tuə]– подорож Inquiry office[in´kwaiəri]– довідкове бюро
voyage [´vɔidʒ]– подорож море, річкою a sign [sain] – знак, вивіска
booking-office – білетна каса a notice [´noutis] – повідомлення, оголошення
customs– митниця to take off – злітати
an exit visa [´vi:zə]– віза на виїзд a boat-deck – палуба для човнів
I have nothing to declare – Я не маю нічого, що підлягає обкладанню митом.
Are these things liable to duty? – А хіба ці речі підлягають обкладанню митом?
These things are duty free. – Ці речі не підлягають обкладанню митом.
I have only used things and gifts. – У мене лише речі, які були у вжитку, та подарунки.
I have only articles for personal use and wear –У мене лише речі особистого користування та одяг.
Shall I submit for inspection…? – Чи повинен я показати...?
34.Read and try to understand.
SOME SIGNS AND NOTICES FOR TRAVELLERS.
IN THE AIRPLANE
No Smoking. Fasten Seat-Belts. Smoking is Forbidden.
These notices appear in the airplane while it is on the ground, when it is taking off or landing.
Dining-Saloon – the place to have dinner.
Boat-Deck – the place where the boats can be lowered to the water if there is any danger of sinking. Arrows (Ú) show the way for first-class passengers and tourist-class passengers.
WHEN YOU LAND
Customs– the place where you get a printed notice and declare your luggage.
The arrow (Ú) with the words To the train shows the way to the railway station.
AT THE RAILWAY STATION
Entranceand Exitor Way In, Way Out, Waiting Room.
Refreshment Room – the place where you can eat or drink something.
Arrivals and Departures – tell you the time when trains arrive and depart and the number of the platform.
Check-Room, Luggage Office
They may have two parts: Deposit – you leave your things there; Withdrawal – you take away your things there.
Booking Office – the place where you buy your tickets.
35. Answer the questions:
1. What signs can we see in the airplane?
2. What signs can we see when we land?
3. What sings can we see on ship?
4. What sings can we see at the railway station?
5. Where do we buy tickets at the railway station?
36. Read the dialogues in pairs and dramatize them.
- Excuse me! Where is the customs control?
- Over there, to the left.
- Could you tell me whether used things and gifts are liable to duty?
- As far as I know, they are not.
- Oh, thanks a lot.
* * *
- Please, three tickets to Edinburgh.
- One- way, sir?
- Two one -way and one return.
- Here you are, sir.
* * *
- Where is your passport? The passport control officer is coming.
- Here it is.
- What is the purpose of your visit?
- I travel on business.
- Could you produce your visa and declaration form?
- Here they are.
37.Translate into English.
- Де ваш паспорт?
- Ось він. Я їду до Лондона.
- Як довго ви збираєтесь там пробути?
- Моя віза на три місяці, але я їду тижнів на два.
* * *
- Чи мені показувати вам всі речі?
- Ні, відкрийте, будь ласка, цю валізу.
- Тут лише мої особисті речі та одяг.
- У вас є речі, які підлягають обкладанню митом?
- Не думаю. Я везу лише подарунки та речі, які були в ужитку.
38. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words. The first letter of each missing word is given.
When planning a h_______(1) you must first decide where you are going. Next, you should decide how to t_________(2) – b___(3) train, car, plane or boat. You’d better visit a travel a______(4) who will take care of your tickets. If you are traveling a_______(5_, it’s best to book t________(6) in advance. You should also know some rules. Don’t forget to take your p________(7) and v______(8), and also some foreign c_______(9). Every country has its own customs regulations. If the t_________(10) has any item which comes under c________(11) restrictions, he is asked to declare it. The d__________(12) must be filled before crossing the border and kept during the stay abroad and presented when returning home.
39. Some of the sentences have mistakes in the use of pronouns. Correct the mistakes (Consult §10, 11)
1. She is younger than him brother. 2. I presented himsome new books. 3. The girl had a nice flower in theirhands. 4. It is not mine book, it is his. 5. That is not my book. 6. Hers book was on the table. 7. Where are hisbooks? 8. Is yours book interesting?
40. Open the brackets using the verbs in Present Indefinite or Present Continuous.
1. The man who (to speak) with my brother (to be) our neighbour who (to live) across the street. 2. It (to be) a very interesting scientific film in it you can see the plants (to grow) right before your eyes. 3. Where you (to hurry)? – I (to hurry) to the railway station. My sister (to come) from Moscow. 4. You (to hear) the speaker well? – Yes, I (to hear) him clearly.
41. Read the words in columns paying attention to the reading of ai, ay
42. Match the expression in A with the places in B. where would you hear these expressions?
43. Read and learn the new words and word combinations:
sights [saits] – визначні місця
to go sightseeing – оглядати визначні місця
to check in [ʧek] – зупинитись(в готелі)
to check out of – залишити номер (в готелі)
a guide [gaid] – гід, провідник
to go on excursion [iks´kə:∫n] – ходити на екскурсію
to be worth seeing [wə:θ] – гідний перегляду
double-decker – двоповерховий автобус
cathedral[kə´θi:drəl] – собор
to defeat [di´fi:t] – руйнувати
huge[hju:dʒ] – величезний
44. Now find these towns or cities on the map.
1. The second city of Ireland, since 1921 – the capital of Northern Ireland. (B_ _ _ _ _ _)
2. A busy little town in North Wales where for the first time in 1301 an English king’s son was proclaimed Prince of Wales. (C_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _)
3. A city in the South East of England, made famous by Chaucer’s tales of medieval pilgrims. (C_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _)
4. A town in the North of the island, which is a center for mountaineering and winter sports. (I_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _)
5. England’s second largest city in the Midlands. It is larger than Manchester or Nottingham. (B_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _)
6. About 80 km north west of London, this town in the south of England is the home of the country’s oldest university. (O_ _ _ _ _)
7. A small but well-known seaside resort in the north east of England. (S_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _)
45. Read and translate the text.
LONDON SIGHTSEEING TOUR.
Hello, ladies and gentlemen. We welcome you to London. London is one of the largest cities in the world. You’ll see lots of sights of London from our red double-decker.
We start from Trafalgar Square. On the column in the center there is the statue of Admiral Nelson who defeated the French at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. To the left of us you can see the National Gallery. It has a fine collection of European paintings.
Now we are coming to the Piccadilly Circus it is the meeting point of six streets.
Now we are making our way to Buckingham Palace. Here it is. It is the London home of the Queen. When the flag is flying on the top she is at home. Look they are changing the Guard. It happens every day at 11.30 a.m.
We have just turned left and you can see St. James’s Park. It is one of the royal parks. Here you can see pelicans and ducks. There are a lot of parks and gardens in London.
In front of you you can see the Houses of Parliament and Big Ben. The Houses of Parliament is the seat of the British government. Big Ben is one of the famous clocks in the world.
In a moment you will see Westminster Abbey. It is a royal church. Here you can see the tombs of many British kings and queens and other famous people. How we are crossing Tower Bridge over the river Thames. From here you can see the Tower of London. It was a fortress, a royal palace and later a prison. It is a museum now.
Now we are making our way to famous church, St. Paul’s Cathedral. It is the greatest work of the architect Sir Christopher Wren.
In a few minutes on the right you will see Covent Garden. It was a big fruit and vegetables market. It is now a tourist shopping center with cafes and restaurants we’ll stop here so that you can go shopping. Our tour has finished. I hope very much that you have enjoyed this tour to London. Thank you and good-bye.
46. Answer the questions:
1. What does the phrase “a place of interest” mean? 2. What do you call the building in which the Houses of Parliament are situated? 3. It is one building, why then do we say “The Houses of Parliament”? 4. Why did Trafalgar Square receive such name? 5. What is the royal residence of the Queen? 6. Where does the British government seat? 7. What is the greatest work of Architect Sir Christopher Wren? 8. Where can tourist go shopping?
47. Choose the correct word from those in brackets. (Consult § 10, 11)
1. It was (he, his) who asked the question. 2. Petro and Roman returned to (they, their) class. 3. Both Valia and Katia did (their, theirs) homework. 4. These books are not (our, ours). 5. Volodymyr said it was (he, his) who had done that. 6. I saw (they, them) in the room.
48. Open the brackets using the verbs in Past Indefinite or Past Continuous.
1. He (to sit) in a café, when I (to see) him. 2. My friend (to talk) to the teacher, when I (to see) him. 3. What you (to do) when I (to ring) you up yesterday? 4. The boy (to fall) and (to hurt) himself while he (to ride) his bicycle. 5. She (to wait) her sister, when I (to see) her.
1.Comment on the following English proverbs:
1. Live and learn.
2. An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening
2. Read and memorize the new words and word combinations:
education [ِedju:´kei∫n] – освіта
secondary education – середня освіта
elementary education – початкова освіта
a primary school [´praiməri] – початкова школа
a state school – державна школа
a private school [´praivit] – приватна школа
a core curriculum [kɔ: kə´rikjuləm] – базовий навчальний план
a school curriculum – шкільний навчальний план
knowledge [´nכlidʒ] – знання
a profound knowledge [prə´faund] – поглиблені знання
a national minority – національна меншість
a native language – рідна мова
a mother tongue [tʌŋ] – рідна (материнська) мова
to enter a university – вступити до університету
an evening department – вечірнє відділення
an extramural department [´ekstrə´mjuərəl] – заочне відділення
a graduate [´grædjueit] – випускник (інституту, університету)
a school leaver – випускник (школи)
3. Read the text and answer the questions.
EDUCATION IN UKRAINE
The right to education in Ukraine is guaranteed by the Constitution (Article 53). Every boy or girl must get secondary education; it means that secondary education is compulsory in our country. There are states schools where education is free of charge and private primary and secondary schools where pupils have to pay for their studies.
Every school has a core curriculum and a school curriculum. The core curriculum includes Ukrainian, Ukrainian literature, mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography, world literature, a foreign language and others. As each citizen of Ukraine has the right to get secondary education in the mother tongue, there are schools for national minorities in which pupils study their native language. I most of them all the school subjects are taught in that language.
After finishing the 9th form of a secondary school young people can go to the 10th form or to a vocational or technical school (it is colleges now). The kinds of secondary educational establishments are lyceums and gymnasiums. They offer programmes giving a profound knowledge in some field of study. After getting secondary education a graduate can start working or enter an institute, an academy or a university. Many academies and universities have extramural departments.
1. What guarantees the right to education in Ukraine?
2. Is secondary education free of charge?
3. Is secondary education compulsory in Ukraine?
4. Are there schools for national minorities in your town?
5. What subjects do you study in your school?
6. Are you going to continue your education after finishing your school?
7. You are going to enter a university, aren’t you?
4. Read the jokes and retell them.
“I wish”, said an anxious1 mother to her careless2 son, “I wish you would pay a little attention to your arithmetic.” “Well, I do, ” was the reply, “I pay as little attention to it as possible.”
1anxious [´æŋk∫əs] – збентежена
2careless[´kɛəlis] – легковажний
During an examination before Christmas, one of the students did not know how to answer the question, ‘What causes1 a depression?’ – so he wrote: “God knows2! I don’t know. Merry Christmas!”
When the examination papers came back, the student saw that the professor had written on his paper: “God gets 1003, you get zero. Happy New Year!”
1to cause [kכ:s] – спричиняти
2God knows! – Бог його знає!
3to get 100 – отримати найвищу оцінку
5. Translate into English in writing.
1. Громадяни України мають право на освіту. 2. Право на освіту гарантується Конституцією України. 3. Моя молодша сестра навчається у початковій школі. 4. Національні меншини України мають право на освіту рідною мовою. 5. Твоя рідна мова українська, чи не так? 6. Випускники школи мають право поступити до інституту, університету чи академії. 7. Твій брат навчається на вечірньому відділенні, чи не так?
6. Write the correct word from those in brackets (Consult § 12).
1. I want to say (something, anything). 2. Do you want to say (something, anything). 3. Is there (something, anything) in the bag? There is (anything, nothing) in it. It is empty. 4. I have (some, any) English books. 5. I read (some, any) stories in my English books. 6. Do you have (some, any) English books? 7. My mother has bought (some, any) butter. 8. I don’t have (some, any) French books. 9. Do you speak (some, any) foreign Languages? – Yes, I do. I speak (some, any) foreign languages. I speak English and Russian.
7. Translate into English (Consult §17, 19, 23, 24)
1. Куди ти йдеш? – Я іду в бібліотеку. 2. Ми бачили її вчора. Вона працювала в саду. 3. Учні складають екзамени один раз на рік. 4. Хто зараз у спортзалі? – Там тренуються учні нашої групи. Вони тренуються двічі на тиждень. 5. Що робив ваш син у дев’ятій годині вечора? – Читав якусь книжку. В цей час він завжди читає книжки або дивиться телевізор. 6. Я бачив тебе, коли ти бігав вулицею. Куди ти поспішав?
8. Read and retell the jokes.
Professor’s wife (rushing in): My goodness!1 our little Molly has been drinking all the ink2 in the ink-bottle. What shall we do?
Professor (absent-mindedly3): I’ll have to write with a pencil, my dear.
1My goodness [‘gudnis]! – Боже мій!
2 ink – чорнило
3absent-mindedly [´æbsənt´maindidli] – неуважно
One day a professor couldn’t stay for his afternoon classes, so he put a notice1 on the door, which read as follows: “Professor Evans will not be able to meet his classes this afternoon”.
Then he went to put on his coat and on his way out saw that some student had rubbed off2 the letter ‘c’ in the word ‘classes’ on the notice. The professor smiled and rubbed off the letter ‘l’ in the word ‘lasses3’.
1notice – записка, повідомлення
2to rub off – стерти
9. Read and memorize the new words and word combinations:
compulsory [kəm´pʌlsəri] – обов’язкови junior – молодший
nursery school [´nə:sri] – дитячий садочок full-time study – денне навчання
free of charge –безплатний term [tə:m]– семестр
schooling – навчання vocational[vou´ki∫nəl]– професійний
infant – дитячий
10.Read and translate the text.
EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
In England compulsory school begins at the age of five, but before that age children can go to a nursery school, also called play school. Compulsory education is free of charge, though parents may choose a private school and spend their money educating their children.
There are three stages of schooling with children moving from primary school (first stage) to secondary school (second stage). The third stage provides further and higher education in technical colleges, colleges of higher education and universities.
Primary school is divided into infant school for children between the ages of 5 to 6 and junior school for those between the ages 7 and 11.
At about 11 or 12 children move to a new school, usually “comprehensive”. Other types of secondary schools are prestigious grammar schools and secondary modern schools.
At 16 pupils take exam called “G.C.S.E.” (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education. Some 16-year-olds continue their studies in the sixth form at schools or at a sixth form college. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called “A” level (advanced level) at 18. You need “A” level to enter a university. Other 16-year-olds choose to go to a college of further education to study for more practical (vocational) diplomas relating to the world of work, such as hairdressing, typing or mechanics.
Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with “A” levels from 18. Students study for a degree, which takes three years of full-time study. Most students graduate at 21 or 22 and are given their degree at special graduation ceremony.
English schools usually divide their year into three terms, starting at the beginning of September. Autumn term ends in Christmas holidays (about 2,5 weeks). Then comes spring term which ends in Easter holidays (about 2 weeks). After summer term pupils rest for 6 or 7 weeks.
11.Answer the questions:
12. Fill in the gapes and find the differences between the systems of schooling in our country and in Britain.
13. Translate into English.
1. Я думаю, що він зараз або читає, або малює. 2. Ти можеш прочитати або цю, або ту книжку. 3. Я думаю, що він зараз розмовляє або з батьком, або з мамою. 4. Я не прочитав цю газету. – Я також. 5. Я не був там. – Я також. 6. Я не люблю каву. – Я також.
14. Open the brackets using the verbs in Future Indefinite or Future Continuous.
1. Don’t ring him up at 11 o’clock tomorrow. He (to work) at that moment. 2. At this time tomorrow my brothers (to play) football. 3. Maybe we (to play) football tomorrow. 4. They (to come) soon. 5. I am afraid it (to rain) all day tomorrow. 6. I must tell John that Nick (to wait) for him at 10 o’clock tomorrow.
15. Read and memorize the following words:
key[ki :] – кнопка, клавіша, ключ
digit[´didʒit] – цифра, число
hardware [´ha:dwɛə] – апаратне забезпечення
software – програмне забезпечення
to store [stכ:] –запам’ятовувати, зберігати
storage [´stכrdʒ] – пам’ять, зберігання даних
input– вхід, введення
to compute [kəm´pju:t] – обчислювати
to perform [pə´fכ:m] – виконувати
to display – показувати
to compare –порівнювати
to record – записувати
to process [´prouses] – обробляти, опрацьовувати
in daily use – у щоденному вжитку
to do useful work – виконувати корисну роботу
to process data – обробляти дані
to do a lot of operations – виконувати багато операцій
to plug instruction – ввести команду
to do weather forecasting –зробити прогноз погоди
to keep records of financial affairs – вести облік фінансових справ
16. Make up sentences:
17. Make up questions and let your fellow students answer them.
18. Read the text and answer the questions.
A computer is a programmable machine. Computer’s parts are system block, a monitor, a display, a keyboard, a mouse, a disk drive, a modem, a printer, a scanner. The major parts of a PC include the motherboard, central processor unit, memory, hard drive (вінчестер) and video card. Hardware is a computer equipment each hardware device has a driver, like video card drivers, or modem drivers. They need to be installed. Drivers are mini programs or instructions that tell your computer how to use its hardware. The most important program that runs on a computer is the operating system.
You have a network when two or more computers are connected to each other. We have a network in our computer classroom.
Software is a number of computers programs. Computer programs are large lists of instructions for the computers.
To start a computer you must have a login and a password.
1. What is computer? 2. Do you know computer’s parts? 3. What are the major parts of a PC? 4. What is hardware? 5. What are drivers? 6. What is the most important program that runs on a computer? 7. What is a network? 8. What is software? 9. What is a computer program? 10. How can you start a computer?
19. Fill in the blanks with the necessary words:
1. The store … a numerical quantities and data which are to be processed. (contains, includes, consists of). 2. The calculator can … the operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and certain other special operations.(perform, carry out, carry) 3. The input and output devices are to supply information and to … it from the computer. (obtain, give, bring) 4. Computers are million times … than humans in performing computing operations. (faster, quicker, rapid)
20. Say what you can do with the help of the computer. Use the following expressions:
to take an information or data, to perform a sequence of reasonable operations, to put out information, to store information, to display the answers, to keep records of financial affairs, to do weather forecasting, to process data.
21. Find the sentences in which the verbs to have and to be are translated as мати, бути повинним:
1. The general purpose of this unit is to perform different arithmetic operations.2. The lecture was to start at 9 o’clock. 3. For a digital computer has to be in the form of digits or numbers. 4. You have to remember the names of the scientists who have contributed to the designing of computers. 5. The results of the experiment have carefully been checked up today.
22. Insert modal verbs can, may, must, should or their equivalents in the necessary tense form:
1. Information or data … be stored in the computer’s memory or storage. 2. The first automatic computers … operate at the low speed. 3. Your scientific article on computers … be published at our Institute. 4. You … not miss the chance. 5. You … look through the words, then we’ll have the dictation. 6. I hope that I … to do this myself.
23. Read and remember the words:
electronic mail (e-mail) – електрона пошта
on-line – оперативний режим
chat room – чат
response – відповідь
receive [ri ´si:v] – одержувати
home page – домашня сторінка
browser – браузер
download – завантажувати
utilities– службові програми
delete – викреслювати
access – доступ
device – прилад
security – безпека
24. Read the text and translate it.
The Internet is a global computer network. It began in the United States of America in 1969 as a military experiment. Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States. Host computer, a computer connected to the Internet that provides services to other computers on the network. A provider is a company that sells computer access to the Internet.
The most popular Internet service is –mail. E-mail (electronic mail) is a way of sending messages between computers. E-mail addresses are very interesting. The most important symbol in an e-mail is the @ sign, which separates the personal user’s identification on the left, from the domain, or machine address, on the right. Here’s an example of e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
www – World Wide Web
A browser is a program that allows a computer to display documents containing text, graphics, photographs, sounds, videos and animations. Most browsers are used to view information on the World Wide Web.
Netscape and Internet Explorer are Internet browsers. Netscape and latter called Netscape Navigator is a Web browser. Navigator is the best-known software product of Netscape Communications Corporation.
Modem is a device that coverts between analog and digital signals.
Login is a command to gain access to a computer, computer network, computer program, or other devices.
Password is the access code.
Hypertext allows the user to jump easily from one document to another.
“Chats” or chat rooms are on-line conversations.
Home page is the starting point or front page of a website.
25. Answer the questions:
1. What is Internet? 2. When did it begin? 3. Where are most of the Internet host computers? 4. What is host computer? 5. What is a provider? 6. What is the most popular Internet service? 7. What is e-mail? 8. What is the most important symbol in an e-mail address? 9. What does it separate? 10. What does a browser allow? 11. What Internet browsers do you know? 12. What kind of device is a modem? 13. What is login? 14. What is password? 15. What does hypertext allow the user? 16. What are “chats”? 17. What is home page?
26. Open the brackets using the verbs in Present Perfect or Past Indefinite.
1. I (meet) two of my friends today. I (meet) them on the way to school 2. A month ago my uncle (build) a new house in the country. We (visit) it recently and (enjoy) ourselves very much. 3. He (forget) to close the window when he (leave) the house. 4. He (write) several letters this week. 5. Jack London (to be born) in San Francisco in an extremely poor family. 6. You (read) many books by Jack London?
27. Answer the following questions:
1. Are you fond of reading? 2. What kind of books do you usually read? 3. Is there a book that you read several times? 4. Do you put out a book that seems dull to you? 5. What book are you reading now? 6. How many books did you read last year? 7. Is there a library in your college? 8. Are there any books on English History and Geography there? 9. What kinds of books can you get from the library? 10. What are your favourite books? 11. Who is your favourite author?
28. Read and memorize the words:
to subscribe to [səb´skraib] – записатися до
perhaps [pə´hæps] – можливо
poetry[´pouitri] – поезія
librarian [lai´brɛəriən] – бібліотекар
order [´כ:də] – порядок; замовляти
sci-fic[´saifik]= scientific fiction – науково-популярна література
to print – друкувати
contemporary[kən´tempərəri] – сучасний
to return [ri´tə:n] – повертати (ся)
extremely [iks´tri:mli] – украй, надзвичайно
to refer to [ri´fə:] – посилатися на
reference[´refrəns] – довідка
29. Read the word combinations and sentences with the translation.
30. Read the text
There are different kinds of libraries: public libraries, children’s libraries, school libraries, personal libraries, scientific libraries and even traveling libraries.
If you want to get books from a library, you subscribe to it. But first you must learn the library regulations.
We usually keep a book for a week or perhaps two before giving it back. If, by the end of the second week, you hadn’t finish reading a book, you may reregister it for another two weeks. If the book you want is out, you may leave an order for it. The librarian will send you a postcard to inform you that the book is in.
Most public libraries have reading rooms and reference libraries. In the reading room there are tables at which you can sit and read books, newspapers and magazines. In the reference library there are encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases and many other reference books. These may not be taken out.
Secondary school pupils who are interested in foreign languages visit libraries to get books in English, French and other languages. They will find adapted books for each special class and books in the original.
31. Read the dialogue. Practice it in pairs. Make up similar dialogues.
Ann: Good morning.
Librarian: Good morning.
Ann: Have you got any interesting English books?
Librarian: Yes, we have some. Which English writers do you like?
Ann: I like Charles Dickens. I’ve read a lot of books by Dickens.
Librarian: Did you read them in English or in Ukrainian?
Ann: I read them in Ukrainian in my childhood. I didn’t know English at that time.
Librarian: Have you read any books by English writers in the original?
Ann: No, I haven’.
Librarian: Then don’t take any books by Dickens now. They are too difficult or you. Take a book by Oscar Wilde or Jack London. Their books are easier for reading.
Ann: All right. Please show me some books by Oscar Wilde.
Librarian: I’m very sorry, but we haven’t got any books by Oscar Wilde at the moment. I advise you to take a book by Jack London. Shall I get you “Martin Eden” or “White Fang”?
Ann: Please give me “Martin Eden”.
Librarian: Here it is.
Ann: Thank you very much.
32. Read the following common and decimal fractions. (Consult § 9)
a) ; ; ; ; ;
b) 7.5; 15.37; 9.05; 100.05; 0.38; 10.008; 3.07;
33. Replace the infinitive in brackets by the Present Perfect or the Past Indefinite(Consult §25, 26).
1. The children (to do) their homework. Now they can go to the skating-rink. 2. You ever (to be) in Warsaw? – Yes, I (to be) there last year. 3. I already (to send) the telegram. 4. I (to send) the telegram yesterday. 5. I (not to see) him in January. 6. I (not to see) him since January. 7. We (not to receive) any letters from her lately. 8. They (to go) to the camp three days ago. 9. I just (to see) him. 10. I (to see) him in 1973.
34. Interpret the following quotations:
“Language is the dress of thought”.
“Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind”.
“English and America are two countries separated by the same language”.
(G. Bernard Shaw)
35. a) Rank in order of importance the following reasons for learning English:
a) to go an English-speaking country;
b) to enjoy English literature;
c) to become an English teacher;
d) to work as a translator;
e) to be able to talk to English-speaking people;
f) to understand the words of pop songs;
g) to understand what English-speaking actors say in films;
h) to get a better job;
i) to be better educated.
b) Tell the others about your reasons for learning English.
c) Prove that English is an obligatory part of your education.
36. Read and translate the text.
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
English is a world language.
It is the language of progressive science and technology, trade and cultural relations, commerce and business. It is the universal language of international aviation, shipping and sports.
English is spoken more than 350 mln people. Geographically, it is the most widespread language on earth, second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak in it.
It is the official language of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, of the United States of America, of Australia and New Zealand. It is also spoken as the second language in many parts of India and Africa. The number of second-language speakers may soon exceed the number of native speakers.
Besides, millions of people study and use English as a foreign language. In our country English is very popular: it is studied at schools (sometimes even at nursery schools), colleges and universities.
Learning a foreign language is not an easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist.
trade– торгівля major [´meidʒə] – головний
commerce [´kכmə:s] – комерція to exceed [ik´si:d] – перебільшити
shipping– морський флот patience [´pei∫əns] – терпіння
37. Translate into English:
1. Я залишив свій зошит вдома. 2. Де Петро? – Він ще не прийшов. 3. Що ти робиш? – Читаю англійське оповідання. Скільки сторінок ти вже прочитав? – Я прочитав уже сім сторінок. 4. Я не можу їхати з тобою. Я ще не склав екзамену з математики.
38. a) Form and write ordinal numerals from the following.
7; 4; 8; 12; 9; 45; 11; 13; 2; 3; 1; 23; 125; 438; 231.
b) Read and write the following dates.
17/XII; 22/IV; 9/V; 23/II; 12/IV; 27/X; 30/XI; 1812; 1990; 2008; 1961; 2000; 1805
ІММЕНИК (THE NOUN)
Іменники в англійській мові, як і в українській, мають два числа: однину і множину.
Множина іменників утворюється додаванням до форми однини закінчення -(е)s, яке після дзвінких і голосних вимовляється як [z], а після глухих приголосних – як [s]:
Іменники, що закінчуються на -s, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch, у множині мають закінчення -es, яке вимовляється [iz]:
a box – boxes a bus – buses
a dress – dresses a bench – benches
До іменників, що закінчуються на -y з попередньою приголосною, додається закінчення -es; при цьому у змінюється на і:
A cherry – cherries a berry – berries
A lorry – lorries a factory – factories
У деяких іменниках, що в однині закінчуються на -f, -fe, у множині -f змінюється на -v з додаванням закінчення -e(s), яке вимовляється [z]:
a life – lives a shelf– shelves
a knife – knives a scarf – scarves
a wife — wives a wolf — wolves
a leaf — leaves a half — halves
Деякі іменники утворюють множину не за правилами, їх слід запам'ятати:
a man — men a foot — feet
a woman — women a mouse — mice
a child — children a tooth — teeth
Відмінок (The Case)
В англійській мові іменник має два відмінки: загальний (the Common Case) і присвійний (the Possessive Case).
Загальний відмінок не має спеціальних відмінкових закінчень. Зв'язок іменника у загальному відмінку з іншими словами виражається прийменниками і місцем у реченні. Так, іменник, що стоїть перед присудком, є підметом, а після присудка — прямим додатком:
The teacher asks the pupil. Учитель запитує учня.
The pupil asks the teacher. Учень запитує вчителя.
Різні зв'язки іменника, що відповідають непрямим відмінкам в українській мові, виражаються за допомогою прийменників:
The boy gave the book to his brother.Хлопець дав книжку своєму братові (давальний відмінок).
The streets of the city were wide. Вулиці міста були широкі (родовий відмінок).
Не wrote with a pencil. Він писав олівцем (орудний відмінок).
Присвійний відмінок іменників в однині утворюється додаванням закінчення -'s(тобто апострофа і букви s), яке вимовляється за тими самими правилами, що й закінчення множини іменників (див. § 1):
the student's book книжка студента
the boy's ball м'яч хлопчика
the horse's leg нога коня
Присвійний відмінок іменників у множині утворюється додаванням апострофа:
the students' books книжки студентів
the girls' balls м'ячі дівчаток
Якщо іменник у множині не закінчується на -s, то його присвійний відмінок утворюється так само, як в однині, тобто додаванням -'s:
the children's toys дитячі іграшки
the men's deeds вчинки чоловіків
Присвійний відмінок виражає належність предмета якійсь особі. Інколи форму присвійного відмінка можуть набувати іменники, що означають:
а) назви країн, міст, суден:
Kyiv's theatres театри Києва
the “Petro Sahaidachnyi's” crew команда корабля “Петро Сагайдачний”
б) час і відстань:
a mile's distance відстань в одну милю
three years' work трирічна праця
в) збірні поняття типу government, party, army, family, society:
the family's traditions сімейні традиції
the government's decision постанова уряду
Замість присвійного відмінка для вираження належності може вживатись іменник з прийменником of:
my friend's sister
the sister of my friends сестра мого друга
АРТИКЛЬ (THE ARTICLE)
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