The Champions of Human Rights


1. Globally the champions of human rights have most often been citizens, not government officials. In particular, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played a cardinal role in focusing the international community on human rights issues.

2. For example, NGO activities surrounding the 1995 United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, drew unprecedented attention to serious violations of the human rights of women.

3. NGOs such as Amnesty International, the Antislavery Society, the International Commission of Jurists, the International Working Group on Indigenous Affairs, Human Rights Watch, Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights, and Survivors International monitor the actions of governments and pressure them to act according to human rights principles.

4. Government officials who understand the human rights framework can also effect far reaching change for freedom.

5. In other countries leaders like Nelson Mandela and Vaclev Havel have brought about great changes under the banner of human rights.

6. Human rights is an idea whose time has come. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a call to freedom and justice for people throughout the world.

7. Every day governments that violate the rights of their citizens are challenged and called to task. Every day human beings worldwide mobilize and confront injustice and inhumanity.

$AM 0860, 18, 1, 1,0,0

Choose one paragraph from the following reading that best suits each statement.

#1. One of the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child ensures access to basic services and to equity of opportunity for children. (…)

#2. The best interests of the child must be taken into account in all actions concerning him/her. (…)

#3. Children must be heard and respected in all matters that affect them. (…)

#4. The CRC is a legally binding document, since the countries must follow it, as soon as they ratify it. (…)

#5. One of the principles of the Convention reads that children all over the world shall enjoy their rights fully, everywhere and in all situations. (…)

The Convention on the Rights of the Child

1. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is the most widely ratified human rights treaty in history. It sets forth a wide range of provisions that encompass civil rights and freedoms, family environment, basic health and welfare, education, leisure and cultural activities and special protection measures.

2. The Convention has several "foundation principles" that underpin all other children's rights. These include: non-discrimination; best interests of the child; right to survival and development; and views of the child.

3. Non-discrimination means that all children have the same right to develop their potential - all children, in all situations, all of the time, everywhere.

4. The best interests of the child must be "a primary consideration" in all actions and decisions concerning her or him, and must be used to resolve confusion between different rights.

5. The right to survival and development underscores the vital importance of ensuring access to basic services and to equity of opportunity for children to achieve their full development.

6. The views of the child mean that the voice of children must be heard and respected in all matters concerning their rights. Countries must promote children's active, free and meaningful participation in decision-making that affects them.

7. The CRC has been ratified by over 190 countries since it was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly in November 1989. Ratification commits countries to a code of binding obligations towards their children.


$AM 0861, 18, 2, 1,0,0

Finish up the sentences by adding one of the three fragments.

#1.It is difficult to protect children from (…)

1). … abusers who are members of their own family.

2). … abuse who are members of their own family.

3). … abusive who are members of their own family.

#2. The blackmailer (…)

1). … caught when someone recognised her handwriting.

2). …was catching when someone recognised her handwriting.

3). …was caught when someone recognised her handwriting.

#3. Armed robbery is increasingly common, with criminals (…)

1). … used shotguns and other weapons.

2). … using shotguns and other weapons.

3). … being used shotguns and other weapons.

#4. The mugger (…)

1). … came up to her in the street and produced a knife.

2). … would come up to her in the street and produced a knife.

3). … has been coming up to her in the street and produced a knife.

#5. The murderers of women tend (…)

1). … being their husbands.

2). … to be their husbands.

3). … be their husbands.

 

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Finish up the sentences by adding one of the three fragments.

#1. Only 10% of men (…)

1). … are murdered by their wives.

2). … is murdered by their wives.

3). … have murdered by their wives.

#2. The thief (…)

1). … got into the gallery at night and had taken three Picassos.

2). … has got into the gallery at night and took three Picassos.



3). … got into the gallery at night and took three Picassos.

#3. The assault was vicious and the victim (…)

1). … needed 56 stitches.

2). … needing 56 stitches.

3). … had needed 56 stitches.

#4. The arsonist who set fire to Ann’s cottage did it because he (…)

1). … had had a row with his girlfriend.

2). … had a row with his girlfriend.

3). … was having a row with his girlfriend.

#5. All twelve members of the jury (…)

1). … was convinced of Davidson's guilt.

2). … were convinced of Davidson's guilt.

3) … convinced of Davidson's guilt.

 

$AM 0863, 18, 2, 1,0,0

Finish up the sentences by adding one of the three fragments.

#1. I don't think I'd ever (…)

1). … commit a serious crime.

2). … committing a serious crime.

3). … have committed a serious crime.

#2. If the school rules aren't written down anywhere, how are we (…)

1). … supposing to know what they are?

2). … supposed to know what are they?

3). … supposed to know what they are?

#3. A psychiatrist (…)

1). … was calling as an expert witness during the trial.

2). … was called as an expert witness during the trial.

3). … has called as an expert witness during the trial.

#4. Everyone should (…)

1). … have the right to a fair trial.

2). … has had the right to a fair trial.

3). … had had the right to a fair trial.

#5. If you break the law, you deserve (…)

1). … to have punished!

2). … to be punished!

3). … to have been punished!

 

$AM 0864, 18, 2, 1,0,0

Finish up the sentences by adding one of the three fragments.

#1. Governments must (…)

1). … be allowed to introduce, change and abrogate laws.

2). … have allowed to introduce, change and abrogate laws.

3). … to allow to introduce, change and abrogate laws.

#2. The defendant refused to answer the prosecutor’s questions (…)

1). … because he was afraid it would incriminate him.

2). … for fear that they will incriminate him.

3). … because he was afraid that his answers would incriminate him.

#3. Having finished lunch, (…)

1). … the case was discussed again by detectives.

2). … a bunch of detectives discussed the case.

3). … the detectives began discussing the case.

#4. The spy (…)

1). … sentenced to life imprisonment.

2). … has sentenced to life imprisonment.

3). … was sentenced to life imprisonment.

#5. A number of bystanders watched the robbers (…)

1). … to speed off in a getaway car.

2). … speed off in a getaway car.

3) … sped off in a getaway car.

 

$AM 0865, 18, 2, 1,0,0

Finish up the sentences by adding one of the three fragments.

#1. 'Silence in court!'(…)

1). … shouted the judge angrily.

2). … the judge shouted angry.

3). … angry shouted the judge.

#2. I don't know why you're putting the blame (…)

1). … at me.

2). … for me.

3). … on me.

#3. Shelley has no intention (…)

1). … of admitting she lied.

2). … to admitting she lied.

3). … admit she lied.

#4. It isn't necessary (…)

1). … for set the burglar alarm.

2). … to set the burglar alarm.

3). … that should set the burglar alarm.

#5. The judge gave us permission (…)

1). … to call a star witness.

2). … to calling a star witness.

3). … to have called a star witness.

 

$AM 0866, 18, 2, 1,0,0

Finish up the sentences by adding one of the three fragments.

#1. We don't know who (…)

1). … was on fault yet, but we'll find out.

2). … was at fault yet, but we'd find out.

3). … was at fault yet, but we'll find out.

#2. Sorry, I mistook you (…)

1). … for someone else.

2). … for the other else.

3). … for anyone else.

#3. Should judges take children into (…)

1). … account when sentenced their parents?

2). … account when sentencing their parents?

3). … account when have sentenced their parents?

#4. The plan (…)

1). … went wrong, didn't it?

2). … had wrong, hadn’t it?

3). … did wrong, didn’t it?

#5. We need prisons in (…)

1). … solution to keep society safe from dangerous criminals.

2). … order to keep society safe from dangerous criminals.

3). … account to keep society safe from dangerous criminals.

 

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