Task 9. Study the presentation on report writing. Read the beginning of the report and then using the information from the table below write the main part and conclusion of the report (60-80 words).
The origin of engineering goes back to the very beginning of human civilization when tools from stones and bones were first created. Products and processes that enhance the joy of living remain a top priority of engineering innovation, since the day of the taming of fire (prehistoric time) and the invention of wheel (medieval period).
From the metallurgists (who ended the Stone Age) to the aircraft builders (who brought the people of the world closer), the past witnessed many marvels of engineering prowess. …
Task 10. Prepare the presentation of your report in Power Point (not over 10 slides) and present it to the rest of your group.
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3. Большой Англо-русский политехнический словарь в 2-х томах./С.М. Баринов, А.Б. Борковский, В.А. Владимиров и др..- М.: Рус. яз., 1991.
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7. Скуратовський А. К. Aнгло-український словник термінів та визначень з машинознавства.-К.: НТУУ «КПІ», 2003. – 68 с.
8. Українсько-англійський словник – довідник термінів і визначень з машинобудування для студентів напрямів підготовки "Інженерна механіка" та "Прикладна механіка"/ Уклад: Скуратовський А. К., Корсун Г. О., Литовченко І. М. – К.: НТУУ «КПІ», 2011. – 160 с.
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10. Bingham C. Technical English: B1. Pearson Education. 2008.
11. Birch, Alan (2005). The Economic History of the British Iron and Steel Industry, 1784-1879. Routledge. ISBN 0415382483.
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14. Jenny Dooley – Virginia Evans. Grammarway 3. Express Publishing, 2002.
15. W. K. V. Gale, Iron and Steel (Longmans, London 1969), 55ff.
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We use the present simple for:
· facts and permanent states. Tony works for a construction company.
· general truths and laws of nature. Heat flows from hot to cold.
· habits and routines (with always, usually, etc.). He usually cleans the car on Sundays.
· timetables and programmes (in the future). My train departs at 5.32 exactly.
· sporting commentaries, reviews and narrations. Manson passes on the far side and clips the crash barrier.
· feelings and emotions. I love Venice; it’s a beautiful city.
The time expressions we use with the present simple are: usually, often, always, every day/week/month/year etc., in the morning/afternoon/evening, at night/the weekend, on Fridays, etc.
We use the present continuous (to be+verb – ing):
· for actions taking place at or around the moment of speaking. They are watchingTV now.
· for temporary situations. We are replacingthe tiles in the bathroom this weekend.
· for fixed arrangements in the near future. We’re walkingover to the next village tomorrow.
· for currently changing and developing situations. The neighbourhood is becomingquieter and quieter.
· with adverbs such as always to express anger or irritation at a repeated action. He isalways using the hairdryer when I need it.
The time expressions we use with the present continuous are: now, at the moment, at present, these days, nowadays, still, today, tonight, etc.
We use the past simple:
· for an action that occurred at a definite time (stated or implied) in the past. The milkman left the milk at 7 o’clock thi9s morning.
· for actions that happened immediately after one another in the past. He opened the window and shouted to his friend.
· for habits or states which are now finished. My mother worked on a farm when she was younger.
Notethat used to can also be used instead of the past simple for habits/repeated actions in the past.
The time expressions we use with the past simple are: yesterday, then, when, How long ago …? Last night/week/month/year/Friday/October etc, three days/weeks etc ago, in 1999, etc.
We use the past continuous (was/were + verb-ing):
· for an action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the past continuous for the action in progress (longer action) and the past simple for the action which interrupted it (shorter action). We were playing cricket in the garden when it started to rain.
· for two or more simultaneous actions in the past. I was preparing dinner while John was doing his homework.
· for an action which was in progress at a state time in the past. We don’t mention when the action started or finished. At 7 o’clock last night, I was walking home from the gym.
· to describe the atmosphere, setting, etc and to give background information to a story. The cicadas were singing and the sun was shining. I was sitting outside on the veranda when suddenly it went quiet.
Note : when there are two past continuous forms in a sentence with the same subject, we can avoid repetition by just using the present participle (-ing form) and leave out the verb to be. They were walking along, they were whistling a tune. =they were walking along, whistling a tune.
The time expressions we use with the past simple are: while, when, as, all morning/evening/day/week etc.
We use the present perfect (have+past participle) for:
· an action that happened at an unstated time in the past. The emphasis is on the action. The time when it occurred is unimportant or unknown. I have cleaned the car. Wendy has been to Spain twice.
· an action which started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with stative verbs such as be, have, like, know, etc. I have known Jack for twenty years.
· a recently completed action. I have completed my History project.
· personal experiences or changes. He has shaved his moustache off.
The time expressions we use with the present perfect are: for, since, already, always, just, ever, never, so far, today, this week/month etc, how long, lately, recently, still (in negations) etc.
We use the past perfect (had+past participle):
· for an action which happened before another past action or before a stated time in the past. Peter had finished his meal by six o’clock.
· for an action which finished in the past and whose result was visible at a later point in the past. He had twistedhis knee a few days earlier and he was still limping heavily.
· for a general situation in the past. Everything had appearednormal at first.
The time expressions we use with the past perfect are: before, after, already, just, for, since, till/until, when, by the time, never, etc.
We use the present perfect continuous (have been+verb-ing):
· to put emphasis on the duration of an action which started in the past and continues up to the present. We have been cuttingthe lawn all afternoon.
· for an action which started in the past and lasted for some time. It may still be continuing or has finished already, with the result visible in the present. He’s bad-tempered because he has been overdoing thingsrecently.
· to express anger, irritation or annoyance. He has been takingmy coffee without asking me.
· for repeated actions in the past continuing to the present. He has got suntannedbecause he has been going to the beach every weekend.
The time expressions we use with the present perfect continuous are:for, since, how long…?, all day/morning/ month etc, lately, recently
Note:with the verbs live, work, teach and feel we can use the present perfect or the present perfect continuous with no difference in meaning. He has lived/has been living in London for the last ten years.
We use the past perfect continuous (had been+verb-ing):
· to put emphasis on the duration of an action which started and finished in the past, usually with for or since. I had been swimming for about an hour when I realised that I had been swept out to sea.
· for an action which lasted for some time in the past and whose result was visible in the past. He had been running and he was breathing heavily.
The time expressions we use with the past perfect continuous are:for, since, how long, before, until, etc.
We use the future simple (will+bare infinitive) for:
· decisions made at the moment of speaking. It’s cold in here, I’ll close the window.
· predictions about the future, based on what we think, believe or imagine, using the verbs think, believe, expect etc, the expressions be sure, be afraid etc, and the adverbs probably, certainly, perhaps etc. She will probably call him later.
· promises, threats, warnings, requests, hopes and offers. Will you help me with the washing up?
· actions, events, situations which will definitely happen in the future and which we can’t control. Our youngest child will be two months old in May.
We use be going to:
· for plans, intentions or ambitions for the future. She’s going to be a pilot when she graduates.
· actions we have already decided to do in the near future. Guy is going to work on a summer camp during the holidays.
· predictions based on what we can see or what we know, especially when there is evidence that something will happen. Those clouds look very dark, it’s going to rain tonight.
The time expressions we use with the future simple and be going to are: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tonight, soon, next week/month/year/summer etc, in a week/ month, etc.
We use the future continuous (will be+verb-ing):
· for actions which will be in progress at a stated future time. I’m going on holiday. This time next week I’ll be lyingin the sun.
· for actions which will definitely happen in the future as the result of a routine or arrangement. I will be goingup to London at the weekend.
· when we ask politely about someone’s plans for the near future. Will you be needing that needle for much longer?
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