Ex. 12. Make up your own dialogues.

Useful word combinations to help you:

· Graphene is a form of carbon that exists as a sheet, one atom thick

· Atoms are arranged into a two-dimensional honeycomb structure

· About 100 times stronger than steel; conducts electricity better than copper

· Possible replacement for silicon in electronics

· About 1% of graphene mixed into plastics could make them conductive

· In some applications - may yet prove to be too good to be true

· The bottom line is that graphene is too good to be ignored

Ex.13 Express your point of view whether graphene is worth investing or not.

Example:

  I think I believe I don’t think I suppose     when you don't invest in science you stagnate and fall behind.  

· The only logical thing to solve the problem is an industrial policy that allows the government pay for everything needed to manufacture new products from a new discovery like this.

· It will not matter how wonderful graphene turns out to be, the only sure thing is that the governments will not be involved, and the short term attitude of the Stock Exchange and banks will ensure that only foreign companies get the finance to produce it.

· Graphene is no doubt a wonder material

· There is only a tiny step from room temperature quantum systems to room temperature superconductors.

· Graphene really can change the world.

· The quantity of patents is not equivalent to the quality or value, however it would be nothing short of criminal to effectively loose (зд. дать доступ) this technology before it really gets going. My worry is that too many patents could stifle (cдерживать) commercial development.

Ex.14 Comment on the following statement:

Investment in graphene may turn out to be wasted but it would be a mistake to let the rest of the world profit from our discoveries.

One point of view: Graphene is an absolutely amazing material, it offers potentially life-changing solutions in so many areas; pioneering work on the "miracle material"; the graphene potential is massive, it will have the same effect on how we live our lives similar to plastics; graphene has been shown to be "self-healing", potential benefits reach into an extraordinary range of areas; useful for real-world electronics; if the economic system is preventing research for human progress, you would have to say it's failing; it is a good thing to invest in this material of the future, as without investment there is no growth.

A contrary point of view: With such medieval (средневековый ) funding for scientific R&D, we have no chance against the developed countries; the technology is too limited - it is interesting but not a game changer, this generation will probably be fine, but I feel sorry for our next generation; the funding of graphene research is misleading; the government has cut total funding to research; the "extra" money going to graphene is actually coming from severe cuts to other areas of science; graphene is something of a gamble: to really make sense, people will have to dream up inventions for it.

Ex. 15 Topical questions.

1)Why do people love gadgets so much? Is it because they are convenient means of communication – or do they have other qualities? Do a survey in your class to find out.

2) Are there any advantages and disadvantages of using these devices?

3) What gadgets are necessary for you in your everyday life and why?

Ex. 16 Speak on the topics. Take advantage of the words/word combinations in brackets.

1) Dosimeter-radiometer is a device of new generation. (Radiation poisoning, an innovative cell phone device, a gadget from a James Bond movie, catchy dosimeter-radiometer, to make life easier for ordinary people, major cell phone manufacturers, including Fujitsu and Sony Ericsson, small cell phone plug-in , nuclear waste storage facilities etc)

2)The advantages of Dosimeter-radiometer. (To measure radiation levels, foodstuffs, invaluable, practical app for everyday life, an easy-to-use smart phone app, fall-out zones such as Fukushima or Chernobyl, swiped the gadget over a cup of steaming tea, how it works, inventor’s cell phone flashes green, run away as fast as you can, produce a radiation risk map of the entire world etc)

3) The main investments into Do-Ra device.( To receive recognition for the device, Intersoft Eurasia, the startup company, to set up around his invention, to join the nuclear sciences cluster, the Skolkovo innovation hub, an international patenting commission, to estimate the gadget’s value at around $200 million, invested some $100,000 of his own money etc)

4)The maincompetitors abroad. (to work on similar devices, to be far behind smb in terms of compactness, an idea to use the nano-sized material graphene, to make the device even smaller, two Russian-born scientists, to win the Nobel Prize for physics, due to superconductive properties, much more compact gadget on the market, to be absolutely unbeatable, to use graphene etc).

Ex.17 Make round-table discussion on “Graphene applications and investments into its research”.



Use text 11A, table 1 «Possible graphene applications», exercises 13-16 as a basis for talks and discussion.

Useful words and phrases of scientific communication to help you:

· Right, can we start?...

· My name is Nick Petrov.

· I am from …

· I’d like to attract your attention to…

· Now, let’s turn to the point …

· The next point is…

· Moving to point three…

· As far as I know…

· I think you are entirely right speaking about...

· I wish I could agree with you but… investment in graphene may turn out to be wasted but it would be a mistake to let the rest of the world profit from our discoveries.

· In addition, I’d like to mention…And finally…Thank you for your attention.

Table 1 «Possible graphene applications»

Science, area of activity, phenomenon Devices, applications, properties of graphene
    electronics   flexible electronic screens may emerge soonest, with the most appealing idea being "e-paper".
possible replacement for silicon in electronics
as a material highly sensitive to the environment, graphene could act as a sensor with a single device measuring strain, gas, magnetism or pressure.
graphene has one very obvious major commercial use - powering the individual cells in modern displays. Now the individual cells are tiny, flexible and strong, graphene is flexible and very strong, so display surfaces can be created that are very lightweight, large and flexible, yet very robust and durable.
energy graphene could be used to enhance solar cells and to improve the working life of batteries, though a lot of technological barriers still remain.
medicine   its purity and large surface area make it suitable for medical uses too: from aiding drug delivery to building new tissue for regenerative medicine. However, this will not happen before 2030.
    supercondu- ctivity conducts electricity better than copper
about 1% of graphene mixed into plastics could make them conductive
graphene is so thin that a "paint" could act as a rust protector or an "electronic ink" or be added to advanced composite materials to make them impermeable (непроницаемый ) or conductive or stronger.

Ex. 18 Try to outline your own road maр for possible applications of graphene. You may use Internet resources to find useful information.*

 

Road map for possible applications of graphene.

Material Possible applications
Graphene  
 
 

 

Ex. 19 Prepare the presentation in Power Point on “Nano-sized material graphene is no doubt a miracle material” (use the text “Radiation detection goes mobile”,Table1 «Possible graphene applications», exercises 12-18).

 

Part 2 New hope for energy

Listening comprehension.

Ex.1 Work in pairs. Discuss the following questions.

1. What do you know about solar cells?

2. What are the advantages of solar energy?

3. Are there any disadvantages of usingfossil fuel?

4. Is solar energy in common use nowadays?

Ex.2 Read the words to the text.

Vocabulary and definitions









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