Voice .Active and passive voices

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Voice .Active and passive voices

To Keep, active and passive voices

Tense Active voice Passive voice Active sentence Passive equivalent
Simple present keep is kept I keep the butter in the fridge. The butter is kept in the fridge.
Present continuous is keeping is being kept John is keeping my house tidy. My house is being kept tidy.
Simple past kept was kept Mary kept her schedule meticulously. Mary's schedule was kept meticulously.
Past continuous was keeping was being kept The theater was keeping a seat for you. A seat was being kept for you.
Present perfect have kept have been kept I have kept all your old letters. All your old letters have been kept.
Past perfect had kept had been kept He had kept up his training regimen for a month. His training regimen had been kept up for a month.
Simple Future will keep will be kept Mark will keep the ficus. The ficus will be kept.
Conditional Present would keep would be kept If you told me, I would keep your secret. If you told me, your secret would be kept.
Conditional Past would have kept would have been kept I would have kept your bicycle here if you had left it with me. Your bicycle would have been kept here if you had left it with me.
Present Infinitive to keep to be kept She wants to keep the book. The book wants to be kept.
Perfect Infinitive to have kept to have been kept Judy was happy to have kept the puppy. The puppy was happy to have been kept.
Present Participle & Gerund keeping being kept I have a feeling that you may be keeping a secret. I have a feeling that a secret may be being kept.
Perfect Participle having kept having been kept Having kept the bird in a cage for so long, Jade wasn't sure it could survive in the wild. The bird, having been kept in a cage for so long, might not survive in the wild.

In grammar, the voice (also called diathesis and (rarely) gender (of verbs)[1]) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, the verb is said to be in the passive voice.

For example, in the sentence:

The cat ate the mouse.

the verb "ate" is in the active voice. However, in the sentence:

The mouse was eaten by the cat.

the verbal phrase "was eaten" is passive.

In the sentence:

The hunter killed the bear.

the verb "killed" is in the active voice, and the doer of the action is the "hunter". A passive version of the sentence is:

The bear was killed by the hunter.


Further information: Active voice

The active voice is the most commonly used in many languages and represents the "normal" case, in which the subject of the verb is the agent.

In the active voice the subject of the sentence performs the action or causes the happening denoted by the verb. Examples of active voice include the following; Kabaisa "ate" the potatoes The verb ate indicates the active voice. But consider the following sentence which is in passive voice; The potatoes were eaten by Kabaisa. The verb were eaten indicates the presence of passive voice. therefore for the case of active voice it shows that someone has done something or has caused something to happen. But for the case of passive voice it shows that some thing has been done by some else.


Further information: Passive voice, English passive voice

The passive voice is employed in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the verb. That is, it undergoes an action or has its state changed.[4]

In the passive voice the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the doer) of the action denoted by the verb.

Some languages, such as English and Spanish, use a periphrastic passive voice; that is, it is not a single word form, but rather a construction making use of other word forms. Specifically, it is made up of a form of the auxiliary verb to be and a past participle of the main verb. In other languages, such as Latin, the passive voice is simply marked on the verb by inflection: librum legit "He reads the book"; liber legitur "The book is read".

Parts of speech. Adjectives

Main Page: Parts of Speech

  1. Adjectives
      1. Descriptive Adjectives
      2. Proper Adjectives
      3. Possessive Adjectives
      4. Numerical Adjectives
      5. Demonstrative Adjectives
      6. Relative Adjectives
      7. Interrogative and Exclamatory Adjectives
      8. Indefinite Adjectives
      9. Comparison of Adjectives
      10. Attributive and Predicative Use


An adjective is a word that modifies or describes a noun. Sometimes adjectives precede the noun they modify. Sometimes they follow a linking verb. For instance:

The red book was on the table. (Precedes its noun.)
The book on the table was red. (Follows the linking verb was.)

In the following sentences the adjectives modify the noun in the sense they describes it, or say what it looks like, feels like, sounds like, etc:

The balloon is green.

The adjective green tells us what the balloon looks like.

The cloth felt rough.

The adjective rough tells us what the cloth felt like.

The whining noise stopped.

The adjective whining tells us what the noise sounded like.

The following adjectives modify the nouns, but they do not tell us how they appear to the senses.

The best computer

We cannot tell the computer is the best by using our senses directly. We need to compare this computer with the others and make our own judgement or rely on what we have been told. The adjective best modified the noun computer by telling us it is the one that comes out top on some evaluation of all the computers considered. In future we might recognize it by its shape or colour, but the adjective best allows us to distinguish this computer from the others based on an evaluation.

This is my friend

The adjective my does not describe friend by saying what the person looks like, etc. You know that person is my friend because I said so, or for some other reason.

The last chocolate

The adjective last does not tell us what the chocolate looks like or tastes like. The chocolate looks like all the others. We deduce it is the last one, because it is the only one remaining in the box.

Descriptive Adjectives

These modify a noun and tell us what it is like, but not necessarily how it appears to the senses. Here 'descriptive' is used in the widest sense of the word.
The following descriptive adjectives describe the noun:

The flowery dress. The long train. The hairy pig. The smelly dog. The noteworthy example. The spacious garden. The rough surface. The insipid drink. The crazy idea.

They tell us what the noun, or thing, looks like, sounds like, tastes like, feels like or smells like.

These adjectives might look a bit like adverbs!

The moor is lonely. It feels tacky. The bush is prickly.

The following are also descriptive adjectives:

The last dance. The new computer. The top man. The late train.

They describe the noun, but they do not tell us what it looks like, smells like or sounds like.

Proper Adjectives

These are derived from proper names. For instance:

John's car
Australian English
Ford car

Possessive Adjectives

These show ownership:

my car, your cat, our house, their ideas

In traditional grammar, these are considered adjectives; nowadays, they are usually considered pronouns or determiners. They define the nouns, but do not describe them (Or describe them in the widest sense of describe, whatever that means). Because they do this, we can think of them as adjectives. Also they stand for a noun. The word my stands for mine (of me). So my is also a pronoun.

Numerical Adjectives

The ordinal numbers: first, second, third, etc., are usually adjectives:

The first one. The second train. The third man.

Also, the adjectives of quality: few, many, several are adjectives.

Demonstrative Adjectives

These point something out:

this book that pencil, these boxes, those cats,

Like possessive adjectives, nowadays, these are considered pronouns. In traditional grammar, they are demonstrative adjectives. But when used like this:

He gave me this. That is the pencil he gave me. These are her cats.

current grammar, like traditional grammar, calls them pronouns.

Relative Adjectives

Having faith is what matters most. This is the dog whose collar we found.

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