Text B. Hardware and Software

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Text B. Hardware and Software

It's hard to imagine that just 20 years ago, most homes didn't have a personal computer. Now, it's harder to find a home that doesn't have one or more computers. With a computer, you can access the Internet, send and receive e-mail, chat with your friends, play games, share photos and videos, manage your personal finances, and do a lot of other fun and productive activities.

If you want to buy a computer you don’t need to know how it works. But first of all, you should know about hardware and software.

Hardware refers to (називають) the actual (реальний, фізичний) machine and its parts. Software is a list of instructions stored on media (носії інформації) such as diskettes or CD-ROMs, or stored in the computer’s memory. Without some kind of software, hardware is useless. A computer without any programs would simply do nothing.

A computer has several main parts. If we compare a computer to a human body, the CPU (Central Processing Unit) is like a brain. It does most of the 'thinking' and tells the rest of the computer how to work. The CPU is on the motherboard, which is like the skeleton. It provides the basis for the other parts, and carries the nerves that connect them to each other and the CPU. The motherboard is connected to a power supply, which provides electricity to the computer. The various drives (CD drive, floppy drive, and on many newer computers, flash drive) act like eyes, ears, and fingers, and allow the computer to read different types of storage (збережена інформація), in the same way that a human can read different types of books. The hard drive is like a human's memory. Most computers have a sound card or another method of making sound, which is like vocal cords (голосові зв’язки). Connected to the sound card are speakers, which are like a mouth. Computers might also have a graphics card, which helps the computer to create visual effects.

One of the most important jobs that computers do for people is helping with communication. Computers have helped people move forward in science, medicine, business, and education. They also let other people communicate with each other, do their jobs almost anywhere, learn about almost anything, or share their opinions with each other. The Internet is the thing that lets people communicate between their computers.

Blogs are used by many people to say what they want on the Internet. Some people spend most of their time reading and writing blogs. Many people write about things that happen to them. Experts can use them to help people learn more. Some blogs are used by companies to sell things.


Unit 14


Text A. ---The End of Course Test---

-----The main course at The English Language College runs for four weeks. On the last Thursday, students have to do a progress test. If they score 75 % or more, students who are staying longer can continue at a higher level. If they do badly, they usually have to repeat the same level.

It is now lunch-time. The progress test is finished. Most students are happy, but Rosa is a little worried.

"Relax!" says Arturo. "The test isn’t so important!"

"It isn’t important for you because you’re leaving tomorrow, but I don’t want to repeat the same level!"

"I’m sure you’ll pass," says Arturo. "English is easy for European students!"

"What do you mean?" Rosa asks.

"I mean that usually students from Asia and the Arab world have a lot more work to do. Word order and grammar are very different in their first languages. Fewer words are similar and they usually have to learn a new alphabet." Arturo explains.

"But the Asian students in our class write very well and have very good English grammar!" Rosa says.

"That’s because they practise writing and grammar a lot at school in their countries. Some of the students in our class have practised English grammar for many years. But they usually do more writing than speaking!" Arturo says.

"That’s interesting!" answers Rosa, "because in Spanish culture, speaking is probably more important than writing!"

"Yes," says Arturo, "but we make a lot of mistakes and have big pronunciation problems when we’re speaking English!"

"This is why I’m worried about my test," Rosa explains. "I didn’t spend enough time in the language laboratory!"

"But I’m sure your listening and reading were very good," says Arturo.

"Elisabeth Frost gives you a lot of listening practice and your food vocabulary is now very big!"

"Let’s go and have lunch!" Rosa says. "My appetite is very big too!"

Upstairs, on the second floor, there are many hungry teachers. Their appetites are very big, but they have to correct the students’ tests quickly. Both the students and Mary Palmer are waiting for the test results.


Exercise 1.

· Read the text and find sentences describing:

a) the progress test; b) Asian and Arab students’ problems with the English language; c) the role of speaking in Spanish culture.


Exercise 2.

· Do the following:

a) Write the names of some courses at your institution that run for more than one semester.

b) Write a list of problems that worry you most.

c) Write the names of three animals similar in appearance (зовнішність) and habits.


Exercise 3.

· Answer the following questions in writing:

Why is Rosa a little worried about her test?

Why is Arturo sure that Rosa will pass her test?

Why didn’t Rosa spend enough time in the language laboratory?

Are tests important to you?

Do language schools need to test their students on the first day of a course or at the end of a course?

Do you want to know the test results of all the students in your class or just your own result? Why?

· Agree or disagree with the following statements. Explain your choice.

Teachers hate to correct students’ tests.

If your love is real, it will stand the test of time.


Basic Patterns

The main course at The English Language College runs for four weeks. Основний курс у школі англійської мови триває чотири тижні.

Should Metro run 24 hours a day for inauguration? Чи повинно метро безперервно працювати цілодобово в день урочистого відкриття?


Exercise 4.

· Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian. Explain why you think your translation is correct:

Tram services will run 22 hours a day during the festivities.

Be prepared, London tube trains do not run 24 hours!

Notebooks with power-saving displays can run 40 hours.

· Translate into English:

Хокейний сезон триває з кінця вересня (from late September) до початку травня.

Ця п’єса йде в театрі вже 6 місяців поспіль.

Виставка Ермітажу (the Hermitage) триватиме п’ять місяців.

· Ask other students:

How long does the English language course run at your institution?

Text B. The TOEFL Test

The Test of English as a Foreign Language (or TOEFL, pronounced "toe-full" or sometimes "toy-ful") is the most widely accepted English-language test in the world. If you want to study in an English-speaking country, the TOEFL test can help get you there. This test evaluates (оцінює) your ability to use and understand Standard American English at a college level. A TOEFL score (кількість набраних балів) is valid for two years. You can take the Internet-based Test or the Paper-based Test.

It is taken in one day, which saves you travel time and costs. And, there are more than 4,000 test centers to choose from. You can take the test again in 7 days, if you want to improve your scores.

The TOEFL test gives you the skills you need to communicate in real university life. You will be able to listen to lectures, read textbooks and online research, write academic papers and e-mails, and speak with other students and professors.

To earn a score (щоб заробити бали) on the TOEFL test, you must do the following: answer at least 1 question in the Reading section; answer at least 1 question in the Listening section; write at least 1 essay in the Writing section; finish at least 1 task in the Speaking section. You will receive a score on each section and a total score.

The Reading section consists of 3–5 long passages and questions about the passages. The passages are on academic topics (about university/college life).

In the Listening test you will hear six long passages and questions about the passages.

The Speaking section consists of six tasks. Students must answer questions about some aspect of academic life, read a passage, listen to a passage, and speak about the ideas in these two passages.

In the Writing Section, students must read an academic passage, listen to an academic passage, and write about the ideas in them. Also, students must write a personal essay (твір).



Unit 15


Text A.-A trip to Gatwick Airport----

It is the last Friday in February and Arturo’s last day in England. Rosa is with him. They are standing at the Charter Flight desk (стійка реєстрації квитків на чартерні рейси) at Gatwick Airport.

Last week, Arturo phoned a travel company and bought a cheap flight (замовив дешевий квиток) with his credit card. The company told him to collect the ticket at the airport.

"Do you think you’re going to get a ticket?" Rosa asks.

"I’m not worried!" Arturo answers. "I have to wait until the agent from the Charter company arrives. She has all the tickets for late bookings."

"Well, while you’re waiting," Rosa says, "I want to give you a small present. Put it in your hand luggage!" She gives him a small box.

"Can I have a look at it first?" Arturo asks.

"No, you’ll hate it!" Rosa answers.

Arturo opens the box and takes out two small tea-cups. They are decorated with pictures of the Royal Pavilion. At the bottom of the box are some cards from the British Museum.

"Thank you, Rosa!" he says. "I’ll read the cards when I’m on the plane.

I don’t want to cry in the airport. But why did you buy me two teacups?" he asks.

"Tea for two! (алюзія на назву популярної англійської пісеньки)" Rosa answers. "One for you and one for your guest. I’m coming to visit you at Easter!"

A broad smile appears on Arturo’s face.

"Well, I’ve got something for you too!"

He gives her a large envelope with her name on. Inside, Rosa finds a picture of a London pub and a CD of songs by Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger. She looks at Arturo warmly.

"Learn these songs," he tells her, "and you’ll speak perfect Scottish and American English!"

"Which is your favourite song?" she asks him. "I’ll learn it first!"

"My favourite," Arturo answers, "is The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face. It’s a very romantic song. I’d like to sing it to you every day!"

"Well, wait until I come to Gijon and then you can!" Rosa promises.

Both Rosa and Arturo are very happy. The language course was a success. They both passed their test. On Monday, Rosa is going to study at a more difficult level and at Easter both Rosa and Arturo will be together again.

Exercise 1.

· Read the text and find sentences describing:

a) Arturo’s preparations for the flight; b) Rosa’s present for Arturo; c) Arturo’s present for Rosa.


Exercise 2.

· Do the following:

a) Write the names of documents you should have when traveling by air.

b) Make a list of things you would take with you in your hand luggage.

c) Write a list of some things a good travel agency needs.


Exercise 3.

· Answer the following questions in writing:

Are Rosa and Arturo going to get married?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of traveling by plane?

Which is better: late or early booking?

Do people from your country often give presents?

Do you usually give presents to say hello or to say goodbye?

Do you buy expensive presents for special friends?

What was the last present you gave and who did you give it to?

· Agree or disagree with the following statements. Explain your choice.

Little gifts(= presents) supportfriendship.


Basic Patterns

The language course was a success. Ці мовні курси були вельми успішними.

Olympic torch relay will be a success. Естафета олімпійського вогню матиме успіх.

This exhibit of foreign-built motor cars has been a great success. Ця виставка імпортних автомашин проходить з великим успіхом.


Exercise 4.

· Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian. Explain why you think your translation is correct:

The next season will be a success.

This conference was a huge success.

Our drug policy (методи боротьби з наркотиками) is far from a success.

A man is a success if he gets up in the morning and goes to bed at night and in between does what he wants to do.

· Translate into English:

Конференція мала великий успіх.

З’ясувалося, що експеримент успішно завершився.

Політика Об’єднаних Націй у цій країні здійснюється з успіхом.

Театр народного танцю “Заповіт” з успіхом виступив в Іспанії.

· Ask other students:

What do you do to be a success?

Text B. Airplane Travel

The distance from New York to London is about 5500 km. Most people travel between the two cities by airplane. A round-trip ticket is about one thousand dollars. The price can be more during holidays and less with discounts. First-class and business-class also costs more. It is also important to remember the time difference. London is six hours ahead of New York. At 3:00 pm in New York, it is 9:00 pm in London.

If you're planning to travel by plane, choose your airline carrier very carefully. Ask for some information about the company's service record (послужний список компанії), price of the ticket, length of time (тривалість польоту) to destination, and even in-flight service.

Now, once (після того, як) you've bought your ticket, you still need to make the long journey through the airport. Once you arrive, you usually check your bags at the main ticket counter. Then, you have to pass through the security checkpoint, where you will have to walk through an X-ray machine (рентґен), and they will check your carry-on bags for any prohibited items (речі, предмети) including firearms, explosives, and knives. Of course, this is for everyone's safety. You might also be asked to open your bags to be checked.

Once you pass through this checkpoint, then you will go to boarding area and gate to wait for your plane. Just wait there until they announce your flight.

Of course, once aboard the plane, no one ever wants to experience any emergencies, but the plane is equipped with emergency exits in case you have to leave the plane. There are also life jackets under the seats, and oxygen masks in case the plane's cabin unexpectedly loses pressure. Read the safety instruction card located in the pocket of the seat in front of you.

When traveling by air, pay attention to the in-flight announcements. They often contain important information by flight conditions, transfers at your destination, and delays.


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