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TOWARDS CHARACTER RESEARCH OF FRAUDSTER’S PERSONALITY
Summary: Currently, the background continuous growth of the various manifestations of fraud there is a need of the system analysis of the individual offender fraudulent directional. This is due primarily to the fact that the organization of science-based responses to crime of fraudulent activity and the construction of targeted prevention work is impossible without a study of personality characteristics of these criminals.
Key words: psychological characteristics of offender, cheater identity fraud.
In Criminology G. Gross is considered as the founder of studies dealing with the personality of fraudsters. He stated that "the important condition for "the proper judicial investigation is the depth of knowledge of the person who is the main material of the preliminary investigation." [1,с.44] Issues related to the studies of the offender’s personality are also developed by N.T. Vedernikov, F.V. Glazyrin, V.A. Zhbankova, A.S. Krivosheev, K.T. Chernova, R.S. Belkin and etc.
Currently, due to the continuous growth of various fraud manifestations it is necessary to analyze systematically the offender’s personality especially of fraudulent orientation. The reason for this is that the scientifically-based response to criminal fraudulent activity and the development of targeted prevention work is not possible without the studies of personality characteristics of these criminals. For this purpose it is necessary to find out if fraudsters have any features that make them different from law-abiding citizens. If so, the following questions are to be answered: 1. to what extent are these traits common to the various categories of offenders? 2. can these qualities be used as a preventive measure? 3. does the criminal behaviour depend on the nature of an individual and etc.
In the system of factors that have a significant influence on the development of the individual perpetrator, educational and cultural levels occupy a special place. It should be noted that fraudsters are more educated than other categories of criminals. Some authors have also drawn their attention to this fact. [2,с.23] If we speak about education in most cases fraudsters are specialists with higher education (24%) and incomplete higher education (18%), with secondary or technical (38%). However, there is a trend which shows the increase in the educational level of perpetrators of fraud. The main motive of any fraudster is greed. Recently, the formation of a motive is affected by the lack of material security, absence of demand for talents, qualifications, skills, abilities. As the part of the study, we have found out that there are even individuals with two high educations. However, according to the general laws of criminology, the higher is the education, the social status of the offender, the more sophisticated ways of committing crimes, if not more dangerous than all other types of crimes are chosen. [3,с.71]
In the legal literature it is fairly pointed out that in the national criminology it is believed that the increasing level of the education of the population on average, results in the reduction of the crime rate, as in the case of fraud it is clear that the improving level of a fraudster is functionally connected to his professionalism and correspondingly to the immunity in criminal proceedings. [4,с.56]
We may concur in all these conclusions. They are proved by the number of fraudsters with higher education; almost half of them have economic education. It can be considered that the percentage is risen by university students.
Analyzing the wrongful conduct, fraudsters are usually individuals prone to adventurism, able to gain the confidence, creative, able to betray without any remorse, literate, well-dressed, intelligent, tend to waste money, go into debt, but they manage to find the way out of the situation, for example, the debt on the loan can be repaid by the new loan taken illegally in another bank through frontmen.
Inborn abilities and constant training contribute to the development of his power to deceive. Also we can mention observation, astute insight, manual dexterity, the ability to take risks, courage, adventurism and ingenuity, and, of course, the lack of conscience.
Each person, even fraudsters has the ability to deceive. Its variations depend on the value orientations. The fraudster usually has a perfect mimicry, particularly the expression of the eyes, people start to believe him, he is a good bluster, and he is too quick to react to any external changes.
If a fraudster chooses any "specialty", he abides to it, because the occupational guidance remains stable.
The family has significant influence on the nature of human behavior. The family has always been and remains the main source of determining the orientation of human life, shaping his ideological position, mentality, habits, socially acceptable forms of behavior. It is the "primary source of education, values, culture and information." However, in recent years, the Russian family is in a difficult situation, characterized by instability and family values are not clearly stated. "This is evidenced by such processes as: reduced fertility, small families, the growing number of divorces and common-law marriages, the abandonment of children, homelessness." Based on the analyzed criminal cases if we speak about the marital status of fraudsters, it should be noted that only 34% of fraudsters are married, and 82% do not have children. According to statistic data the influence of the number of children is opposite to between men and women: the reduction of criminal activity among women is caused by the increased number of children but men exactly the opposite.
It would be wrong to push to the forefront such personality traits of a fraudster as the tendency to pretence, imagination, the art of acting. In the article that is devoted to the personality of a fraudster L. Sklart exaggerates too much the importance of these circumstances. [5,с.46]
First of all, not all fraudsters have these mentioned above traits. This can be judged by the specific methods of deception, which are used by criminals. There is need to think long to rent a fridge, and then sell it immediately and to blow out money. Obtaining money under false document does not also show the tendency to “acting”. Even in cases when the fraudster shows uncommon skill to mystify others, this is not his appearance. But not because of the tendency to pretence and imaginations frauds are committed, and, as the result, to get easy money and parasitism.
The analysis of judicial practice shows that criminal prosecution is not an accidental episode for the considerable part of convicted of fraud in their biography. So the survey of criminal cases is 27.6% of convicts in age from 18 to 40 years and in the past they were judged. Among convicted for fraud the considerable part consisted of individuals who were able to work, but did not work or study. The analysis of criminal cases showed that 32% of fraudsters were drifters at the moment of criminal prosecution, 38% were employees and the rest were self-employed.
Early and full fraud detection is a significant preventative measure. If the fraudster goes unpunished, it is dangerous not only because he gets the opportunity to commit new crimes, but also his parasitic tendencies are developed, and everything taken together makes it difficult to return a fraudster to the path of honest working life.
And finally, speaking about the psychological characteristics of fraudsters, let’s look at the results of our own researches carried out with fraudsters in Ufa prisons. We have tested 40 prisoners convicted of fraud in order to find out any psychological disturbance of an individual that can lead him to fraudulent activity.
Thus, among the surveyed convicts 76% are men and 24% women. The most of them were urban dwellers and only 25% rural residents, nearly everyone had decent financial situation. The question: "What is the happiest memorable moment of your life" 80% of respondents were undecided, 16% mentioned making large amounts of money, 4% - the mutual love. Pursuing this study we were interested in their attitude to money. And surprisingly 46% of respondents said that they would refuse easily. In relations with the surrounding it looks as follows: 70% of convicts have a person who they trust and who they can rely on. Fraudsters are able to understand a person, who can help from a pure hearts but be even aware that something is hidden. 10% of the convicts said "If you help people - do not expect gratitude, and wait for retribution." They will go to any lengths to get what they really want (in 12% of cases), while 32% wait out the time and then get share of the cake, even though they are able to stop in time, if they feel they lose, but 52% of respondents go to the mat, whatever it takes. Fraudsters can get down to any business, which they absolutely do not know in 64% of cases, it may be that is why 65% of respondents came to their first ideas to get something by fraud shortly before the crime was committed because of the difficult financial situation, or some debt. Speaking about the education it should be noted that 64% of the prisoners have secondary, 36% - technical and higher education.
So, fraudsters are found in almost equal numbers among women and men. Usually they are in middle ages, and it can be connected with the peculiarities of fraudulent activity which requires the certain knowledge of human psychology, the level of their education is higher than other types of criminals. They are eager to help other people, knowing that it is only necessary to wait for retribution, that is, do it just to meet their domestic needs.
1. Гросс Г. Руководство для судебных следователей как система криминалистики. Новое изд., перепеч. с изд. 1908 г. М.: ЛексЭст, 2002. С. 44.
2. Алиева Д. Н. Мошенничество: уголовно-правовой и криминологический анализ (по материалам Республики Дагестан): автореф. дис… канд. юрид. наук. Махачкала, 2005. С.23.
3. Кудрявцев В. Н., Эминов В. Е. Причины преступности в России: криминологический анализ. М., 2006.С. 71.
4. Мельников А.А. Мошенничество и борьба с ним. М., 2002. С. 75; Ольшанский А.И. Банковское кредитование. Предоставление кредита, обеспечение возврата, предупреждение преступлений. М., 1997.С. 56.
5. Скляр Л.И. Мошенники // Преступный мир Москвы. – М.,1972.С. 46.
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