Read the text attentively and translate.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Read the text attentively and translate.



THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN UKRAINE.

The history of medicine in Ukraine begins with the history of folk medicine.

The first medical hospitals in Kyiv Rus were founded in the 11 thcentury and were mostly in the form of alms houses attached tochurches.In the 14th and 15th centuries new hospitals were built and many physicians gave the first aid to the inhabitants of Ukraine and the soldiers of Bogdan Khmelnytsky's troops.

As the number of physicians was inadequate some medical schools which trailed specialists were opened. Kyiv Academy was founded in 1632. It played a prominent role in the development of the Ukrainian medicine.Many graduates of the Academy continued to enrich their knowledge abroad and received their doctors' degrees there. Many former students of this Academy have become the well-known scientists. They are the epidemiologist D. S. Samoilovych, the obstetrician N, M.Ambodyk-Maximovych, the podiatrist S. F. Chotovytsky, the anatomist 0.M. Shumlyansky and many .others.

At the end of the I8th and during the 19th centuries the medical departments were formed at the Universities of Kharkiv, Kyiv, Lviv and Odesa. The total number of physicians has increased m Ukraine. The medicine of Zemstvo was widely used at that time.

During the Crimean War (1854-1856), upon Pirogov's initiative the first detachment of nurses was trained and sent to Sevastopol to help its defenders. It gave the beginning of the organization "Red Cross".

In 1686 the first bacteriological station was organized in Odesa which was of great importance in the development of microbiology and epidemiology. The famous scientists I. I. Mechnikov and M. F. Gamaliya worked at this station and succeeded much in their investigations.

Inspite of favourable conditions for the successful development of natural sciences in Russia many outstanding scientists worked in Ukraine. It is known that the brilliant scientist M. I. Pirogov and his followers, as V. O. Karavayev, O. F. Shimanovsky, M. V. Sklifosovsky and others made valuable contribution in the Ukrainian medicine.

The famous scientists V. P. Obraztsov and M. D. Strazhesko were founders of Kyiv therapeutist’ school. They made a huge progress in the field of cardiology Winch was done in the treatment of many eye diseases by the prominent scientist, academician V. P. Filatov who founded the Institute of Eye diseases in Odesa. Many other outstanding scientists worked in Ukraine whose names are well known m the world.

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2. Answer the questions:

What does the history of medicine in Ukraine begin with?

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When were the first medical hospitals founded in Kyiv?

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What form were the first Kyiv hospitals in?

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When were new hospitals built?

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Whom did many physicians give the first aid to?

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When was Kyiv Academy founded?

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Where (did many physicians receive their doctors' degrees?

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What former students of the Academy have become the well-known

scientists?

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What Universities were the medical departments founded at?

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What medicine was widely used at that time?

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Самостійна робота №2 до практичного заняття №2

Тема: Всесвітня організація охорони здоров'я.

Студенти повинні знати: основні правила перекладу професійно орієнтованих іншомовних джерел.

Студенти повинні вміти: складати план до тексту; уміти аналізувати, узагальнювати та систематизувати отриману інформацію.

Read the text and translate.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organization, which had been an agency of the League of Nations.

Mission

The WHO's constitution states that its objective "is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health." Its major task is to combat disease, especially key infectious diseases, and to promote the general health of the people of the world.

Establishment

The World Health Organization is one of the original agencies of the United Nations, its constitution formally coming into force on the first World Health Day, ( 7 April 1948), when it was ratified by the 26th member state. Prior to this its operations, as well as the remaining activities of the League of Nations Health Organization, were under the control of an Interim Commission following an International Health Conference in the summer of 1946. The transfer was authorized by a Resolution of the General Assembly.

Summary of activities

As well as coordinating international efforts to monitor outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as SARS, malaria, and AIDS, the WHO also sponsors programs to prevent and treat such diseases. The WHO supports the development and distribution of safe and effective vaccines, pharmaceutical diagnostics, and drugs. After over 2 decades of fighting smallpox, the WHO declared in 1980 that the disease had been eradicated - the first disease in history to be eliminated by human effort.

The WHO is nearing success in developing vaccines against malaria and schistosomiasis and aims to eradicate polio within the next few years. The organization has already endorsed the world's first official HIV/AIDS Toolkit for Zimbabwe (from October 3, 2006), making it an international standard.

In addition to its work in eradicating disease, the WHO also carries out various health-related campaigns — for example, to boost the consumption of fruits and vegetables worldwide and to discourage tobacco use.

Experts met at the WHO headquarters in Geneva in February, 2007, and reported that their work on pandemic influenza vaccine development had achieved encouraging progress. More than 40 clinical trials have been completed or are ongoing. Most have focused on healthy adults. Some companies, after completing safety analyses in adults, have initiated clinical trials in the elderly and in children. All vaccines so far appear to be safe and well-tolerated in all age groups tested.

The WHO also conducts research, on, for instance, whether the electromagnetic field surrounding cell phones has a negative influence on health. Some of this work can be controversial, as illustrated by the April, 2003, joint WHO/ FAO report, which recommended that sugar should form no more than 10% of a healthy diet. This report led to lobbying by the sugar industry against the recommendation, to which the WHO/FAO responded by including in the report the statement "The Consultation recognized that a population goal for free sugars of less than 10% of total energy is controversial", but also stood by its recommendation based upon its own analysis of scientific studies..

Structure

WHO Headquarters in Geneva

WHO Member States appoint delegations to the World Health Assembly, WHO's supreme decision-making body. All UN member states are eligible for WHO membership, and, according to the WHO web site, “Other countries may be admitted as members when their application has been approved by a simple majority vote of the World Health Assembly.” The WHO has 193 member states.

The Republic of China (Taiwan) was one of the founding members of the WHO, but was compelled to leave after the People’s Republic of China was admitted to the UN in 1972 and Taiwan left the UN. Taiwan has applied for participation in the WHO as a 'health entity' each year since 1997 but is denied each year because of pressure from China. China claims sovereignty over Taiwan, and its position is that Taiwan is represented in the WHO system by China. In practice, Taiwanese doctors and hospitals are denied access to WHO information, and Taiwanese journalists are denied accreditation for participation in WHO activities.

The WHO Assembly generally meets in May each year. In addition to appointing the Director-General every five years, the Assembly considers the financial policies of the Organization and reviews and approves the proposed programme budget. The Assembly elects 34 members, technically qualified in the field of health, to the Executive Board for three-year terms. The main functions of the Board are to carry out the decisions and policies of the Assembly, to advise it and to facilitate its work in general.

Membership

The WHO has 193 Member States, including all UN Member States except Liechtenstein , and 2 non-UN members, Niue and the Cook Islands. Territories that are not UN Member States may join as Associate Members (with full information but limited participation and voting rights) if approved by an Assembly vote: Puerto Rico and Tokelau are Associate Members. Entities may also be granted observer status: examples include the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Holy See (Vatican City).

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2.Make up questions the text.

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Самостійна робота №3 до практичного заняття №3

Teма: Анестезія

Студенти повинні знати: професійно орієнтований лексико-граматичний матеріал, необхідний для вивчення теми.

Студенти повинні вміти: опрацювати іншомовні джерела професійного змісту; складати діалоги між пацієнтом і медичними працівниками під час прийому в лікарню.

Read and translate the text

ANESTHESIA

Anesthesia is used in surgery to minimize pain, discomfort, and shock for surgical patients. There are several types that can be used depending on the needs of the surgery: general, local, regional, and conscious sedation. When anesthesia works as expected, the patient feels no pain during a procedure, and often does not remember the proceedings either. It increases patient comfort, which can in turn reduce recovery times. With the knowledge that they are not inflicting pain, it also makes it easier for a medical staff to work.

When anesthesia comes to mind, most people think of general anesthesia. This type is a complete loss of consciousness in the patient accomplished through a combination of injected and inhaled drugs. It is often used for highly invasive surgeries, or cases when total relaxation of the patient is required. General anesthesia carries the most surgical risk because of the state of complete unconsciousness. As a result, the anesthesiologist will manage the patient carefully throughout surgery.

The exact mechanism through which general anesthesia works is unclear. It is believed that the anesthetics act on the brain to produce unconsciousness, and on the nerves and spinal cord to promote immobility and reduce pain. This type is maintained through carefully monitored administration of additional inhaled drugs throughout the surgery.

Local anesthesia involves injected drugs which numb a small area. Many patients have experienced a local anesthetic in the form of Novocaine, which is used in dental applications. Local anesthetics are used when the patient would feel pain, but doesn't need to be unconscious. Any small, localized procedure such as setting stitches is suitable for the local type.

Regional anesthesia is similar to local, except that it covers a wider area of the body. It works by blocking nerve impulses, and is often used during labor and delivery in the form of an epidural. Sometimes, regional anesthesia is used for long term pain management in individuals who experience chronic lower body pain. It allows doctors to block sensations to the entire lower body, or single limbs.

Conscious sedation is an anesthesia practice where the patient remains conscious, but is fully relaxed, does not feel pain, and will not usually remember the experience. This type is useful in situations where patients need to cooperate with medical staff, or when a procedure is not serious enough to warrant putting them to sleep. In cases where a patient is not stable enough for general anesthesia, conscious sedation may be used.

Anesthesia is a vital part of surgical practice, allowing doctors to operate safely and painlessly on patients. The wide variety of anesthetics available allows anesthesiologists to select the most suitable type and anesthetic drug for the patient. Many people will experience some form during their lifetime, and will appreciate the lack of pain associated with it.

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2.Answear the questions

1.When is anesthesia used ?

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2.What types of anesthesia do you know?

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3. What is local anesthesia?

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4. What is regional anesthesia?

 

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5. What is conscious sedation?

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Самостійна робота №4 до практичного заняття №4



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