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Exercise 10: Write a list of colours
Настоящее перфектное употребляется:
I have seen this film and I think it is dull. Я видел этот фильм и думаю, что он скучный.
Ann has read this book already. Анна уже прочитала эту книгу.
I have been to the cinema twice this week. Я была в кино дважды на этой неделе.
I have known him all my life. Я знаю его всю свою жизнь.
He has always been in love with her. Он всегда был влюблен в неё.
Настоящее перфектное образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола и знаменательного (смыслового) глагола: have/has + Participle II (v3):
I have = I’ve
He has = he’s
I have not = I haven’t
He has not = he hasn’t
Для обозначения данного времени часто употребляются наречия ever, never, since, just, already, lately, yet, not yet, this year, this week, so for.
Переведите на русский язык
a. They have lived in this town for ten years.
b. We have already played tennis today.
c. He has just finished the article.
d. I haven’t yet heard the news.
e. She has just received the letter.
2. Замените множественное число единственным:
a. We have already learnt Hamlet’s soliloquy by heart. (I, he)
b. They have been to the swimming pool twice this week. (He, I)
c. My relatives have just called me from the station. (My brother, she)
3. Определите верно, или неверно предложение:
a. I have just arrived home.
b. She have already done the task.
c. They haven’t completed the test yet.
4. Задайте вопросы к предложениям:
a. My mother has already cooked dinner.
b. The baby has just swallowed the coin.
c. My friends have traveled around Europe this month.
d. We haven’t finished the annual report.
e. You have done the most serious mistake in your life.
5. Переведите на английский язык :
a. Девочка ещё не выучила стих.
b. Студент только что сдал зачет.
c. Мои друзья вернулись сегодня из путешествия.
d. Занятие ещё не закончено.
e. Я только что отправил сообщение по электронной почте.
Прошедшее завершенное обозначает действие, законченное до определенного момента в прошлом или до начала другого действия в прошлом:
I had left college by that time. К тому времени я уехал из колледжа.
They had already gone when I arrived home. Они уже уехали, когда я вернулся домой.
After she had taken medicine, she felt better. После того как она приняла лекарство, ей стало лучше.
Прошедшее перфектное образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола (to have) в прошедшем времени и причастия II знаменательного (смыслового) глагола: had + Participle II (v3):
Переведите на русский язык
a. They had lived in this town until we moved to Moscow.
b. We had already played tennis by five o’clock.
c. He had finished the article before we came.
d. The teacher understood that I hadn’t done my homework.
e. Yesterday she received the letter which we had sent her a month ago.
2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в Past Perfect:
a. By two o’clock the professor (to examine) all the students.
b. By the time we came, they (to swim) along the pool twice.
c. During the summer holidays my relatives visited the town, where they (to live) in their childhood.
3. Определите верно, или неверно предложение:
a. I have arrived home before my mother came.
b. By the time the train reached the station, we had made friends with many passengers.
c. When the class was over, they haven’t completed the test.
4. Задайте вопросы к предложениям:
a. My mother had cooked dinner by three o’clock.
b. The baby had broken the toy before I came in.
c. My parents had traveled around Europe before they retired.
d. We hadn’t finished the annual report until we asked for the latest calculations.
e. You had worked at the most serious task in your life before the accident.
5. Переведите на английский язык:
a. Девочка не учила стихи, пока не захотела стать актрисой.
b. Студент сдал зачет до того, как уехал на практику.
c. Мои друзья вернулись из путешествия, которое они запланировали год назад.
d. Занятия закончились до четырёх часов.
e. Я отправил сообщение, которое напечатал час назад.
Будущее завершенное обозначает действие, которое закончится к определенному моменту в будущем или до начала другого действия в будущем.
Будущее завершенное (перфектное) образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола в будущем времени и причастия II знаменательного (смыслового) глагола: shall/will have + Participle II (v3):
1. Употребите следующие выражения в Future Perfect:
He takes; they drive; it works; we played; will he meet me?
2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Perfect:
a. Hockey (to play) by six o’clock tomorrow.
b. These flowers (to be sold) in the shop by eight o’clock next weekend.
c. A new house (to appear) on this street by next year.
d. What you (to do) at seven o’clock tomorrow?
e. How many pages he (to read) by tomorrow evening?
3. Сделайте предложение вопросительным и отрицательным:
a. I’ll have given him this interesting book by tomorrow.
b. We’ll have translated this text by the next class tomorrow.
c. He’ll have completed his work by the time I arrive.
4. Переведите на русский язык:
a. He will not have written his essay by tomorrow class.
b. We shall have done the translation by five o’clock next day.
c. They will have arrived at the station by seven o’clock the day after tomorrow.
5. Переведите на английский язык:
a. Когда ты придешь ко мне завтра, я уже прочитаю твою книгу.
b. Сестра приедет с вокзала к пяти часам завтра.
c. Мама приготовит праздничный обед завтра к трем часам.
d. Вы вернете мне эту книгу к завтрашнему занятию?
e. Почтальон доставит посылку завтра к семи утра.
Texts for additional reading:
Meaning of colors
Red is the color that is on the outside edge of the rainbow. It is one of the three primary colors. Red light has a wavelength between 630-750 nanometers.
· Red is the color of some apples.
· Red is the color of some blood and the occasional tomato.
· It is sometimes used to mark things that are wrong, important, or dangerous.
· Red is also commonly used as a warning to stop (stop signals, stop red lights).
· Red can represent passion, anger, or love.
· Red also has the meaning of strong desire for love or to be in a relationship.
· In politics, "red" is a symbol of Communism. The "Red Army" can refer to the army of the old Soviet Union or the People's Republic of China. It is also related to the Red Brigade.
· Red is the color of fire and blood so it is associated with energy, war, danger, strength, power, determination, as well as passion, desire, and love.
· Red is an emotionally intense color. It is thought that it tends to raise blood pressure and make people breathe faster. It is very easy to notice, which is why stop signs, stoplights, and fire equipment are usually painted red.
· In heraldry, red is often used to indicate courage. It is a color found in many national flags.
· Red brings attention to text and images on the Internet.
· In advertising, red is often used to cause erotic feelings.
· Red is associated with energy, so it may be used to promote enery drinks, games, cars, items related to sports and high physical activity.
Orange is the color of an orange fruit, which is where the name of the color comes from. Before the orange fruit was introduced to England in the 1500s, this color was called red-yellow. The first recorded use of orange as a color name in English was in 1512, in the court of King Henry VIII.
Orange is also one of the few words in the English language that does not rhyme with any other word.
· To the human eye, orange is a very "hot" color, so it gives the feeling of heat. But orange is not as heated as red.
· As a citrus color, orange is associated with healthy food and is appetising. Orange is the color of autumn and harvest.
· Though rare in heraldry, orange is symbolic of strength and endurance.
· Orange is very easy to see, so people can use it to catch attention and highlight the most important elements of a design. Orange is very effective for promoting food products and toys. On road signs, the orange color means there is construction work ahead. It is used for these signs because it can easily be seen even at night.
· Dark orange can mean lying or not trusting somebody. Red-orange means desire, sexual passion, pleasure, power, aggression, and thirst for action.
· Yellow can represent light and the sun's rays.
· Yellow can be interpreted as a sign of cowardice.
· On road signs in the USA, yellow means "warning" or "danger". It is used to mean this because it is easy to see. Some animals, like bees and hornets, also use the color in combination with black as a warning so that other animals will know to stay away from them.
· Inkjet printers use yellow ink as one of their three basic colors, along with cyan ink and magenta ink.
Green is between the yellow and blue colors in a rainbow. Green paint can be made by mixing yellow paint and blue paint together.
Green light, like all lights, is quantal. The wavelength of green light is about 550 nanometers (one-billionth of a meter).
Most leaves of growing plants, such as trees and bushes are green. This is because there is a chemical in leaves, called chlorophyll, which is colored green.
· Green is seen as the color of nature. It is a symbol of growth, harmony, freshness, and fertility.
· Green is also associated with money in the United States (American dollars are called greenbacks).
· Green is also seen as be able to stay the same and durable. Sometimes green can stand for "no experience". For example, a 'greenhorn' is a beginner.
· In heraldry, green stands for growth and hope.
· Green also stands for safety. It is the color for "GO" on traffic lights.
· Because green is seen as the color of nature, it is often used with environment-friendly products.
· A person who is said to have a green thumb is good at growing plants.
· Dark green is associated with ambition, greed, jealousy, and envy.
· A very pale yellow-green can mean sickness, being scared, discord, jealousy, and envy.
· However, a bright green can mean health and healing.
· Olive green is the traditional color of peace.
Blue is one of the colors of the rainbow that people can see. It is one of the three traditional primary colors, along with red and yellow. It has the shortest wavelength of these colors (about 470 nanometers).
· Blue is the color of the earth's sky and sea. Earth looks blue when seen from outer space by astronauts.
· Blue is a color used to show coldness. It is also one of the colors your lips can turn if you are chilly.
· Blue is the color of a bluebird.
· Blue is often associated with depth and stability. It symbolizes trust, loyalty, wisdom, confidence, intelligence, faith, truth, and heaven.
· Blue is considered beneficial to the mind and body. It slows human metabolism and produces a calming effect. Blue is strongly associated with tranquility and calmness. In heraldry, blue is used to symbolize piety and sincerity.
· Blue is a masculine color; according to studies, it is highly accepted among males.
· Light blue is associated with health, healing, tranquility, understanding, and softness.
· Dark blue represents knowledge, power, integrity, and seriousness. It is also associated with depth, expertise, and stability; it is a preferred color for corporate America.
Indigo is one of the colors of the rainbow.
The brightest tone of indigo is the sixth color of the rainbow, a hue lying between blue and violet. The color shown at right, electric indigo, is the closest color it is possible to display on a computer to the color of the indigo color band in the rainbow.
Isaac Newton named and defined indigo as a spectrum color when he divided up the spectrum into the seven colors of the rainbow.
The name of the color indigo originally came from the indigo plant. Indigo is a dye made from the indigo plant, used to dye cloth. Indigo dye also is used to dye denim cloth, which is used to make what are called blue jeans (they should really be called indigo jeans). This shade of indigo, called indigo dye (shown at left above in the picture and in the color chart below), is darker than the spectrum indigo shown above.
The indigo plant originally came from the nation of India. The Ancient Greek language word for the dye is indikon. The Romans used the term indicum, which passed into Italian dialect and eventually into English as the word indigo.
These things are colored indigo:
· some grapes
· night sky in the mid evening
· some eggplants
Indigo represents religion, spirituality and intuition.
In the Hindu religion, indigo represents the 6th chakra.
Violet is the seventh color of the rainbow. It is the color on the inner edge of the rainbow. Violet is sometimes confused with purple. The name of the color comes from the violet, which is a small flower grown in most parts of the world.
The first recorded use of violet as a color name in English was in 1370.
The color violet represents magic.
Black is associated with power, elegance, formality, anarchy, death, evil, and mystery. Black is a dark color, the darkest color there is. Black, along with gray and white, is a neutral color. This means that it is not a hot color or a cool color.
Black is a color seen with fear and the unknown (black holes). It can have a bad meaning (blacklist, 'black death', black cat) or a good meaning ('in the black', 'black is beautiful'). Black can stand for strength and power. It can be a formal, elegant, and high-class color (black tie, black Mercedes, black taco). Black clothing is common in emo and goth subculture.
White is the color of pure sunlight. White light can be made by putting all the other colors of light on the spectrum together. These other colors are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
White is linked with light, goodness, innocence, purity, cleanliness and virginity. It is thought to be the color of perfection. The opposite of black, white usually has a positive connotation. White can stand for a successful beginning. In heraldry, white depicts faith and purity.
In advertising, white is linked with coolness and cleanliness because it is the color of snow. You can use white to show simplicity in high-tech products. White is an appropriate color for charitable organizatios; angels are usually imagined wearing white clothes. White is associated with hospitals, doctors, and sterility, so you can use white to show safety when promoting medical products. White is often linked with low weight, low-fat food, and dairy products.
The sources of energy
· Name any sources of energy that you know
· Is the problem of energy sources important?
· Can the problem of energy sources be connected with the problem of nature protection?
· What is a renewable energy?
· Imagine a day of your life without any energy
· What energy is the most friendly for our planet?
Text: The sources of energy
Energy from the Sun
The sun is one of the most powerful sources of natural energy on our planet. It has produced it for millions of years. Solar energy is the sun’s rays that reach the Earth. It has been said that one hour of sunlight gives enough energy to power the whole world for a whole year.
Solar energy can be converted into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. When converted to thermal or heat energy, solar energy can be used to heat water and spaces for use in houses, offices and swimming pools or greenhouses. Solar energy can be converted to electricity in two ways:
· Solar cells change sunlight directly into electricity. They are used to power watches, calculators, radios, road signals, etc.
· Solar power stations catch the sun’s energy by using thousands of wide mirrors. The solar mirrors collect as much sunlight as possible and heat a fluid which produces steam. The steam is used to power the generator.
Solar energy is everywhere the sun shines. It’s the Earth’s most available energy source. It’s free. It is renewable energy, which means it will never run out and is naturally reproduced. It creates neither air nor water pollution.
The Sahara, in North Africa, is the largest desert in the world. The sun in the Sahara is twice as strong as it is in southern Europe. Scientists say that just 0,3% of the light will be enough to power Europe. So they are going to build a huge solar farm in the desert.
The Vatican is the smallest country in the world but it is going solar in a big way. It intends to become the first solar-powered state in the world. Many roofs in Vatican have already been covered with solar panels, even Pope Benedict’s home. The Green Pope said that the Vatican is going to build the largest solar power station in Europe.
People have used wind energy for thousands of years. The earliest known use of wind power is by the Egyptians some 5000 years ago, who used it to sail their boats from shore to shore on the Nile. Around 2000 BC the first windmill was built in Babylon.
Wind is air in motion. The Earth’s surface absorbs the warmth of the sun at different rates. Darker oceans, full of plankton, absorb more solar heat than clear waters do and forested areas absorb more than ice-covered glaciers, mountain tops and the Arctic and Antarctic Poles. This means that the air above heats up more quickly over land than over water, and more over darker areas compared to those that reflect sunlight. When this warmer air rises during the day, as it does, cooler air from nearby oceans or lakes rushes into this ‘vacuum’ which creates wind. At night this flow is reversed.
So, factors that influence wind patterns are:
The Coriolis Effect is that where cyclones spin counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere. These movements are caused by the rotation of the Earth.
The sun’s energy in interaction with the Earth’s surfaces creates the winds and as long as the sun is up there, wind is a renewable energy source. About 1 to 3 per cent of solar energy reaching the Earth is converted into wind energy. That may not sound like a lot but given the enormous amounts of energy coming from the sun. Wind energy is still 50 to 100 times greater than the solar energy converted by all the Earth’s vegetation into biomass through photosynthesis. Most wind energy occurs at high altitudes. Here wind speeds are continuous of more than 160 km per hour.
Biomass energy can be used for lighting, cooking, space heating, water heating and to fuel vehicles. Biomass energy is not usually on people’s minds as alternate energy sources such as wind, solar or hydropower energy are when thinking about renewable sources of energy. Notwithstanding, it represents very common and available forms of energy indeed. And it can reduce global warming.
Biomass energy can really come from so many sources, such as:
Bio energy is renewable and solar in origin. It is renewable as the materials it comes from can be replaced, or grown, in a short period of time. Biofuels do not add to the net amount of CO2 already present in the atmosphere. This is because carbon in the biofuel is locked up only for the short period of time in plants or animals and can be considered as recycled as newly growing crops and animals once again take up the atmospheric CO2 used in burning.
Several technological processes can be used:
· Combustion means that biomass is burned, similar to coal and oil, to make electricity. When mixing biomass with coal, this co-firing process is very efficient. Solid municipal waste is also burned to generate electricity
· Pyrolysis is a chemical process of decomposition of biomass materials. It is a heating process without the involvement of oxygen. The recycling of used vehicle tyres uses pyrolysis.
Geothermal energy is a powerful energy source, right under our feet. Just as people in cold countries sometimes slept on top of their stoves at night, we live on top of a giant heater: the Earth.
"Geo", a Greek word, means "Earth." "Thermal" means "heat."
The deeper into the Earth, towards its centre, the hotter it gets.
Why is it so hot insides of the Earth? This heat comes from the Earth's heart is hot solid, iron core. Around the solid core is the molten core, which is magma. Its surrounding mantle is made of magma and rock. Capping all this is the Earth's crust.
All this hot activity under our feet goes back right to the Big Bang, some 14 billion years ago. The Earth first formed more than 4 billion years ago from these building blocks: gases and solid matter. The Earth has cooled down during that time, but is still simmering away underneath. Heat flows from the Earth's core into the mantle all the time. That's our earthy energy source: the Earth's heat.
Generally accepted estimates are of temperatures around 3,982 Celsius degrees at 4,032 km deep. More recent estimates say that at the boundary between the Earth's core and its mantle, heat measures around 3,677 Celsius degrees. That's at a depth of around 3,000 km.
Today's Earth's crust is of course the land that we live on. Where the mantle is close to the surface geothermal energy can be observed in the form of volcanoes, geysers, hot pools and mud pools. Iceland, New Zealand, Russian Kamchatka and America's Yellow Stone Park are known for their geysers and hot pools. So, these underground energy reservoirs are ancient in their origin, and are powerful, well-available sources of energy.
Now this source of heating energy has been used by people for many centuries. Hot springs have long been used for cooking and for healing properties. At ancient Pompeii the Earth's energy, carried by hot water, heated its buildings, using a simple form of geothermal heat pump.
Another way of getting at this energy is facilitated by humans. It involves injecting water at high pressures deep into porous heated rock formations and retrieving it as hot water.
Modern human use of geothermal energy derives two types of power.
· Using hot water directly
· Converting heat into electricity
Most scientists agree that we are seeing the effects of global warming already. Therefore alternative energy must be employed. In this case nuclear energy can be a good advantage. There are lots of debates about the usage and building of nuclear energy reactors. Nowadays, nuclear energy provides 13% of world electricity needs. Currently there are 442 nuclear reactors in the world with at least another 12 under construction in Asia, Brazil, Finland, Australia, India and China. Energy demands are growing fast everywhere. During the last decade world energy use grew by 20% and has been at around 3% per year growing.
The fuel for nuclear reactors, uranium is obtained from open-cut mines and is not expensive to mine. World reserves are estimated to last 150 years to even hundreds of centuries. Present reactors only use some 1% of the energy available in uranium but in future fast breeder reactors could recycle spent fuel rods at a 99% efficiency rate.
But our generation has witnessed some nuclear radiation accidents. One serious nuclear accident has occurred, in Chernobyl in 1986. It affected many thousands of people, livestock and agricultural production over a large geographical area. In the case of Chernobyl in the Ukraine, nuclear fall-out reached as far as areas of the UK. Another accident was at Fukushima Daiichi, one of the 15 largest nuclear power stations in the world. The station suffered major damage from the 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami that hit Japan on March 11, 2011. The earthquake and tsunami disabled the reactor cooling systems, leading to nuclear radiation leaks and triggering a 30 km evacuation zone surrounding the plant.
Disadvantages include that nuclear power requires a large capital cost, involving emergency, containment, radioactive waste and storage systems. Long-term storage of nuclear waste is difficult. No one can predict who will access this waste in future and for which purposes. Ground water contamination would be a deadly nuclear legacy.
What have we done to get us here? We may have to adjust to the reality and use less energy than we actually think we need. We need to review our priorities. Is it better to use more of the energies of relationship and care for each other and our environment?
Exercise 1: Answer the following questions:
Exercise 2: Find the English equivalent to the Russian word:
7) углекислый газ:
a ) carbohydrate
b) carbon monoxide
c) carbon dioxide
Exercise 3: Match the halves of the expressions and translate them:
Exercise 4: Find the statements true or false:
1.Solar energy is the sun’s rays that reach the Earth.
2.Solar energy can be converted into neither heat nor electricity.
3.Vatican intends to become the first solar-powered state in the world.
4.Wind energy is not greater than the solar energy.
5.Biomass energy can not be used for lighting, cooking, space heating and water heating.
6. Nowadays geothermal energy can be used directly for hot water and for converting heat into electricity.
7. Nuclear energy is widely used in the world.
8. There are no disadvantages of using nuclear power energy.
Exercise 5: Fill in the gaps with appropriate modal verbs (see Grammar review):
1.You … not speak while the teacher is speaking. (obligation)
2.To avoid global warming we …alternative sources of energy. (requirement)
3.You … stop eating so much fast food. (advice)
4.Various types of energy … be used for heating our houses. (possibility)
5.This building …be heated by geothermal energy. (probability)
6.We hope that nuclear power …not be the only available source of energy for future generations. (certainty)
7.For safe future we … to review our priorities in using energy. (requirement)
Exercise 6: Match the term with definition:
Exercise 7: Make these words negative using prefixes:
Exercise 8: Complete the sentences with correct endings:
1. One hour of sunlight gives enough energy to power the whole world for:
a) a whole decade;
b) a whole century;
c) a whole year.
2. Solar energy is everywhere:
a) the wind blows;
b) the sun shines;
c) the earth rotates.
3. Most wind energy occurs:
a) at magnetic fields.
b) at electric current;
c) at high altitudes.
4. The geothermal underground energy reservoirs are:
a) modern in their origin;
b) ancient in their origin;
c) not determined in their origin.
5. The fuel for nuclear reactors, uranium is obtained from open-cut mines and is:
a) not possible to mine;
b) expensive to mine.;
c) not expensive to mine.
Exercise 9: Find the equivalents to the Russian words and phrases in the text:
Exercise 10: Write an essay in 120-180 words to one of the topics:
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