ТОП 10:

Consonants: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, n, m, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, z



  Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatel Velar Labial-velar Glottal
Nasal m     n     ŋ    
Plosive p b     t d     k ɡ    
Affricate         tʃ ʤ        
Fricative   f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ   (x)   h
Approximant       r   j   w  
Lateral       l          

Vowels: a, e, i, o, u, y

Monophtongs:

Letters combination sound word
ee, ea need
i ɪ bit
e ɛ bed
a æ back
o ɒ box
aw, ore ɔː paw, more
a ɑː bra
oo ʊ good
oo food
u ʌ but
ir ɜː bird
a ə comma
       

Diphthongs:

letters sound word
ay bay
oa əʊ road
y, i cry
ow cow
oy ɔɪ boy
ear ɪə fear
air ɛə fair
ure ʊə lure

Word building

Словообразование

Слова в английском языке бывают простые, не имеющие в своем составе ни префиксов, ни суффиксов(a school, a book, a chair) и производные, образованные от других частей речи с помощью суффиксов(a teacher, childhood) или префиксов (bystreet, outbreak) или одновременно и того и другого (unemployment).

 

К характерным суффиксам производных существительных относятся:

-er/-or/-ar: driver, actor, beggar

-ant/-ent: assistant, servant, student

-ist: artist, dentist

-ment: government, agreement

-tion: education, attention

-sion: decision, permission

-ance/-ence: importance, absence

-ity: activity, priority

-ness: happiness, kindness

-th: truth, strength

-ism: communism, tourism

-cy: currency, policy

-dom: freedom, wisdom

-hood: childhood, brotherhood

-ship: friendship

-ty: activity

-ry: rivalry

-ure: pressure

-age: clearage, bandage

-tude: attitude, magnitude

-o(u)r: colour, parlour

 

Имена существительные почти не имеют характерных префиксов. Префиксы существительных совпадают с префиксами глаголов и прилагательных, от которых образованы существительные. Некоторые существительные образуются из двух и более слов и составляют одно понятие (classroom, newspaper).

Многие части речи совпадают по форме, и их можно отнести к той или иной части речи в зависимости от их роли в предложении (answer - to answer, dream – to dream, end – to end, work – to work, hope – to hope).

Имена прилагательные в английском языке, также как и существительные, бывают простые и производные. К наиболее характерным суффиксам прилагательныхотносятся следующие:

-ful: useful, hopeful, beautiful

-less: useless, helpless

-ous: famous, courageous

-al: formal, central

-able/-ible: eatable, visible

-ant/-ent: constant, permanent

-ive: active, attractive

-ic: pacific, comic

-y: crazy, noisy

Самыми употребительными префиксами прилагательных являются:

un-: unhappy, unreal

in-: incomplete, indifferent

im-: impatient, immortal

il-: illegal, illogical

ir-: irregular, irrational

 

Глаголы бывают простые (to run, to do, to swim) и производные (to reconstruct, to specialize).

Основные глагольные суффиксы:

-ate: to concentrate, to duplicate

-ize/-ise: to realize, to comprise

-fy: to justify

-en: to brighten, to broaden

 

Наречия по своему строению делятся на простые (often, seldom, never, still, yet, near, now, then, here, there), производные (happily, busily, easily, slowly) и сложные, образованные от двух и более основ (inside, outside, sometimes, somewhere, at last, at least, moreover).

Ряд наречий образован от других частей речи (напр. от прилагательных): daily, weekly, monthly

Суффиксы, образующие наречия:

-ly: seriously, quietly

-ways: sideways

-wise: clockwise, otherwise, crosswise

-ward(s): forward, backward, afterwards, homewards

-like: warlike

-fold: twofold, manifold

 

Практические задания

 

1. Прочитайте текст и определите, верное или неверное утверждение:

If you speak English, you have plenty of people to talk to. It is spoken in more parts of the world than any other language.

English has many borrowings. It started out taking words from Latin, Greek, French, and German. Then English went on to borrow words from more than 50 languages. From Italian, it took pizza and violin. From Spanish and Portuguese, it borrowed the words alligator, canyon, and sombrero. The Caribbean islands gave English barbecue and cannibal. From Africa came chimpanzee and zebra; from India came bandanna, curry. From Australia came kangaroo and boomerang.

Science caused an explosion in words. Some words in science combine parts of Greek and Latin words. They include penicillin, supersonic. Others were borrowed from modern languages. Robot comes from a Czech word.

 

  True False
a) There are quite a few borrowings in English.    
b) The origin of the word canyon has been traced to Portuguese or Spanish.    
c) The word boomerang came from Africa.      
d) Kangaroo is an Australian word.    
e) There are Greek or Latin roots in a word supersonic.        

 

2. Определите, к какой части речи относится выделенное слово:

Water and air are becoming more and more polluted.

You should water the flowers at least once a week.

 

There are government and publicorganizations that analyze data on land, forest and air.

In Hyde Park you could air your political views on public.

 

3. Заполните таблицы на словообразование:

 

Noun Verb
change
to achieve
to advance
development
to protect
to pollute
action
to increase
elimination
to interact

 

Noun Adjective
variety
ecology
environment
danger
industry
globe
nature
safe
numerous
ocean

 

4. Переведите производные слова. Дайте свои примеры. Составьте предложения:

Material – immaterial, limited- unlimited, important – unimportant, known – unknown, seen – unseen, perfect – imperfect, possible – impossible, legal – illegal, regular – irregular, mobile - immobile

Act – action – (in)active – actor, athlete – athletic – athletics, child – children – childhood, collect – collection – collector, entertain – entertainment, hero – heroic – heroine, music – musical – musician, play – player – playful, sail – sailing – sailor, sing – sang – sung – song – singer – singing.

 

5. Заполните, где возможно, пропуски в таблице и дайте перевод полученных слов. Пользуйтесь словарем.

 

Verb Noun (idea) Noun (person) Adjective -ing form
activate activism activity activation activist active activating
to develop development   developed developmental    
to use       used  
to create creating creativity   creator creature        
to operate       operational operative  
to keep   keep keeping   _________  
to carry   carry carriage   _________  
to navigate          
to convert   convert conversion      
to invent          
to play          

 

The Noun

Имя существительное

 

Имена существительные в английском языке бывают собственными и нарицательными.

К собственным именам существительным относятся:

1. имена (Tom, Silvia, Peter), фамилии (Dickens, Bush, McDonald), псевдонимы (Mark Twain, Marilyn Monroe), прозвища людей (Yankee), клички животных (Spot, Buddy)

2. географические названия (London, England, the Thames, the North Sea, the Atlantic Ocean)

3. астрономические названия (the Sun, the Earth, the Great Bear, the Milky Way)

4. топографические названия (улицы, площади, здания, мосты) (Downing Street, Trafalgar Square, Big Ben, Tower Bridge)

5. названия кораблей, гостиниц, клубов (“Titanic”, “Hilton”)

6. названия газет и журналов (The Morning Star, Cosmopolitan, Men’s Health)

7. названия месяцев и дней недели (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December; Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday)

8. национальность и название национального языка (the English – English, the Russians – Russian).

 

Все эти имена существительные пишутся с прописной буквы.

 

 

К нарицательным именам существительным относятся:

  1. имена существительные, обозначающие отдельные предметы

(a book - books, a tree – trees)

  1. собирательные существительные - группа лиц или животных обозначающих одно целое (a family - families, a crowd - crowds, a herd – herds)
  2. вещества (water, wool, steel, oil)
  3. абстрактные понятия (work, sleep, love)

 

 

Практические задания

  1. Объясните все употребления прописной буквы в именах существительных:

Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie (1890-1976) was born on September 15, 1890 in Torquay, Devonshire. She was the third child of Clarissa and Frederick Miller, and grew into a beautiful girl with waist-length golden hair. She didn’t go to school. She was educated at home by her mother and took singing lessons in Paris. She began writing detective fiction while working as a nurse during World War I. Her first novel, The Mysterious Affair at Styles, was published in 1920. That was the first appearance of Hercule Poirot, who became one of the most popular private detectives. This little Belgian amazed everyone by his powerful intellect and his brilliant solutions to the most complicated crimes.

The elderly Miss Jane Marple, Christie’s other principal detective figure, first appeared in The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (1926), which is considered Christie’s masterpiece. It was followed by some 75 novels that usually made bestseller lists. Her plays include The Mousetrap, which set a world record for the longest continuous run at one theatre (8862 performances – more than 21 years – at the Ambassadors Theatre, London).

Agatha Christie’s success with millions of readers lies in her entertaining plots, excellent character drawing, a great sense of humour. The reader cannot guess who the criminal is up to the end of the novel. Fortunately, evil is always punished in her novels.

 

  1. Обсудите текст в парах:
  1. The facts of Agatha Christie’s life.
  2. What is her first novel?
  3. Where was the first appearance of Hercule Poirot?
  4. Who was Christie’s other principal detective figure?
  5. What play set a world record for the longest continuous run?
  6. Why are Christie’s books so popular with the readers?

 

The Article

Артикль

Артикль является определителем имени существительного. Он не имеет отдельного значения, но передает значение определенности или неопределенности существительного и влияет на порядок слов при переводе.

Неопределенный артикль a(an) произошел из древнеанглийского числительного an (one один) и сегодня сохраняет это значение в большинстве случаев.

Anупотребляется перед гласными a, e, i, o, uи непроизносимым согласным h,в остальных случаях

· при классификации (лица или предмета):

Richard works in a bank.

Can I ask a question?

I have a brother.

Do you want an apple?

· Обобщающее значение:

A cow gives milk.

A ball is round.

 

· Числовое значение:

Rome was not built in a day.

Wait a minute!

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

· С неисчисляемыми абстрактными существительными, когда указывается их дозировка или порция:

Give me an ice-cream, please.

He drank a glass of milk.

She ordered a tea.

 

· В ряде устойчивых сочетаний:

a few

a little

a lot of

a great deal of

as a rule

as a result

for a while

in a hurry

to go for a walk

to have a good time

to tell a lie

It is a pity.

It is a pleasure.

It is a shame!

What a shame!

 

 

Определенный артикль the произошел от древнеанглийского указательного местоимения se (that тот) и частично сохраняет это значение. Определенный артикль употребляется:

  • Когда из ситуации или контекста понятно, о каком лице или предмете говориться:

What is the name of this street?

What’s the time?

  • Когда есть определение лица или предмета, выделяющее его из общего ряда

This is the house that Jack built.

  • Когда предмет единственный в своем роде

The Moon moves round the Earth.

The Internet, the radio, the top, the end

  • Перед превосходной степенью определения

Asia is the largest continent.

He is the best student in our group.

  • Когда лицо или предмет обобщает весь класс подобных лиц или предметов и в этом значении употребляется в единственном числе

The horse is a domestic animal.

I can play the piano and learn to play the guitar.

  • С географическими названиями некоторых государств, сторон света

The USA, the UK, the North Pole, the Arctic

  • С названиями океанов, морей, рек, каналов и озер без определяемого слова

The Pacific ocean, the Black sea, the Thames, the English Channel, the Panama Canal, the Ontario, the Baikal

  • С названиями горных цепей

The Urals, the Alps, the Caucasus

  • С названиями пустынь

The Sahara

  • С названиями большинства газет

The Times, the Morning Star, the Washington Post

  • С фамилией, называющей всю семью

The Browns, the Smiths, the Forsytes

  • В устойчивых словосочетаниях

the other day

the day after tomorrow

the day before yesterday

in the morning

in the afternoon

in the evening

in the plural

in the singular

in the past

in the present

on the whole

on the one hand…on the other hand

out of the question

just the same

by the way

to tell the truth

to go to the cinema (theatre)

 

 

Практические задания

 

  1. Correct the mistakes:

 

    OK Put the
What is on television today?    
Our apartment is on second floor.    
Would you like to go to moon?    
Internet is a good way of getting information.    
My sister got married last month.    
The book is on top of the shelf    
Paula is learning to play the drum    
Which is best hotel in this town?    
The table is in the middle of the room.    
I listen to radio a lot.    
  1. Write a/an or the:

 

  1. Canada is … very big country.
  2. We enjoyed our trip. … hotel was very nice.
  3. London is … interesting city.
  4. London is … capital of England.
  5. Lisa is … youngest child in our family.
  6. She is … student.
  7. Do you live far from … centre?
  8. … weather is fine today.
  9. In … yard there are many children, playing with … ball.
  10. I’d like to speak to … manager, please.

 

3. Fill in the articles where necessary:

 

1. … Caucasus separates … Black Sea from … Caspian Sea.

2. … USA is … largest country in … America.

3. Lomonosov was born in … small village on … shore of …White Sea.

4. … Europe and … America are separated by …Atlantic Ocean.

5. … Nile flows across … northeastern part of … Africa to … Mediterranean Sea.

6. … North Sea separates … British Isles from …Europe.

7. There is … canal called … Moscow-Volga Canal which joints … Moscow River to … Volga.

8. Which … river flows through … London? - … Thames.

Образование основных грамматических форм

Present Indefinite (Simple)

Употребление:

Настоящее простое (неопределенное) употребляется для обозначения действия, относящегося к настоящему времени:

  • Для обозначения простых фактов и общих истин:

Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

The Earth goes round the Sun.

I live in Moscow.

London is the capital of England.

 

  • Для выражения повседневных, повторяющихся действий, привычек, обычаев:

I have a cup of coffee every morning.

She usually goes to bed at 11 o’clock in the evening.

They visit their parents every weekend.

Helen goes to the library once a month.

We always go to the university by bus.

 

  • Для обозначения действия, совершающегося в момент речи, с глаголами восприятия, умственной деятельности, чувства и обладания:

I love you.

He likes strong tea.

This book belongs to my father.

I understand what you mean.

My little brother hates vegetables.

 

Present Simple: to work

Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I work I do not work Do I work?
He works She works It works He does not work She does not work It does not work Does he work? Does she work? Does it work?
We work You work They work We do not work You do not work They do not work Do we work? Do you work? Do they work?

do not = don’t

does not = doesn’t

 

Present Simple: to be

Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I am I am not (I’m not) Am I?
He is She is It is He is not (isn’t) She is not (isn’t) It is not (isn’t) Is he? Is she? Is it?
We are You are They are We are not (aren’t) You are not (aren’t) They are not (aren’t) Are we? Are you? Are they?

 

Past Indefinite (Simple)

Употребление:

Прошедшее простое (неопределенное) употребляется:

  • Для описания завершившихся действий, происходивших в прошлом в определенное время:

I bought three CDs yesterday.

Dr Nixon worked at the Oxford University last year.

 

  • Для описания ситуаций и состояний, имевших место в прошлом:

I had green hair for a while as a teenager.

 

  • Для описания обычных, повторяющихся действий в прошлом:

We played football every Sunday.

When I was a student, I used to ride a bike to classes.

 

  • Для описания ряда последовательных действий в прошлом:

He ran out of the house, crossed the road and jumped on the bus.

Mr. West came up to the house, took the key out of his pocket and opened the door.

 

Форма прошедшего простого (неопределенного) времени правильных глаголов образуется путем прибавления к основе инфинитива окончания –ed: to talk – talked, to work – worked, to open – opened.

Если основа оканчивается на непроизносимое е, то прибавляется только -d: to live – lived, to like – liked.

Форма прошедшего простого (неопределенного) времени неправильных глаголов образуется различными способами, которые нужно запомнить или смотреть по таблице неправильных глаголов (см. Appendix) или в словаре: to speak – spoke, to meet – met, to know – knew.

Образование: to work -работать (правильный глагол);to meetвстречать (неправильный глагол)

Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I worked/met I did not work/meet Did I work/meet?
He worked/met She worked/met It worked/met He did not work/meet She did not work/meet It did not work/meet Did he work/meet? Did she work/meet? Did it work/meet?
We worked/met You worked/met They worked/met We did not work/meet You did not work/meet They did not work/meet Did we work/meet? Did you work/meet? Did they work/meet?

did not = didn’t

 

Past simple: to be

Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I was I was not (wasn’t) Was I?
He was She was It was He was not (wasn’t) She was not (wasn’t) It was not (wasn’t) Was he? Was she? Was it?
We were You were They were We were not (weren’t) You were not (weren’t) They were not (weren’t) Were we? Were you? Were they?

 

Future Indefinite (Simple)

Употребление:

Будущее простое (неопределенное) время употребляется для обозначения:

  • Какого-либо факта в будущем:

Next year I shall finish school.

The queen will open a new hospital tomorrow.

  • Какого-либо решения или намерения в будущем, принятого в момент речи:

I’ll go with you.

  • Для выражения предложения или просьбы:

I’ll do the washing up.

Will you open the window?

 

Форма будущего простого времени образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола shall для 1-го лица и will для всех лиц и чисел и инфинитива без частицы to: shall/will play (буду/будет) играть.

 

Образование Future Simple: to go

Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I shall go I shall not go Shall I go?
He will go She will go It will go He will not go She will not go It will not go Will he go? Will she go? Will it go?
We shall go You will go They will go We shall not go You will not go They will not go Shall we go? Will you go? Will they go?

shall not =shan’t

will not = won’t

 

Future simple: to be

Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I shall be I shall not be Shall I be?
He will be She will be It will be He will not be She will not be It will not go Will he be? Will she be? Will it be?
We shall be You will be They will be We shall not be You will not be They will not be Shall we be? Will you be? Will they be?

 

 

Практические задания:

 

    1. Make the sentences negative:

a. Today our lectures begin at 10 o’clock.

b. She had four exams last semester.

c. My friend lives in a hostel.

d. Usually I get up at 7 o’clock.

e. I was born in December.

f. He will enter the university next year.

g. We will be graduates in two years.

h. They will take all necessary books from the library.

i. She will have four exams next semester.

j. I’ll be back.

k. He entered the university last year.

l. We were schoolchildren two years ago.

 

    1. Give the past form of the verbs :

To go, to see, to make, to think, to sing, to begin, to know, to buy, to write, to read.

 

    1. Is the sentence right or wrong?

a. He will pass his exam on Thursday.

b. She read many books next summer.

c. They will write essays for the university newspaper.

d. My brother come tomorrow.

e. Their friends have three lectures tomorrow.

f. Tom is my friend.

g. They are at the theatre yesterday.

 

    1. Ask the questions to the sentences:

a. I am very busy today.

b. We are the students of Moscow State University of Printing Arts.

c. Mary is a good singer.

d. We read many English magazines.

e. We had two lectures yesterday.

f. The students worked in the laboratory last week.

g. I got excellent marks for my exams.

h. The students will work in the practice training centre next week.

i. I will get excellent marks for my exams.

 

    1. Use the correct form of the verb:

a. She (to see) the film next Sunday.

b. Tomorrow they (to go) to help their grandmother.

c. Alex (to meet) his friend in two hours.

d. I hope the rain (to stop) in half an hour.

e. Tonight I (to go) to bed very early.

f. She (to see) the film last Sunday.

g. Yesterday they (to decide) to join the university football team.

h. Alex (to meet) his friend two hours ago.

i. The rain (to stop) half an hour ago.

j. Last night I (to feel) tired and (to go) to bed very early.

k. My working day (to begin) at seven o’clock.

l. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) my morning exercises.

m. She (to go) to the university by train.

 

    1. Translate into English:

a. Летом у нас будет практика.

b. Он обязательно поступит в институт.

c. Все студенты нашей группы поедут на экскурсию.

d. Она возьмет книги в библиотеке.

e. Профессор будет принимать экзамен по физике в три часа.

f. Прошлым летом мы жили за городом.

g.Он поступал в институт дважды.

h. Все студенты нашей группы были друзьями.

i. Она хотела взять книги в библиотеке.

j. Наш профессор по физике был очень строгим.

k.Я учусь в университете.

l. Мы студенты первого курса.

m. Они не учат английский язык.

n. Вы работаете? – Да.

o. Он работает? – Нет, он учится в университете.

 

 







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