UNIT I. APPEARANCE AND CHARACTER



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UNIT I. APPEARANCE AND CHARACTER



VOCABULARY

 

even adv даже. He didn’t even help me carry my heavy bag, he was that angry with me.

 

look vi 1.выглядеть, казаться. How did she look when you saw her? She looked pleased (happy, sad, ill, well, older, worn out, tired, etc). Phr What does she look like? Как она выглядит? (Какая у нее внешность?) She is tall, very good-looking. 2. look like (= be like) sb. походить, быть похожим на кого-л. He looks like his father. He looks like a scientist. 3. look forsb/sthискать кого-л/что-л) 4. look after sb/sth присматривать за кем-л/чем-л.

pull vt тащить, тянуть. The woman was pulling the child by the hand. Don’t pull the door, push it. Phr pull oneself together – взять себя в руки, встряхнуться.

expect vt 1.oжидать, ждать expect a visitor (a letter, question, rain, etc). I expected you yesterday. 2. расчитывать, надеяться. I expect to be back on Sunday. We expect you to help us; expectation n ожидание, in expectation of sth в ожидании /в предвкушении/ чего-л, according to expectations как и следовало ожидать; against expectations – вопреки ожиданиям, beyond expectations – сверх ожидания.

honest adj честный. An honest man (face, look, smile, decision). Phr to be honest with sb – быть откровенным, честным с кем-н; dishonest adj –нечестный, бесчестный; (dis) honesty n (не) честность, (не) порядочность, бессoвестность. She was dismissed for dishonesty. Она была уволена за воровство.

arrange vt 1. устраивать, организовывать, договариваться. Arrange a party (meeting, trip, etc). We’ve arranged to meet on Saturday. I’ve arranged for a meeting next week. 2. приводить в порядок, расставлять (книги, мебель…) to arrange books in a bookcase (furniture, etc), to arrange one’s business (plans, etc); arrangement n 1. cоглашение, договоренность There is an arrangement between them about the price (payment, etc). Phr to have (make) an arrangement (with sb) – уславливаться, договариваться c (кем-н) 2. pl приготовления, мероприятия, планы Phr make arrangements (for sth) делать приготовления (к чему-н).

feel vt (felt) 1. чувствовать, ощущать, испытывать I felt somebody push me in the crowd. What did you feel when you first climbed a dangerous rock? 2. полагать, считать. He felt it necessary to say something. 3. чувствовать себя. How do you feel? I feel well (bad, better, worse, all right, ill etc); feeling n чувство, ощущение. I had a feeling that somebody was watching me. She spoke with feeling.

enjoy vt 1. наслаждаться (чем-л.), веселиться, хорошо проводить время Did you enjoy your holiday? Вы хорошо провели время? Phr enjoy oneself приятно проводить время, развлекаться. Не еnjoyed himself in the Crimea. Он весело провел время в Крыму; еnjoyment n наслаждение, удовольствие to take great enjoyment in sth наслаждаться чем-то, находить удовольствие в чем-то. 2. любить что-либо, получать удовольствие (от чего-либо) to enjoy music (a film, poetry, concert, trip, etc) He enjoys life = он жизнелюб. I enjoy talking to her.

joinvt 1. присоединяться (к) May I join you? Могу я к вам присоединиться? join sb in some activity He joined us in the game (in the conversation (but on the trip; for an excursion) 2. вступать (в); стать членом (клуба, общества и т.д.) join a sports club (society, etc.); join the army

 

wayn 1.путь, дорога. A long (short, hard, etc) way. You have taken the right (wrong) way. Phron the (one’s) way home (to some place) – по дороге домой; on the (one’s) way back – на обратном пути; Phr by the way – кстати, между прочим 2. средство, способ, метод, манера, образ действия. I don’t like the way you look at other people. She doesn’t like my way of laughing. What is the quickest way of learning to drive a car? In (such a, this, friendly etc.) way – таким образом If you treat them in such a way they will be hurt. Where there’s a will there’s a way. Было бы желание!

make vt (made) заставлять, побуждать make sb do sth, make sb work (read, speak, laugh, cry, think, etc), make sb angry – рассердить кого-н, make sb (un) happy – сделать кого-то счастливым, несчастным make a move – двинуться куда-н.

withoutprep. 1. без (кого-н, чего-н; означает отсутствие). It’s difficult to plant a tree without help. Phr to do without (sb/sth) – обходиться без (кого-н/чего-н). She can’t do without music. 2. не (означает характер действия). She left the room without saying good-bye.

need vt нуждаться (в ком-н/чем-н). Need a book (dress, clothes); need money (time, sb’s help, sb’s advice, etc). How much time do you need to repair this machine? I needn’t do this work at once;need n необходимость, нужда. Phr be in need of sth –нуждаться. Are you in need of help?

badly adv сильно, очень. I need your advice badly. He is badly ill. To be badly off – нуждаться, быть в трудном положении. He is badly off for friends – с друзьями у него дело плохо; у него мало друзей.

 

promise vt обещать. Promise sb (one's) help (a book, a lift, etc). He promised to call at her place soon. Phr give (make) a (one’s) promise – давать oбещание; keep one’s promise – сдержать обещание; break one’s promise – нарушить обещание; promising adj многообещающий, a promising writer (student, etc).

be (dis)pleased with sb/sth быть (не)довольным (кем-л./чем-л.). He is very pleased with himself. Он очень доволен собой. I am pleased to meet you. They were very pleased with his report.

 

Word combinations

 

to walk in couples гулять парами

look out осторожно! Берегись!

pat sb’s arm lightly/tightly похлопать кого-н по руке легонько/с

силой

to drop by зайти, заглянуть, проходя мимо

to throw sth away выбрасывать, разбрасывать, сорить

деньгами

UNIT II. WORK AND JOBS.

 

TEXT. HUNTING FOR A JOB(after S. McClure).

I caught the 9 o’clock train and reached Boston late that night and got out at the South Station. I knew no one in Boston except Miss Bennet. She lived in Sommerville, and I started out for Sommerville. Miss Bennet was a very charming kindof a lady and she and her family did all they could to make me comfortable and help me to get myself established in some way. I had only six dollars and their hospitality was of utmost importance for me.

My first applicationfor a job in Boston was made in accordance with an idea of my own. Every boy in the Western states knew the Pope Manufacturing Company, which produced and sold bicycles. When I published my first work ‘History of Western College Journalism’ the Pope Company had given me an advertisement, and that seemed to be a ‘connection’ of some kind. In any case it was worth trying. So I decided to go to the offices of the Pope Manufacturing Company to ask for a job. Ipushedthe door and walked into the general office and said that I wanted the president of the company.

‘Colonel Pope ?’ asked the clerk and looked at me withsurprise.

I answered, ‘Yes, Colonel Pope.’

I was taken to Colonel Pope, who was then an alert energetic man of thirty-nine. I told Colonel Pope, by way of introduction, that he had once arranged an advertisement for a little book I had published, that I had been a college editor and out of a job. What I wanted was work and I wanted it badly and hopedhe would give it to me.

He said he was sorry, but they were laying off hands. I still hung on. To say that I was upset was to say nothing. It seemed to me that everything would be all up with me, if I had to go out of that room without a job. I asked him if there wasn’t anything at all that I could do. My earnestness made him look at me sharply.

‘Willing to wash windows and scrub floors ?’ he asked.

I told him that I was, and he turned to one of his clerks.

“Has Wilmot got anybody yet to help him in the downtown rink ?” he asked.

The clerk said he thought not.

“Very well’, said Colonel Pope. ‘You can go to the rink and help Wilmot out for tomorrow”.

The next day I went to the bicycle rink and found that what Wilmot wanted was to teach beginners to ride. I had never been on a bicycle in my life nor even very close to one, but in a couple of hours I had learnt to ride a bicycle myself and was teaching other people.

Next day Mr. Wilmot paid me a dollar. He didn’t say anything about my coming back the next morning, but I came and went to work, very much afraid that I would be told I wasn’t needed and that he would throw me out. Mr. Wilmot did not exactly engage me, but he forgot to discharge me, and I came back every day and went to work. I didn’t know how long it would last, but at the end of the week Colonel Pope sent for me and placed me in charge of the uptown rink. It was a long way from Sommerville but I felt happy.

Colonel Pope was a man who watched his workmen and he liked the way I did my work. I was rightwhen I felt that a young man would have a chance with him. He often used to say that “water would find its level”, and he kept an eye on us. One day a wonderful thing happened. Colonel Pope called me into his office and asked me if I could edit a magazine. I was excited.

“Yes, sir,” I replied quickly. I remember it flashed through my mind that I could do anything I was put at – that if I were required to run an ocean steamer I could somehow manage to do it. I could learn to do it as I went along. I answered as quickly as I could get the words out of my mouth, afraid that Colonel Pope would change his mind before I could get them out.

This is how I got my first realjob. And I have never doubted ever since that one of the reasons why I got it was that I had been “willing to wash windows and scrub floors”. I had been ready for anything.

 

NOTES :

 

Sommerville – окраина Бостона

to get oneself established – найти работу

to lay off hands – увольнять рабочих

to hang on - настаивать

everything would be all up with me – для меня все будет кончено

as I went along – по ходу дела

 

VOCABULARY

catch vt (caught) 1. ловить, поймать; схватить; уловить сatch a ball (a bird, fish; sb’s idea, etc); catch sbby the hand схватить кого-л. за руку; 2. поспеть, попасть на автобус (поезд и т.д.) сatch a bus (a train, etc) Phr catch (a) cold простудиться; catch up with sb догнать кого-л.

 

reach vt/vi 1. достигать: добираться (до) teach home (school, a town, the station, etc); The news reached them on the next day. He has reached good results. Phr reach an agreement достичь соглашения; His words reached my ears; 2. доставать, дотягиваться (до) Can you reach the ceiling? Phr reachforsth. протягивать руку за чем-н.

 

kind n вид, род, сорт different kinds of books (goods, trees, etc). What kind of (a) man (student, etc) is he? Что он за человек (студент и т.д.)?

 

apply vi for work, help, permission etc обращаться за работой, помощью, разрешением и т.д. application n заявление, просьба application form 1. бланк 2. анкета поступающего на работу

sellvt (sold) продавать. He sold his photo camera for a large sum of money. What does this shop sell?

 

worth a стоящий; заслуживающий (внимания и т.п.) The coat is worth the money you paid for it. They worked hard but it was worth it.Phr be worth doing sth стоит сделать The film is worth seeing. Фильм стоит посмотреть.

 

decide vt решать decide a question, etc ; We decided to stay in town. They haven’t yet decided what to do (where to go ; etc.) ; decisionn решение Phr take (make) a decision принять решение ; decisive a решающий decisive moment (step, argument, event, etc)

 

push vt толкать push a door (car, boat, person) (also fig) ;push n толчок give a push

 

hope vi надеяться I hope to see you soon. We hope that everything will be all right. Phr hope for the better (the best) надеяться на лучшее;hope n надежда have some (little, strong, no, etc) hope of sth There was no hope of improvement. Надежды на улучшение не было.

 

surprisevt удивлять His answer surprised everybody; be surprised удивляться We were surprised to see him there. He was so surprised that he couldn’t say a word. We were surprised at his unexpected arrival; surprisen удивление, сюрприз, неожиданность He looked at me in (with)surprise. It was a surprise to us all.

 

upsetvt (upset) огорчать, расстраивать. The news upset her; be upset огорчаться, расстраиваться We were upset by the bad news, He was upset over(about)the mistake.

 

pay vt (paid) платить How much did they pay (you) for the article ?pay n плата, зарплата What’s your pay ? payment n платеж, плата to make payment производить платеж

 

throwvt (threw, thrown) бросать, кидать; throw sth to (at) sb бросать что-л. кому-л. (в кого-л.)

 

last vi 1. длиться, продолжаться How long did the meeting (lecture, concert, rain, trip, etc) last ? 2. хватать (быть в достаточном количестве) The money (food, etc) will last them till the end of the month (for a whole week, etc).

 

chargevt 1. поручать, вверять, вменять в обязанности He was charged with an important mission. На него была возложена важная миссия. 2. обвинять, выдвигать или предъявлять обвинение; charge sb. witha crime обвинять кого-л. в преступлении; 3. назначать, запрашивать цену; взимать плату How much do you charge for packing? charge n 1. забота, попечение The children are in charge of a nurse. 2. обязанности, ответственность, руководство I’m in charge of this office. 3. обвинение He was arrested on a charge of murder. What are the charges against him? 4. цена, плата; free of charge бесплатно

 

rightn право You have no right to speak to me like that Phr have the right to work (rest and leisure, etc) иметь право на труд (отдых и т.д.)

 

happenvi случаться, происходить How did it happen ? The story happened two years ago. What’s happened to (with) him?

 

be excitedволноваться; get excited разволноваться Everybody was excited by the news. Don’t get excited!Неволнуйтесь! excitement nволнение, возбуждение exciting а волнующий, захватывающий an exciting story (speech, film, book, moment, event, etc) ; excited взволнованный, возбужденный an excited voice (face, child, etc)

 

mindn 1.ум, разум a great (strong, weak, etc) mind Phrcome to one’s mind (come to one’s head) приходить на ум (в голову); Phrbe onone’s mind задумать что-нибудь не давать покоя (о мысли) 2. мнение, мысль We are all of the same mind. Phr tomy (his, her, etc) mind по моему (его, ее и т.п.) мнению; с моей (его, ее, и т.п.) точки зрения Phrmake upone’s mind решить(ся); change one’s mind передумать, изменить решение; mindvt/vi возражать, иметь что-н. против (обычно употребляется в вопросительных и отрицательных контекстах) Do you mind if I open (my opening) the window? – I don’t mind it at all. Would you mind opening the window? Откройте окно, пожалуйста. He doesn’t mind cold weather a bit. PhrNever mind! Не беспокойтесь! Не важно! PhrMind your own business! Занимайся своим делом! (Не лезь не в свое дело!) absent-mindeda рассеянный; light-mindeda легкомысленный

 

real a настоящий, подлинный ; действительный real gold (silk, etc.) ; a real friend (hero, etc) ; the real truth ;reality n действительность, реальность; really adv действительно, на самом деле Do you really think so ?

 

What do you do?

People may ask you about your job. They can ask and you can answer in different ways.

What do you do? What’s your job?   What do you do for a living? I’m (+job) e.g. a banker/an engineer/etc. I work in (+place or general area) e.g. a bank/marketing I work for (+name of the company) e.g. Union Bank, ICI, Fiat

 

Note: “Work” is usually an uncountable noun, so you cannot say “a work”. If you want to use the indefinite article you must say “a job”, e.g. She hasn’t got a job at the moment.

 

What does that involve? (=What do you do in your job?)

When people ask you to explain your work/job, they may want to know your main responsibilities(=your duties/what you have to do), or something about your daily routine (=what you do every day/week)/ They can ask like this: What does that (i.e. your job) involve?

 

Main responsibilities

I’m in charge of (=responsible for) all deliveries out of the factory.

I have todeal withany complaints (=take all necessary action if there are complaints).

I run the coffee bar and restaurant in the museum (=I am in control of it/I manage it).

 

Note: We often useresponsible for/in charge offor part of something, e.g. a department or some of the workers; and run for control of all of something, e.g. a company or a shop.

 

Daily duties/routines

I have to go to/attend (fml) a lot of meetings.

I visit/see/meet clients (=people I do business with or for).

I advise clients (=give them help and my opinion).

It involves doing quite a lot of paperwork ( a general word we use for routine work that involves paper e.g. writing letters, filling in forms, etc.). Note the –ing form after involve.

 

Pay

Most workers are paid (=receive money) every month and this pay goes directly into their bank account. It is called a salary. We can express the same idea using the verb to earn:

My salary is $60,000 a year. (=I earn $60,000 a year).

With many jobs you get (=receive) holiday pay and sick pay (when you are ill). If you want to ask about holidays, you can say:

How much holiday do you get? or How many weeks’ holiday do you get?

The total amount of money you receive in a year is called your income. This could be your salary from one job, or the salary from two different jobs you have. And on this income you have to pay part to the government – called income tax.

 

Working hours

For many people in Britain, these are 8.30-9.00 a.m. to 5.00-5.30 p.m. Consequently people often talk about a nine-to-five job (=regular working hours). Some people have flexi-time(they can start an hour or so earlier or finish later); and some have to do shiftwork(working at different times, e.g. days one week and nights the next week). Some people also work overtime (=work extra hours). Some people are paid to do/work overtime, others are not paid.

The career ladder

 

Getting a job

When Paul left school he applied for (=wrote an official request for) a job in the accounts department of a local engineering company. They gave him a job as a trainee (=a very junior person in a company). He didn’t earn very much but they gave him a lot of training (=organized help and advice with learning the job), and sent him on training courses.

Note: Training is an uncountable noun, so you cannot say ‘a training’. You can only talk about training (in general), or a training course (if you want to refer to just one). Here you can use the verbs do or go on: I did/went on several training courses last year.

 

Moving up

 

Paul worked hard at the company and his prospects (=future possibilities in the job) looked good. After his first year he got a good pay rise (=more money), and after two years he was promoted (=given a higher position with more money and responsibility). After six years he was in charge of (=responsible for/the boss of) the accounts department with five other employees (=workers in the company) under him (=under his responsibility/authority).

 

Leaving the company

 

By the time Paul was 30, however, he decided he wanted a fresh challenge (=a new exciting situation). He was keen to work abroad, so he resigned from his company (=officially told the company he was leaving his job; you can also say ‘he quit the company’) and started looking for a new job with a bigger company. After a couple of months he managed to find a job with an international company, which involved(=included) a lot of foreign travel. He was very excited about the new job and at first he really enjoyed the traveling, but…

 

Hard times

 

After about six months Paul started to dislike the constant moving around, and after a year he hated it; he hated living in hotels, and he never really made any friends in the new company. Unfortunately his work was not satisfactory either and finally he was sacked (=told to leave the company/dismissed/given the sack) a year later.

After that, Paul found things much more difficult. He was unemployed(=out of work/without a job) for over a year. He had to sell his car and move out of his new house. Things were looking bad and in the end Paul had to accept a part-time job (=working only some of the day or some of the week) on a fruit and vegetable stall in a market.

 

Happier times

 

To his surprise, Paul loved the market. He made lots of friends and enjoyed working out in the open air. After two years he took over (=took control of) the stall. Two years later he opened a second stall, and after ten years he had fifteen stalls. Last year Paul retired (=stopped working completely) at the age of 55, a very rich man.

 

UNIT III. ART AND ARTISTS

 

TEXT: ART FOR HEART’S SAKE.[1](after Rube Goldberg, adapted)

 

“Here, take your juice,“ said Koppel, Mr. Ellsworth’s servant and nurse.

“No,” said Collis P. Ellsworth.

“But it’s good for you, sir!”

“No!”

“The doctorinsistson it!”

“No!”

Koppel heard the front door bell and hurriedto leave the room. He found Doctor Caswell in the hall downstairs.

“I can’t do a thing with him,” he told the doctor. ”He doesn’t want to take his juice. I can’t persuadehim to take his medicine. He doesn’t want me to read to him. He hates television. He doesn’t like anything.”

Doctor Caswell tookthe information with his usual professional calm. This was not an ordinary case. The old gentleman was in pretty good health for a man of seventy. But it was necessary to keephim from buying things. His financial deals always ended in failure, which was bad for his health.

But the old man hated it when anybody interfered in his affairs and ordered him to do things.

“How are you this morning? Feeling better?” asked the doctor. I hear you haven’t been obeying my orders.”

“Who is giving me orders at my time of life? Am I to ask for permission every time I want to do something? Am I to be punished for disobedience?” The doctor drew up a chair and sat down close to the old man. He had to do his duty and he was preparedto take a chance.

“I’d like to make a suggestion,” he said quietly. He didn’t want to argue with the old man.

Old Ellsworth looked at him over his glasses. The way Doctor Caswell said it made him suspicious.

“What is it? More medicine, more automobile rides to keep me away from the office?” The old man asked with suspicion.

“Not at all,” said the doctor. “I’ve been thinking of something different. As a matter of fact I’d like to suggest that you should take up painting.”

“Nonsense!” the old man’s voice rose.

“I don’t mean seriously of course,” said the doctor, glad that his suggestion had been taken calmly enough. “Just try. You’ll like it.”

Much to his surprise the old man agreed. He only asked who was going to teach him drawing.

“I’ve thought of that too,” said the doctor. “I know a student from an art school who can come round once a week. If you don’t like it, after a little while you can throw him out.”

The person he had in mind and promised to bring about was a certain Frank Swain, eighteen years old and a capable student. Like most students he needed money. Doctor Caswell kept his promise. He got in touch with Frank Swain and the lessons began. The old man liked it so much that when at the end of the first lesson Koppel came in and apologizedto him for interruptingthe lesson, as the old man needed a rest, Ellsworth looked disappointed.

When the art student came the following week, he saw a drawing on the table. It was a vase. But something was definitely wrong with it.

“Well, what do you think of it?” asked the old man stepping aside.

“I don’t mean to hurt you, sir, there is one thing I want to draw your attentionto…” began Swain.

“I see,” the old man interrupted, “the halves don’t match. I can’t say I am good atdrawing.” He added a few lines with a shaky hand and painted the vase blue like a child playing with a picture-book.

“Listen, young man,“ he whispered. “I want to ask you something before Old Juice comes again. I don’t want to speak in his presence.”

“Yes, sir,” said Swain with respect.

“Could you affordthe time to come twice a week or perhaps three times?”

They arranged to meet on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Ellsworth never misseda lesson.

As the weeks went by, Swain’s visits grew more frequent . The old man drank his juice obediently. Doctor Caswell hoped that business was forgotten forever.

When spring came, Ellsworth painted a picture which he called “Trees Dressed in White”. The picture was awful. The trees in the picture looked like salad thrown up against the wall. Then he announced that he was going to display it at the Summer Show at the Lathrop Gallery. Doctor Caswell and Swain thought the old man was joking but said they admiredit.

The Summer Show at the Lathrop Gallery was the biggest exhibition of the year. All the outstanding artists in the United States dreamt of winning a Lathrop prize.

“We’ve got to stop him. It’s our duty,” said Koppel. He insisted that they should do something about it.

“No,” said the doctor. “We can’t interfere with his plans now and spoil all the good work we’ve done. Besides I can’t order that he should take the picture back”.

To the astonishment of all three Trees Dressed in White was accepted for the Show.

Young Swain went to the exhibition one afternoon and blushed when he saw Trees Dressed in Whitehanging on the wall. As two visitors stopped in front of the strange picture, Swain rushed out. He was ashamed that a picture like that had been accepted for the Show. He didn’t want to hear what they might say.

However Swain didn’t give up teaching the old man who spent a lot of time drawing. Every time Koppel entered the room he found the old man painting something. Koppel even thought of hiding the brush from him. The old man seldom mentioned his picture and was unusually cheerful.

Two days before the close of the exhibition Ellsworth received a letter. Koppel brought it when Swain and the doctor were in the room. “Read it to me,” asked the old man putting aside the brush he was holding in his hand. “My eyes are tired from painting.”

The letter said: ‘It gives the Lathrop Gallery pleasure to announce that Collis P. Ellsworth has been awarded the First Landscape Prize of ten thousand dollars for his painting Trees Dressed in White’.

Swain became dumb with astonishment. Koppel dropped the glass with juice he was about to give Ellsworth and did not bend to pick up the fragments. Doctor Caswell managed to keep calm. “Congratulations, Mr Ellsworth,” said the doctor. “Fine, fine…Frankly, I didn’t expect that your picture would win the prize…Well…Anyway I’ve proved to you that art is more satisfying than business.”

“Art is nothing. I bought the Lathrop Gallery,” said the old man very pleased with the effect of his deception.

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

art n – искусство modern (national, realistic, abstract, etc.) art. Phr a work of art - произведение искусства; an art student - студент художественной школы ; an art exhibition - художественная выставка ; artist – художник, an art school – художественная школа, направление в искусстве.

 

hurry vt /vi cпешить, торопить(ся),hurry home (to school, to the station, etc.,); Don’t hurry him, he’ll make a mistake. Hurry up! Скорее, поторопитесь! hurry n спешка What’s the hurry? In a hurry в спешке, второпях He is always in a hurry. Он всегда спешит. (Ему всегда некогда).

 

deal n сделка, соглашение to do/make a deal with sb – заключить с кем-то сделку; dealer n to deal (dealt, dealt) – 1. иметь дело, вести дело, рассматривать, касаться The book deals with modern art. It is difficult to deal with the man. Who deals with such matters? 2. торговать What goods does this shop deal in?

 

suggestion n предложение At whose suggestion did your arrange this exhibition? make a suggestion – внести, сделать предложение; suggest vt – предлагать suggest a plan (idea, trip, etc) suggest that sb (should) do sth; I suggest that they (should) visit the art museum.

 

to be preparedto do sth – быть готовым сделать что-то; to be ready for sth – быть готовым к чему-то

 

chance n случай, возможность, шанс a lucky chance (good, excellent, etc) chance; I had no chance to speak to him . The chances are a hundred to one against him. Phr by chance случайно; lose (miss) a/one’s chance – упустить случай, возможность; take a/one’s chance (of doing sth) – решиться (на что-то), рискнуть; leave sth to chance – оставлять что-то на авось

 

risevi (rose, risen) 1. вставать, подниматься When I entered, he rose (from his seat) to greet me. The sun rises early in summer; 2. повышаться (о цене, температуре и т.д.) His voice rose in excitement (anger, etc) ; rise n повышение, увеличение a rise in temperature (prices, one’s pay, etc)

 

interrupt vt прерывать, мешать interrupt a lesson (a game, a person, etc); I am sorry to interrupt you. The rain interrupted the game. interruption n

 

miss vt 1. пропускать, упускать прослушать, не заметить miss a lesson the beginning of a story; a chance; sb’s words; a mistake, etc); miss a train – опоздать на поезд 2. скучать по ком-л./чему-л. miss sb (a friend, one’s family, one’s home, etc) 3. обнаружить отсутствие (кого-л. / чего-л.) When did you miss your book? 4. промахнуться, не достичь цели He fired at the bird but missed. He tried to catch the ball but missed; missing a недостающий, отсутствующий There two pages missing from (in) the book.

 

admire vt восторгаться, восхищаться admire a picture (house), sb's talent, etc. ); admirationn восторг, восхищение

 

affordvt позволить себе, (быть в состоянии) (обычно употр. с глаголом can) Can you afford (to buy) an expensive coat? I can't afford the time. Мне некогда.

 

spend vt (spent) 1. тратить spend money (time, energy, etc.) on sth; 2. проводить (о времени) He spent two weeks in a sports camp.

 

mentionvt упоминать (о чем-л.) mention a fact (name, incident,etc) to sb Don’t mention it! Не стоит благодарности! mention n There was no mention of it in the letter.

 

to be good (bad) for sb. – быть полезным (вредным) для кого-то: Smoking is bad for your health. To be good (bad) at sth, e.g. He is very good at drawing. Он очень хорошо рисует.

 

insist(on sth.) – настаивать (на чем-либо); insist that sb. should do sth. – настаивать, чтобы кто-л. сделал что-л.

 

persuadesb. to do sth. – убедить кого-л сделать что-л.

 

take sth. easy/hard/calmly, etc. - воспринимать что-л/относиться к

чему-л. легко/тяжело/спокойно

 

keep sb. from doing sth.. – удерживать кого-л от совершения какого-л действия.

 

order – 1. приказ; vt to order sb. to do sth. – приказать кому-л. сделать что-л.; (to order that sb. should do sth.) Phr byorder по приказу 2. порядок He likes order in everything. She keeps the house in good order. Phr be in (out of)order быть в порядке, исправности (в неисправности, испорченным); disorder n беспорядок. 3. заказывать order a taxi (a dress, dinner, books, etc)

 

obeysb. – повиноваться, подчиняться кому-л./чему-л. obedient – послушный , покорный; disobebient – непослушный.

 

suspicion – подозрение; suspicious подозрительный, вызывающий подозрение, недоверчивый

 

promise vt – обещать что-л., Phr to keep one’s promise – cдержать обещание; to break one’s promise – нарушить обещание.

 

attention– внимание; to draw (call) sb.’s attention to sth. – обращать чье-л. внимание на что-л., to pay (much, little, no) attention to sb/sth – обращать (много, мало, никакого) внимания на кого-л , что-л.; to give attention to sb/sth – уделять внимание кому-л./чему-л.; to catch sb’s attention – привлечь чье-л. внимание; (in)attentive – (не)внимательный, to be (in)attentive to sb.

 

CINEMA and THEATRE

Theatre

At the theatre you can see plays, e.g. Hamlet by Shakespeare, or musicals, e.g. Phantom of the Opera by Andrew Lloyd Webber. In a play the cast (= the total number of actors) is usually quite small, but musicals often have a very large cast.

You usually book (= reserve) tickets in a box-office in advance(some time before the actual performance) if you are going to the theatre. Your seat can be in thestalls, one of the boxes, thedress-circle or balcony / gallery. The curtain rises (falls in the end) and you see thescenery. The audience (= the people watching the play / musical) clap at the end of the performance.

 

Cinema

Plays are performedon a stage, films are shown on a screen. In your country, films in English are either shown with subtitles (= there is a translation across the bottom of the screen), or they are dubbed(= the English is removed and replaced by actors speaking in your own language).

Films are set (= take place) in many different periods and places, e.g. Room with a View is set in the early part of the 20th century; Blade Runner is set in the future. And when people talk about films, they often talk about the director, e.g. Spielberg, Bertolucci; and the stars, the most important actors and actresses, e.g. Tom Hanks and Jodie Foster.

 

Types of films

Western: a film about America in the 19th century; often with cowboys and Indians

War film, e.g. Born on the 4th of July

Horror film, e.g. Dracula; Frankenstein

Science fiction film: about the future

Action film, e.g. Indiana Jones

Comedy: a funny film that makes you laugh

Thriller: an exciting story about a crime

 

MUSIC, ART and LITERATURE

 

A Forms and people

 

Forms Person

Music classical composer

pop/ rock songwriter

 

Art painting painter / artist artist (general)

sculpture sculptor

 

Literature novels novelist

short stories short story writer writer (general) poetry poet plays dramatist/playwright

 

B Music

Classical music:e.g. Beethoven’s piano concertos, Schubert’s symphonies, Beethoven and Schubert are both composers (= people who write music) and most of their music is played by an orchestra (=alarge group of musicians including violins, cellos, etc.) which is led by a conductor.

Opera (= a play in which the words are sung): e.g. Carmen by Bizet.

Rockand pop music: e.g. U2, Bon Jovi, Maria Carey. This music is played by groups / bands, or solo artists, e.g. Madonna. Many solo artists, e.g. Phil Collins, are singer-songwriters (= they write and perform / play their own songs).

Jazz: e.g. Duke Ellington, Miles Davis, Stan Getz.

 

C Art

 

If you want to see the painting of a famous artist, you need to go to an art gallery or museum. There you can see individual paintings and sometimes an exhibition (= a collection of paintings by one painter or school of painters, e.g. the Impressionists), e.g.

There’s a Monet exhibition at the National Gallery next week.

 

There are many different types and styles of paintings:

TEXT: ALBERT EINSTEIN.

 

Albert Einstein [2] (1879-1955) was born in Ulm, in Germany but took out Swiss citizenship in 1901. Surprisingly as a child he wasn’t a remarkable student. In fact he failed his first attempt at the entry exam for Zurich Polytechnic. However two years later he passed and, after his graduation in 1900, he worked as a schoolteacher before getting a job in the Patents office in Bern. He worked there from 1902 to 1909. In 1905 he published three papers on theoretical physics and, in the same year, he obtained his PhD.[3]

In 1908 he became a lecturer at the University of Bern. His genius brought him respect and he went on to hold various professorships. In 1915 he published the final version of his theory of relativity. When his theories were verified four years later, he became world famous and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921.

However, in 1933, while Einstein was visiting California, Hitler came to power. Being Jewish, Einstein decided to remain in the USA, took out American citizenship and continued his research at the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton where he remained until death.

During the First World War Einstein had been a pacifist, but prior to the Second World War, he abandoned this idea because Germanscientistshad managed to split the atom, and an atomic bomb was now possible. He believed Hitler was a threat to world peace. He therefore persuaded President Roosevelt, in 1939, to develop a US atomic research program.

Here there is a version of how Albert Einstein discoveredthe Lawof Relativity taken from Ch. Chaplin’s Autobiography.[4] They first met in 1926, when the great scientist had been invited to California to lecture.

Chaplin receiveda telephone call from Universal studios[5], saying that Professor Einstein would like to meet him. He was thrilled and gladly accepted the invitation. So they met at the Universal studios for lunch, Ch. Chaplin, the Professor, his wife, his secretary and his Assistant Professor.[6] Mrs. Einstein spoke English very well, in fact better than the Professor. She was extremely proudof him and frankly enjoyed being the wife of the great physicist. She did not even try to hide the fact.

After lunch, while Einstein was being shown around the studio, Mrs. Einstein took Chaplin aside and whispered: “Why don’t you invite the Professor to your house? I know he will be delighted to have a nice quiet chat with just ourselves.” It was to be a small affair, and only two other friends were invited. At dinner Mrs. Einstein told Chaplin the story of the morning when the theory of relativity first came to Einstein’s mind.

“The Doctor came down in his dressing gown as usual for breakfast but hehardly toucheda thing. I thought something was wrong, so I asked what was troubling him. “Darling! he said, “I have a wonderful idea.” And after drinking his coffee, he went to the piano and started playing.

Now and again he stopped, reached for his pencil, made a few notes, then repeated: “I’ve got a wonderful idea, a marvelous idea!”

“I said: “What’s the matter with you? Why don’t you tell me what it is?”

“He said: “I can’t tell you yet. I still have to work it out.”

She told me he continued playing the piano and making notes for half an hour, then he went upstairs to his study, telling her that he did not want anyone to disturb him, and remainedthere for two weeks.

“Each day I sent him up his meals,” she said, “and in the evening he walked a little for exercise[7], then returned to his work again.”

“At last,” she said, “he appearedlooking very pale and tired. In his hand he held two sheets of paper. “That’s it!” he told me, putting the sheets of paper on the table. And that was the theory of relativity”.

(Adapted)

 

VOCABULARY

discovervt 1.открывать, находить discover an island (a new continent; a new deposit of oil, coal, gold, etc); 2. обнаруживать; раскрывать discover a mistake (the truth, facts, etc) We discovered that it was too late to catch the train; discoveryn открытие Phr, make a discovery сделать открытие

 

lawn 1. закон; правило Laws tell people what they must do and what they must not do. Phr observe (break) the law соблюдать (нарушать) закон

2. право, юриспруденция international law, law of nations международное право; law merchant торговое право 3. право (как предмет науки) study law; a law department; a law student

 

firstadv 1. впервые, первый раз When did you first meet him (= When did you meet him forthe first time)? Phr at first первое время, сначала I didn’t like the place at first; 2. первым делом, сначала First we shall have lunch and then talk. Phrfirst of all прежде всего, в первую очередь

 

scientistn ученый; science n наука; scientific a научный

 

invitevt приглашать invite sb to dinner (one’s house, a conference, the cinema, etc); He invited me to take part in the experiment.

 

receivevt 1. получать receive a letter (an invitation, an answer; money, news, etc.); 2. принимать (кого-л.) receive a visitor (delegation, guest, etc); receptionn 1. получение 2. прием, принятие Phrhold a reception устроить прием

acceptvt принимать, одобрять (соглашаться) accept help (money, a plan, an offer, a suggestion, an invitation; prices, etc); acceptancen принятие, одобрение; (un)acceptablea (не)приемлемый The price for the goods was acceptable to us.

prouda гордый a proud man (look, etc) Phr be proud of sb (sth) He is proud of his son; priden Phrtake pride in sb, (sth) гордиться кем-л., (чем-л.)

 

franka искренний, откровенный, открытый a frank face (look, smile, ect.) Phr be frank with sb быть искренним (откровенным) с кем-л.; frankly adv откровенно Phrfrankly speaking откровенно говоря

hide vt/vi (hid, hidden) прятать(ся), скрывать(ся) hide a letter (a book; one’s feelings; the truth; a person, etc); What is he hiding from us? Where’s she hiding?

whispervt/vi шептать, говорить шепотом You don’t have to whisper, say it out loud; whisper sth in sb’s ear; whispern шепот Phr ina whisper шепотом

affairn дело; занятие Don’t discuss your personal affairs with strangers. Phrinternational affairs международные дела; home (domestic) affairs внутренние дела; public affairs общественные дела; Ministry of Foreigh Affairs Министерство иностранных дел

hardlyadv 1. едва, с трудом He was so tired that he could hardly move; 2. едва ли, вряд ли; мало, редко This is hardly the truth. She hardly ever goes visiting now.

touchvt 1. трогать, дотрагиваться, прикасаться He didn’t let anybody touch his books. He touched me on the shoulder (arm). She hasn’t even touched the food; 2. (рас)трогать, (раз)волновать Her sad story touched us deeply; touchya обидчивый She is very touchy; touchinga трогательный a touching story (incident, episode, etc)

troublevt/vi беспокоить(ся), тревожить(ся) What is troubling you? Don’t trouble aboutit; troublen беспокойство; неприятности He is having a lot of trouble withhis car. Phrbe in trouble быть в беде; get intotrouble попасть в беду; get sb out oftrouble вызволить кого-л. из беды; give trouble причинять беспокойство

reachvt/vi 1. достигать, добираться (до) reach home (school, a town, the station, etc.) The news reached them on the next day. He has reached good results. Phrreach an agreement достичь соглашения. His words reached my ears; 2. доставать, дотягиваться (до) Can you reach the ceiling? Phrreach for sth протягивать руку за чем-л.

disturbvt мешать, беспокоить Don’t disturb him when he is at work.

remainvi оставаться After the fire very little remained of the house. He remained unchanged (unhurt, etc). PhrIt remains to be seen. Мы еще посмотрим.

appearvi 1. появляться He appeared quite unexpectedly; 2. появляться, возникать Many new towns have appeared in the North of our country; 3. выходить, издаваться; появляться (в печати) When did this newspaper first appear? disappearvi исчезать; appearancen 1. появление; возникновение 2. внешность, внешний вид His appearance was very unusual.

holdvt (held) 1. держать (в руках) hold a bag (a book, newspaper, cigarette, etc); 2. занимать, держать, удерживать (место, позицию) Phrhold first (second, etc) place (in sth) занимать, держать первое (второе и т.д.) место (в чем-л.); 3. проводить (собрание, конференцию и т.д.) hold a meeting (conference competition, exhibition, etc),

 

 

READING I

 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.

The poisoning of the world’s land, air, and water is the fastest-spreading disease of civilization. It probably produces fewer headlines than wars, earthquakes and floods, but it is potentially one of history’s greatest dangers to human life on earth. If present trends continue for the next several decades our planet will become uninhabitable.

Overpopulation, pollution and energy consumption have created such planet-wide problems as massive deforestation, ozone depletion, acid rains and the global warming that is believed to be caused by the greenhouse effect.

The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear waste, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the sea.

Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out for ever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today will have become extinct in twenty years’ time.

Air pollution is a very serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is life threatening – equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for Mexico City and 600 cities of the former Soviet Union.

Industrial enterprises emit tons of harmful substances. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.

An even greater environmental threat are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.

People are beginning to realize that environmental problems are not somebody else’s. They join and support various international organizations and green parties. If governments wake up to what is happening – perhaps we’ll be able to avoid the disaster that threatens the natural world and all of us with it.

 

 

READING II

 

ALFRED NOBEL – A MAN OF CONTRAST

 

Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man of many contrasts. He was the son of a bankrupt, but became a millionaire, a scientist with a love of literature, an industrialist who managed to remain an idealist. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, and although cheerful in company he was often sad in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a wife or family to love him, a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He invented a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of mining and road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. During his life he often felt he was useless: “Alfred Nobel,” he once wrote of himself, “ought to have been put to death by a kind doctor as soon as, with a cry, he entered life “. World-famous for his works he was never personally well known, for throughout his life he avoided publicity. “I do not see,” he once said, “that I have deserved any fame and I have no taste for it,” but since his death his name has brought fame and glory to others.

He was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father, Immanuel, made a strong position for himself in the engineering industry. Immanuel Nobel invented the landmine and made a lot of money from government orders for it during the Crimean War, but went bankrupt soon after. Most of the family returned to Sweden in 1859, where Alfred rejoined them in 1863, beginning his own study of explosives in his father’s laboratory. He had never been to school or university



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