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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК: (Английский язык)
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК: (Английский язык)
для студентов экономических специальностей и направлений ИПЭУ
ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО ТЮМЕНСКОГО ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО УНИВЕТСИТЕТА, 2012
УДК 811.111 (075.8)
ББК: Ш 143. 21.я 73
Н.Ю.Басуева. ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (английский язык):
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов экономических специальностей и направлений ИПЭУ. Тюмень: Издательство Тюменского государственного университета, 2012. 76 с.
Учебно-методическое пособие включает лексический минимум, а также специально разработанные лексические, грамматические, коммуникативные задания по темам «Профессии и профессиональные качества», «Рабочий день и обязанности», «В офисе», Образование в России и за рубежом». Пособие включает подборку оригинальных текстов, которые расширяют кругозор студентов и позволяют познакомиться с зарубежным опытом и реалиями в рамках изучаемых тем. Цель пособия – способствовать приобретению студентами иноязычной профессионально-ориентированной коммуникативной компетенции.
Рабочая учебная программа дисциплины опубликована на сайте ТюмГУ: Иностранный язык (английский язык) [электронный ресурс]/ Режим доступа:http://www.umk3.utm.ru., свободный.
Рекомендовано к изданию кафедрой иностранных языков и межкультурной профессиональной коммуникации ИПЭУ. Утверждено проректором по учебной работе Тюменского государственного университета.
ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫЙ РЕДАКТОР: И.Л. Плужник, доктор педагогических
РЕЦЕНЗЕНТЫ: Т.В.Хвесько, доктор филологических наук, профессор
Ю.А.Шумилова,кандидат экономических наук,
© Тюменский государственный университет, 2012.
© Н.Ю. Басуева, 2012.
1. Jobs and Professional Qualities……………………………………………. 4
2. Working Day and Responsibilities………………………………………….11
3. In the office……………………………………………………………………16
4. Education in Russia and Abroad…………………………………………...18
5. Texts for Class and Home Reading………………………………………..29
Jobs and Professional Qualities.
Jobs and Posts.
Check what you know.
How to ask and answer about one’s job:
Match the jobs and the definitions.
lawyer shop-assistant electrician receptionist
manager university lecturer stock broker mechanic
You are planning to open a small shop. Your assistant has made a list of vacancies. Do you agree with the list? Do you really need all the people?
List of vacancies:
Director, 2-3 Shop-Assistants, Sales Manager, Customer Service Manager, Accountant, Personnel Manager, Cleaner, Security Guard.
Think about at least one job that is impossible for the following people.
People who understand nothing about cars.
The job of a mechanic is impossible for such people.
- people who are afraid of dogs;
- people who didn’t go to the university;
- people who are terrible at numbers and figures;
- people who will not work in the evening or at weekends.
Look at the vocabulary list and say what professionals you will need in the followingsituations:
- you are planning to open a travel agency;
- you are recruiting the staff for a bank;
- you are the Personnel Manager and are recruiting all the necessary staff for a factory.
Check what you know.
Delete the qualities of character which, in your opinion, the people below should not have:
Personal assistant (hard-working, punctual, flexible, reliable, clever, talkative, friendly).
Bank manager (honest, clever, ambitious, cheerful, generous, emotional, sensible).
Stock broker (hard-working, flexible, reliable, clever, emotional).
Write your own (1-2) similar tasks.
Complete the sentences:
Your receptionist is very helpful and (дружелюбная).
The accountant is (честный и пунктуальный).
The stock broker is (умный, амбициозный и трудолюбивый).
This manager is (надежный и инициативный).
This girl is too (застенчивая) to work as Sales Manager.
Work in pairs and make up 3 similar sentences for your group mate.
Which qualities do you find positive? Negative?Write twocolumns of 7-8 qualities.
Try to guess about your group mate’s character, write 5-6 leading qualities. Let him (her) write his (her) own list. Compare your lists. Now change the roles.
Write 2-3 descriptions or situations for a quality of character; let your group mates to guess the quality.
He often promises to do things and forgets about it (unreliable).
He can work with different people, both in a team and on his own (flexible).
Make up a list of 3-4 qualities necessary for the following professions:
- an accountant
- a manager in a bank
- a receptionist
- a stock broker
- a lawyer
- a PR manager.
Add prefixes to form the opposites of the following words:
Discuss the following with your group mate; present briefly your common conclusion:
1 What, in your opinion, is the worst quality (from the Vocabulary list)?
2 What qualities, in your opinion, should most people in a society have?
3 Which qualities, in your opinion, are born and which can be developed?
4 Have you ever heard about cross-cultural differences in management? How different, in your opinion, are qualities of American, German, Japanese, Chinese and other managers?
Write a short essay on the topic:
Are there any qualities you do not have but would like to have? Why do you want to have them? How are you going to develop the qualities if that is possible?
Check what you know.
Check what you know.
Correct the sentences where they are false.
Regular (normal) working hours in Russia are from 11a.m. to 17p.m.
Most people work 10 hours a day in Russia.
In Russia women start their work at 8 a.m., while men start their work at 8.30 a.m.
Any employee at any work can work flexi-time.
It’s your choice whether to have normal working hours or to do shift work in your job.
If you work overtime you must receive extra pay.
According to the Russian legislation, employees who get sick receive sick pay.
Most people receive their salaries in cash.
Work in pairs with your group mate: tell each other about your parent’s (sister’s, friend’s etc.) working hours; use the following vocabulary:
· regular (normal) working hours
· to work ….. hours a day
· start one’s work at ….. a.m.
· work flexi-time
· to do shift work
· work overtime
My mother works regular working hours.
She works 8 hours a day.
She starts her work at 9 a.m. and finishes at 6 p.m. (1 hour for lunch).
She doesn’t work flexi-time.
She never does shift work.
Sometimes she works overtime.
Make notes and be ready to present the information you hear to the class.
Do you know what responsibilities the following jobs involve? Work in pairs and complete the sentences, using Vocabulary list:
The job of a secretary involves the following: she welcomes clients, makes and answers phone calls. Besides, she does a lot of paperwork.
The job of a manager involves the following:…
The job of an accountant involves the following:….
The job of a lawyer involves the following:….
Think about your future work. What would you like to be responsible for?
What duties would you like to have in your future work?
Make up the list of them.
Write about the duties you would not like to have.
Make notes and be ready to present the information to the class.
Work in pairs with your group mate: find out about his/her future responsibilities and duties at work.
Go to the website WORKSMART (or any other site) which giveslegal advice to emloyees who have problems related to working hours in GB.
Find the answers to the following questions:
· My employer does not keep records of my working hours. Is this permitted? more...
· The HSE (Health and Safety Executive) inspector is coming to investigate our compliance with the Working Time Regulations. What should I do if he or she calls me in? more...
· What are my working hours rights in a nutshell? more...
· Which groups of workers are not covered by working time rules, or treated as a special case? more...
· What counts as working time? more...
· What unpaid overtime counts as working time? more...
· How is my average working week calculated? more...
· Can the period over which my average hours are calculated be varied? more...
· Can I opt out of the 48-hour limit? more...
· Can I opt back into the 48-hour limit? more...
· Can I be made to sign an opt-out? more...
· How do I reverse a working time opt-out? more...
· What does my employer mean when they say my working time is 'unmeasured'? more...
In the office.
Check what you know.
Describe an office employee’s working place (the desk). What does he (she) usually need for office work?
You work in an office. Think what stationery should your secretary order every month, every half a year, every year? Make the lists of them.
You are opening a new office for 10 employees. Together with your group mate (your assistant) write down an order for all the stationery you may need for a month.
You are creating a Word document. What are the common operations?
Check what you know.
Below you can see the website map of London School of Business and Management ( LSBM).
- Why LSBM?
- Apply now
Think in which sector you can probably find information about the following:
- Postgraduate courses
- vacancies at the School
- how to apply
- visa services
- undergraduate courses
- how to make payment
- student life.
Read about Undergraduate courses in LSBM.
LSBM offers a portfolio of undergraduate programs in Business, IT and Hotel Management. In each department, LSBM offers diploma and bachelor degrees for full time students. LSBM offers programs for students from all the regions of United Kingdom and different parts of the world.
The Undergraduate Courses offered by LSBM:
- Higher National Diploma (HND) in Business (2 years)
- BSc Business Degree (3 years)
BSc (Computing/ IT)
- Higher National Diploma (HND) in Information Technology (2 years)
- BSc Computing (3 years)
Answer the questions about Undergraduate courses in LSBM (look ex. 25).
1. What undergraduate programs does LSBM offer?
2. What degrees does the School offer?
3. Can international students study in LSBM?
4. How long do students study to receive Higher National Diploma (HND) in Business?
5. How long do they study to receive BSc Business Degree?
6. Do you need to send all the necessary documents in the original or in their copies when applying?
7. What English language exams (tests) must international students pass before applying? What is the minimum Test Score?
8. What are the minimum undergraduate entry requirements?
Anyone can apply to the LSBM on-line. Practice completing the forms.
Who will pay your fees? (*) Choose Option Self funding Grant/scholarship Sponsor Government support Employer Other You must select an answer
Contact details of the person paying your fees:
Email Address Email address must be valid
How did you hear about LSBM? Choose Option UCAS Website Word of Mouth Career Fair Agent Hot Courses Education UK Other
Word of mouth
Diploma in Business
Advanced Professional Certificate in Management Studies
(*) please refer to our website or ask an Education Consultant for specific programme commencement dates. Start Date is required
Copy of Passport (*) Copy of Passport is required
Most Recent Qualification (*) Most Recent Qualification is required
Proof of English Language abilities (*) Proof of English Language abilities is required
Other Supporting Documents
Further academic documents
Letters of recommendation
Other supporting documents
Other supporting documents can be emailed or posted to LSBM before application close date
Vocabulary List 2.
Check what you know.
Write a letter to your friend about your student life. Answer the following:
1. How many lectures do you attend a day?
2. Do you participate in academic seminars? How often?
3. What subjects do you study?
4. Do you have to write a course paper this semester?
5. How many exams do you have to take this semester?
6. Which of the exams do you think will be difficult for you?
Vocabulary List 3.
Check what you know.
Visit the website of Tyumen State University (English version) and read about the history of Tyumen State University. Be ready to speak about it.
Choosing an Occupation
One of the most difficult problems for people is deciding what to do about a career. There are individuals, of course, who from the time they are six years old “know” that they want to be a doctor or pilots or fire fighters, but the majority of us do not get around to making a decision about an occupation or career.
Choosing an occupation takes time, and there are a lot of things you have to think about as you try to decide what you would like to do.
Fortunately, there are a lot of people you can turn to for advice and help in making your decision. At most schools and Universities, there are teachers who can counsel you and give detailed information about any job. And you can talk over your ideas with family members and friend who are always ready to listen and to offer suggestions.
What am I going to do after school or university? I began to think about my future profession at age of 15. My favourite subjects in school were Economics, History and English. My teachers were well-educated people with deep knowledge of the subjects. They encouraged me in my desire to become an economist. I opted for a career in business economics. It was my father who aroused my interest in that field.
Typical work activities
The roles of finance managers vary significantly. The level and scope of the responsibilities can vary enormously. In larger companies for instance, the role is more concerned with strategic analysis; in smaller organisations, a finance manager may be responsible for the collection and preparation of accounts.
Typical activities include:
· providing and interpreting financial information;
· monitoring and interpreting cash flows and predicting future trends;
· analysing change and advising accordingly;
· formulating strategic and long-term business plans;
· researching and reporting on factors influencing business performance;
· analysing competitors and market trends;
· developing financial management mechanisms that minimise financial risk;
· conducting reviews and evaluations for cost-reduction opportunities;
· managing a company's financial accounting, monitoring and reporting systems;
· developing external relationships with appropriate contacts, e.g. auditors, solicitors, bankers etc.
· producing accurate financial reports to specific deadlines;
· managing budgets;
· arranging new sources of finance for a company's debt facilities;
· supervising staff.
HR Manager: Job description
As a HR manager - also called personnel manager, you're responsible for the welfare of your organisation's staff. Your role will be varied and challenging.
You must make sure that the organisation is employing the right people, with the right skills and qualifications for the job.
You'll need an excellent understanding of how your organisation operates, its business requirements and commercial objectives. You'll work very closely with other departments and provide an information resource for both employees and senior management.
You'll be concerned with developing, advising and implementing management policies. Depending on the size and the type of organisation, you may be involved in all aspects of the role, or specialise in an area such as employment legislation, training or graduate recruitment.
Essentially, you'll be responsible for:
- Employment law - working conditions, disciplinary and grievance procedures, equal opportunities, redundancies, paternity pay and maternity rights.
- Recruitment - hiring staff, producing job descriptions, placing adverts, working with recruitment consultancies, organising interviews and running assessment centres.
- Training and development - putting together a staff training programme and identifying suitable courses for staff.
- Salary reviews - researching salaries and ensuring they are in line with legal requirements and industry standards.
- Documentation - writing staff handbooks, contracts, staff memos, and issuing written offers of employment, promotion etc.
- Staff welfare - providing counselling facilities and sports and social activities for staff.
You may also work closely with company lawyers and trade unions.
Hours and Environment
Basically, you'll work between 37 and 40 hours a week, from 9am to 5.30pm, Monday to Friday. However, you may often need to work extra hours. Your role will be mainly office based, although you may be travelling to visit other business sites or to attend meetings and conferences.
Skills and Interests
A human resources manager should have:
Excellent interpersonal and communication skills
Diplomatic and negotiaton skills
The ability to work on your own initiative
Outstanding organisational skills
The ability to work under pressure
The ability to work with personnel from all levels
Tact, and the ability to deal with difficult situations
Numerical and budgeting skills
Knowledge of UK employment legislation.
An interest in career development and training within the workplace.
It is possible to start at administration level and work up the company structure. National organisations may run graduate training schemes which specialise in human resources.
Relevant commercial experience, for example in management or law, is an advantage.
Training is on the job. Some organisations have structured training programmes where you can gain experience in other business areas. They offer various courses and qualifications through full-time study, part-time study, or flexible learning.
The majority of commercial and public sector organisations have a human resources function. Potential employers include manufacturers, retailers, banks, consultancies, local and national government.
Career progression is structured, and there are plenty of opportunities to gain experience or specialise in other areas of human resources.
You may move between employers to progress, or switch into another sector, such as training or marketing.
You also have the opportunity to become self-employed and offer a consultancy service. You can work abroad as well.
How to Be a Good Manager
An effective manager pays attention to many things. Here we suggest some management skills without which you can not be a successful manager.
A successful manager builds effective interpersonal relationships. He (she) demonstrates collaboration, respect, trust and attentiveness.
A successful manager communicates effectively in person and email. He is a good listener.
He also builds the team and enables other staff to collaborate more effectively with each other. People feel they are becoming more effective, more creative, more productive - in the presence of a team builder.
A good manager understands the financial aspects of the business. He sets goals and measures staff progress and success.
He knows how to create an environment in which people feel positive and employees are motivated to work hard for the success of the business. A good manager keeps the door open. He always reminds people that if they have any questions or concerns, he is willing to listen.
A good manager leads by example and provides recognition when others do the same.
He helps people grow and develop their skills and capabilities through education and on-the-job learning.
How To Pick An Accountant
What business people say:
1) A good accountant should be able to explain tax law, financial statements etc in plain English for you to understand.
Ask friends and business owners for 3 or more names of accountants, then interview them all. Get to know them; school background, years of experience and ask why they chose their field. If they have a passion for their profession it will shine from the moment they greet you.
2) When you are looking for a new accountant it is very important to find out how experienced is the accountant, how many clients he/she services and how much time they can devote to your company. The less experienced accountants might charge less but they also take longer time to do the work. So at the end it cost almost the same.
3) When looking for an accountant, it is important to work with someone who owns businesses of their own and invest in simular vehicles. They have taken the time to investigate all the ins and out of the field to protect their own personal assets. I also recommend working with someone from a large, reputable organization instead of someone who works out of their own home and are accountable to no one. A great accoutnant can save you far more then youwill ever pay them.rnThey pay for themselves.
4) My father is an excellent accountant with a successful business and sterling reputation. He always advises potential clients to interview several candidates, check the credentials thoroughly and definitely check references. A good accountant will WANT you to talk to their clients because they KNOW that their happy clients are the best advertisement and they will sell the perspective client on using his/her services.
5) A good accountant can make or break a small business. Finding the best accountant requires some asking: ask friends, relatives, colleagues, and clients. Once you've narrowed down your list, make some phone calls and GET REFERENCES. Call those references and ask some questions. Getting personal recommendations is much better than looking in the yellow pages. Ask the accountant this question: Have you had experience with entrepreneurs (i.e. small businesses)?
6) Finding a good accountant is tough but the best way to find one you can trust is asking friends that you trust and who they use. If a friend or business is truly happy with them then at least you know more about the accountant rather than going in blind! We all prefer word of mouth about movies, products, businesses, etc. so don't be shy! Ask around!
7) It is very important that the accountant you hire has some knowledge about your business - What kind of products you sell, how do you get paid and what terms and conditions you use etc. The accountant should be able to answer questions like - How can you improve the cash flow, how much funds you have in your account etc.
8) Ask around for recommendations. Call others in your same industry and see who they use. Put a note on Facebook or Twitter and see what responses you get. Once you have a few, put together a short list of questions and start interviewing them. Most accounting firms, or good one at least, have specific industry niches on which they focus, so stick with those that know your business and provide good service to those in your niche.
The Job of an Economist
This job is sometimes referred to as:
Economic Market Analyst
Economists are interested in the factors that influence the well-being of people and aim to find solutions to improve people's standard of living. This includes studying how financial, labour and trade markets are organised and how they interact.Titiro ai ki nga take e whai paanga ana ki te oranga o te tangata e pa ana ki nga rawa, a, kimi huarahi ai hei whakapai ake i te ahua o te oranga o te tangata. Ka uru ki roto ki enei whainga te ako i te ahua o te whakahaere mahi e pa ana ki te putea, te ahumahi, nga huarahi tauhokohoko me te ahua o ta ratau mahi tahi.
How to get into the job
To become an economist you need to have a degree with an economics component such as statistics, economic history, finance, business, accounting and philosophy. A postgraduate degree in economics is preferred.
Pay for economists varies between the public and private sectors.
Training on the job
Skills are gained on the job. External training courses may be provided in:
econometrics (the study of economic theory and statistics
job-specific computer courses.
Opportunities may also be available to do postgraduate study.
Useful experience for economists includes having worked as an:
Work in the public sector or in management is also useful, as is any public speaking experience.
Economists work in quiet office environments in businesses, government departments and universities. They may travel to present economic information to clients, carry out research, and attend conferences and meetings. They may also travel overseas to attend conferences or to do contract work in developed or developing countries.
Economists usually work regular, but flexible hours and have to be prepared to work overtime to meet project deadlines.
Contact with people
Depending on the organisation they work for, economists can work independently and in teams. Many supervise small groups. Economists also interact with other economists, statisticians, policy analysts and accountants.
Many economists change organisations to develop their professional experience and expand their networks and skills.
business managers and strategists.
Getting out in the field
Fiona Stokes is keen to dispel the myth that being an economist means you are bound to a desk.
“We’re based in Wellington, but I have clients nationwide and we do a reasonable amount of travelling. Last week I was in Whakatane, next week I’m going to be in Dunedin – I’m away somewhere at least two or three times a month.
“Because of that you get to meet a variety of people – from people who are running their own companies to city councillors.”
A job well done
For Fiona, the greatest sense of satisfaction comes from helping clients improve their business.
“A couple of years ago we did a survey of the forestry and wood processing industry, looking at what skills and training employers and staff would need in the short to medium term. That was a really good project because I got to meet with employers, and see some of the issues and barriers they were facing. And I also got to talk to people who were employed in the industry and hear their point of view in terms of the skills and training they required to do their job.
"It gave me a good feeling to know that the work I was doing, and the recommendations I was making in the report, were going to have a positive impact on their business and the wider community.”
Alex Harrington – Economist (New Zealand):
Alex Harrington says that if you want to become an economist, think carefully about the subjects you choose to take at university. “In your degree you are always going to have options, so make sure you do papers that give you opportunities to write and present your work.
“I started my degree doing economics, history and philosophy as part of a BA at Victoria University and then narrowed it down into majoring in economics, where I eventually went back for Honours. There were some good benefits of having done an arts degree. It got me writing a lot more than I would have done in a commerce degree, and being able to write well is important.
“A number of tutorials required me to get up and present to people. I’m not the kind of person who can stand up at the drop of a hat in front of an audience. But as an economist, being able to present your work to colleagues is a big part of the job, so learning how to do it at university was invaluable.”
Alex did, however, learn a few things the hard way on his path to becoming an economist. “I did get a little bit of bad advice when I was deciding what subjects to take at high school. Someone told me not to worry about calculus in seventh form, which meant later on I had to do catch-up. Calculus plays an important role in economics and as I went on I found myself struggling."
It all worked out well in the end and Alex has been working at Treasury for nine years, where he is a senior economist who works with a variety of people, all from different educational backgrounds. “I work with a good bunch of talented individuals with a range of skill sets. There are a lot of economists who come from accounting backgrounds, but also there are philosophy, geography and even engineering graduates.
“If you get the right training from the beginning, you can really excel in this role. And then you can get on with providing advice to try and help make New Zealand a better place.”
According to managers from the UK, US and France, managers in China are: hierarchical and authoritarian in style, motivating their employees to work hard, performing tasks on time and on budget.
They are not: very innovative, caring or concerned with following rules.
According to managers from China, Chinese managers are: very concerned about following rules and procedures, good at motivating people and focused on getting the job done.
They are not: very authoritarian in the way that they manage people.
According to Chinese managers the top three characteristics of good managers are: knowledge, wisdom and the ability to learn; taking responsibility, team working skills.
The strengths of Chinese managers include: being customer focused; ensuring workplace safety; being honest ethical and having strong personal values.
Chinese managers were far more willing than their Western counterparts to acknowledge management weaknesses holding back development: communication and teamwork.
Chinese managers are better educated at first degree level and benefit from significantly more in-house training than their Western peers.
What Makes A Good Manager?
A global perspective
Taking the responses of the UK, US, France and China together the top three most important managerial attributes or characteristics are: a determination to get things done; good communication skills; general knowledge, and ability to learn and wisdom.
The least important (in the top ten) are: business knowledge; team working skills; the ability to organise workload.
French managers give significantly lower scores to their own managers, and managers from the UK, US and China.
Taking the responses of the UK, US, France and China together the top four attributes the managers actually possess are: very customer focussed; take decisions; ensure a safe workplace; are good team players. Note the mismatch with desired attributes.
An individual country perspective
Asked what makes a good manager, the UK managers favoured relationships, the French managers action, but neither the UK, US nor French rated knowledge and wisdom very highly.
UK managers are decisive, fairminded, relationship and safety conscious individuals, with a focus on customers and teams.
UK managers are less good at managing relationships, and in particular: helping with people’s problems; dealing fairly but firmly with poor performance; and managing individuals well.
French managers are tough minded team players, good at decision making and communication.
French managers, like their UK counterparts, are less good at managing relationships, and in particular: helping with people’s problems; dealing fairly but firmly with poor performance; and managing individuals well.
American managers are authoritative, innovative entrepreneurial problem solvers and decision makers.
American managers are less good at delegating and assigning tasks and motivating people and teams.
UK, US and French managers are not good at taking advantage of new production and operational systems to gain competitive advantage.
UK and French managers are not good at ensuring minimal impact on the environment.
Education in England
Education in England is overseen by the Department for Education and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Local authorities (LAs) take responsibility for implementing policy for public education and state schools at a regional level.
The education system is divided into Nursery (ages 3 - 4), Primary education (ages 4 - 11), Secondary education (ages 11 - 18) and Tertiary education (ages 18+).
Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 16, with a child beginning primary education during the school year they turn 5.
Students may then continue their secondary studies for a further two years (sixth form), leading most typically to A-level qualifications, although other qualifications and courses exist, including Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) qualifications, the International Baccalaureate (IB) and the Cambridge Pre-U.
The leaving age for compulsory education was raised to 18 by the Education and Skills Act 2008. The change will take effect in 2013 for 16-year-olds and 2015 for 17-year-olds.
State-provided schooling and sixth form education is free of charge to students. England also has a tradition of independent schooling, but parents may choose to educate their children by any suitable means.
Higher education typically begins with a 3-year bachelor's degree. Postgraduate degrees include master's degrees, either taught or by research, and the doctorate, a research degree that usually takes at least three years.
Universities require a Royal Charter in order to issue degrees, and all but one are financed by the state via tuition fees, which are increasing in size for both home and European Union students.
The Education Act requires parents to ensure their children are educated either by attending school or alternative means. Small but increasing numbers of parents are choosing to educate their children by means other than schooling. This style of education is often referred to as Elective Home Education, The education can take a variety of forms, ranging from homeschooling where a school-style curriculum is followed at home, to unschooling, where any semblance of structure in the educational provision is abandoned.
Most children enter the public education system around ages five or six. The American school year traditionally begins in August or September, after the traditional summer recess. Children are assigned into year groups known as grades, beginning with preschool, followed by kindergarten and culminating in twelfth grade. Children customarily advance together from one grade to the next as a single cohort or "class" upon reaching the end of each school year in May or June, although developmentally disabled children may be held back a grade and gifted children may skip ahead early to the next grade.
The American educational system comprises 12 grades of study over 12 calendar years of primary and secondary education before graduating and becoming eligible for college admission.
After pre-kindergarten and kindergarten, there are five years in primary school (normally known as elementary school). After completing five grades, the
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