Имеет свое подлежащее и выделяется запятой

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Имеет свое подлежащее и выделяется запятой

3) переводится придаточным или самостоятельным предложением


Various processes can be automated, packaging being one of them. Различные процессы могут быть автоматизированы, и (причем)упаковка является одним из них.
Most of production cycles having been automated, the plant became able to avoid labour and downtime costs. Так как(когда) большинство производственных циклов автоматизировали, предприятие смогло избежать издержек на оплату рабочей силы и простоя.


1. There are many problems in food manufacturing, automation being the problem of top priority. 2. Production processes varying from manual to fully automatic, it is necessary to provide a structural approach to unite them. 3. Due to control system each department of the plant maintains responsibility for its own operation, the ability of responding to overall management control being its another advantage. 4. Electronic equipment being used for direct control of production processes, managers get the information to improve their ability of decision-making. 5. Computers being extremely helpful for product processing, various branches of food industry are widely automated. 6. Support systems promote the integration of the plant operations, its productivity and the quality of produce being increased to a great extent. 7. Robots are designed for the performance of complex operations, packaging and handling line being one of the spheres of their application. 8. Computerized maintenance management systems are quickly becoming the order of the day, their advantages being hardly overestimated. 9. A food enterprise being automated, labour and downtime costs considerably decrease. 10. Better manpower scheduling, better stock inventory control and increased equipment uptime result in great savings, the advantages of computerized maintenance management systems being evident.


1. Переведите следующие словосочетания и предложения на русский язык, определив функции герундия (подлежащее, часть сказуемого, определение, дополнение, обстоятельство).


A.a chance of modernizing the production; reasons for installing electronic equipment; advantages of controlling the process; the means of maintaining control; the aim of inspecting equipment performance; the experience of reconstructing; the subject of thinking over; the manner of processing products; processing control; milling process

B.by eliminating operator inspection; by lodging information; without rejecting defective product; without getting rapid feedback; in collecting a sample of product; before storing visible characteristics; after pointing out the reason

C.to apply automated inspecting; to improve sample collecting; to eliminate manual controlling; to introduce non-stop processing; to need installing new computerized machines

D.1) people began employing automatic devices long ago; the programmable computer will continue displaying and lodging all the necessary information; they finished collecting sample of product some minutes ago

2) one of the benefits of automation is non-stop processing; close control is monitoring the process to increase product quality and quantity; the problem was rejecting defective product as soon as possible

E.changing production cycles depends upon the commands of programmable computer; inspecting food manufacture involves many operations; collecting a sample of the product prevents extra defective product and material waste; packaging is the field of effective employment of robots; inspecting is a process carried out by special vision inspection systems; introducing automation in any industry is the guarantee of its successful development


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