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Use your loaf

By Jane Clarke The Daily Mail, 2008

Baking your own bread is easier than you think - but don't stick to boring buns and bloomers. Our resident foodie shows just how much dough can do.

A warm bread roll straight from the oven, with a smidgen of good unsalted but­ter, is one of life's simple pleasures. And now bread machines have revolutionised the way we make bread - you put the ingredients into the machine, wait a few hours, and then the alarm tells you a hot, golden loaf is ready. With butter and some pure fruit spread or honey, freshly made bread makes an irre­sistible breakfast.

I must confess that I miss the whole manual bread-making part of the story. In the summer holidays, Maya, my four-year-old daughter, and I like to make bread from scratch; we love getting our hands messy with water and flour, kneading it into a dough and watching it rise. Bread is really easy to make, and not a lot can go wrong as long as you use strong bread-making flour (which has the maximum amount of gluten, the protein that enables the loaf to have a light, risen texture). Yeast, which is necessary to make bread, is available fresh from supermarkets if they have their own in-store bakeries, but dried yeast works very well and has the advantage that your bread can be made from cupboard ingredients.

Use bread dough to make your own pizzas, which are useful for picnics or late suppers because the base can be made ahead of time, and you can be imaginative with the toppings, from the tomato and mozzarella pizza I cooked only last weekend, to olives, ham, chicken, all sorts of cheese - in fact, virtually anything savoury.

In the recipe shown here I've made mini pizzas, and given the amount of topping for each one, but you could just as easily make it into two larger pizzas, in which case you will need 16 tablespoons of tomato sauce, 4 buffalo mozzarellas (buffalo has a delicious taste) and 8 tablespoons of basil pesto (ready-made is fine). Use half this topping on each pizza. This sounds like an awful lot, but I really like my pizza to be oozing and dripping with sauce and melted cheese.

Some people have problems digest­ing bread made out of wheat flour. In this case, I'd suggest cutting down on the quantity of yeast-based wheat bread you eat, substituting pumpernickel, Irish soda or spelt bread. Others find wholemeal suits them better than white, or may find all-wholemeal bread is too rough to digest. Rather than giving up all bread, consider the other varieties suggested above. The time of day you eat bread can influence how you feel, too. I some­times find bread at lunchtime makes me sleepy. The most filling and satisfying bread is wholemeal, which contains the outer fibrous husk of the cereal. Wholemeal bread contains five times as much fibre as white, plus valuable amounts of vitamin E, potassium, iron and В vitamins. Granary and brown breads don't legally have to contain any more nutrients than white does - even if they look brown, this may be down to food colouring. As a nation we should be eating more wholemeal, wholegrain foods, since the fibre helps us maintain our weight (we feel fuller, and are there­fore less likely to need more food after eating wholemeal) and keeps our guts moving. It is also linked to a reduc­tion in bowel cancer and other hor­mone-related cancers such as breast cancer, and can be a useful way to lower our levels of bad cholesterol, which can lead to heart disease. If wholemeal bread contains such seeds as hemp or linseed, we can also glean some extra omega-3 fatty acids.

As I mentioned, in our house we don't just eat wholemeal bread -Maya needs to get plenty of energy from her food, and I recommend that children eat a mixture of wholemeal and white. Too much wholemeal can fill them up too quickly and can also reduce the absorption of essential minerals such as calcium and iron.

For this reason, white bread is good for children - in this country, white flour is still fortified with calcium, thiamine and niacin, and it is very soon going to be fortified with folic acid, an antioxidant linked to a reduc­tion in neural tube defects such as spina bifida.

White bread can be easier to eat for people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), except when it's very fresh as that can aggravate your stomach. Day-old bread may suit them better, and if you're looking for a savoury way to use it up, the tomato and bread salad, below right, is delicious.

 

Answer the questions:

1. Why does the author prefer making bread without bread-making machine?

2. What advantage does dried yeast have?

3. What advantage does strong bread-making flour have?

4. What advantages does the wholemeal bread have?

5. Why it is important to eat food which is rich in fibre?

6. How does the author explain that white bread is good for children?

7. What other dough-based products does the author advocate and why?

8. How does the time of day that you eat bread affect its qualities?

9. What is “pumpernickel” and how does it differ from other breads?

10. Why is day-old bread better for some people?


Приложение 1.

 

Сравнительная таблица целей речевой деятельности и характера аналитико-синтетических операций перекодирования исходного текста при создании рефератов, аннотаций и конспектов.

 

  Цель деятельности Характер аналитико-синтетических операций исходного текста
Реферат замена первоисточника, знакомство потребителя с содержанием оригинала (информативная функция).   свертывание текста до основных обобщенных мыслей. Выявление, систематизация и фиксация наиболее ценной информации. Объективный характер изложения.  
Аннотация знакомство потребителя с тематикой первоисточника (индикативная функция – обеспечение информационного поиска).   свертывание всей информации первоисточника до краткой формулировки стержневой темы. Оценочное обобщение и абстрагирование материала.  
Конспект хранение и восстановление информации первоисточника (в основном для личного пользования).   использование индивидуальной нотации, различных способов фиксации ключевого материала, обильное использование графических средств, информация подаётся в той последовательности, которую использует автор первоисточника.
Эссе Создание письменного текста аргументативного характера. Краткая формулировка основных мыслей и детальная аргументация, систематизирование фактов, оценка ситуации.

 

 

Приложение 2.

 

Выражения, используемые при пересказе текста.

a)

1. As you can see from the title the text is devoted to…

2. The problem is…

3. According to the text…

4. Experiments proved to…

5. Research has shown that…

6. I find the text rather/ very…

7. I’ve learnt a lot…

b)

1. The paper attempts to provide…

2. …are discussed briefly.

3. They include…

4. The conclusion is as follows…

5. Extensive effort has been devoted to the design of…

6. The effort continues in the direction of…

7. It is expected that…

c)

1. The review surveys…

2. The main features are described…

3. There is no reason to believe…

4. The first paragraph introduces…

5. The second part illustrates the idea of…

6. In conclusion… is given.

 

 

 

Приложение 3.

 

Выражения, используемые при доказательстве правильности или ошибочности суждений, высказанных в тексте.

 

That’s just the point…

I can also add…

I don’t agree with it…

If I am not mistaken…

It seems to me that…

I quite agree with you…

You are right to mention that…

The point is that…

As far as I know…

To my mind…

To sum it up…

The problem seems to be very serious…

The point turned out to be…

I’m not sure that…

The drawback of the (…) is that it is not useful for…

It requires a complex procedure…

It is expensive to...

 

 

 

Приложение 4.

 

Подстановочные таблицы для составления реферативного сообщения.

 

I. Название текста.

 

I want I am going I would like …to speak about …to give you some information about …to tell you a couple of words about …to give a talk about …to render the contents of …an item …an article …a text …a feature-story …an essay …entitled (…)

 

The article is headlined…

The headline of the article I have read is…

The headline of the text under review is…

The title of the text is…

 

II. Сведения об авторе.

 

The item The article The text The story …under discussion …under consideration …under review …is(was)written by …is(was)contributed by (…) the name of the author

 

The author of …the text …the item …the article …the story …under discussion …under consideration …under review …is (…) the name of the author

 

Unfortunately/I am sorry to say the name of the author is not mentioned.

 

III. Сведения об источнике публикации (где и когда опубликован).

 

The item The article The text The story …under discussion …under consideration …under review …is taken from …was found in …is/was printed in …is published in …the book named (…) …the newspaper (…)

 

 

IV. Главная идея текста.

 

The main idea of The purpose of The aim of …the item …the article …the text …the story …is to give the reader some information on …is to provide the reader with some data (material) on
The item The article The text The story The essay …is about …is devoted to …is concentrated upon …is centred around …is focused upon …deals with …touches upon …tells us about …the present-day situation in… …the difficult position of… …the latest events in… …the important achievements of… …the latest developments in … …the relations between… …the conflict between…
         

 

The item The article The text The story The essay …gives a vivid / detailed description / account of… …describes very vividly / in detail… …shows us… …opens with an account/description of… …provides much information on…

 

V. Структура реферируемого текста и содержание его частей (факты, главные герои и т.д.).

 

The item The article The text The story The essay …under discussion …under consideration …under review …consists of …is composed of …can be divided into …can be split into (…) logical parts

 

The opening part / passage The introductory part / passage The central part The main part The following part The final part The conclusion …is about …is devoted to …is centred around …centres around …is concentrated upon …concentrates on …is focused on …focuses on …deals with …tells us about …touches upon …shows us …describes …gives a vivid description / an account of

 

The author …starts by telling the reader that… …writes / states / stresses / thinks / describes… …points out that… …goes on to say that…

 

According to the text…

Further the author says that…

Then / After that…

 

VI. Заключение.

 

In conclusion By way of conclusion By way of summing up …I want to say …I can say …I must say …I would like to say …the author states     that…

 

The author comes to the conclusion that…

The text ends with a conclusion…

VII. Свое отношение к анализируемому тексту.

 

I find I found …the text …the item …the article …the story …interesting / important / dull / of no value … too hard to understand / easy to understand

 

Generally speaking On the whole (…) the name of the text …made on me …a great impression …a favourable impression …a good impression …an unforgettable / a pleasant impression

 

Generally speaking On the whole …I was …greatly / pleasantly impressed by …favourably impressed by …the text (…)

 

In my opinion From my point of view It seems to me that There is no doubt that (…) is …very interesting …informative …rich in content …highly instructive

 

From the text From the item From the article From the story …under discussion …under consideration …under review …I got to know …I learned …I came to know …a lot of interesting information about… …facts about… …facts concerning..

 

Приложение 5.

 

Фразы, используемые при составлении предложений:

· It is shown that…

· It should be noted that…

· It is said that…

· It is known that…

· It is pointed out that…

· The fact(s)…is (are) stressed.

· It should be remembered that…

· It is known as a fact that…

· There can be no doubt that…

· It may be assumed…

· It is generally believed that…

· It is clear (obvious, evident) that…

· It goes without saying that...

· The point is that…

· The author examines…

· The author considers…

· Details are given to …

· The consequence of the development is…

· In the future…

· It shows the advantages and disadvantages of…

· An attempt is made to …

· …have been developed.

· …make it possible to…

· …has allowed the further development ...

· the text carries material on/about…

 


 

Приложение 6.

 

You might find these phrases useful, rendering articles into English:

The article . . . is taken from . . .and deals with . . .

/ is about / concerns / is concerned with / centres on/ focuses on (environmental issues, etc.)

The central idea of the article/ the author’s main concern is . . .

The article also reports (on) mentions / covers / comments on / examines

considers / investigates / raises the subject of … / deals with the issue(s) of …

According to the article / reporter, . . .

Concerning/ regarding/ with regard to . . .

1. At the beginning of the article (in the beginning) the author/reporter describes (dwells on, touches upon, explains, introduces, mentions, comments on, points out, generalizes, criticizes, exposes, ridicules, praises, emphasizes the idea / fact, gives his / her account of, draws the attention of the reader to, . . .)

 

2. The author expresses his / her alarm at / concern(s) over / approval of / support of/ the belief (the conviction, the hope, the opinion, the view) that . . .

 

The author/ article debates/ argues/ describes . . . . as

/ highlights / outlines / stresses . . .

 

3. Then (after that, further on) the author passes on to . . ./ goes on to say / gives a detailed ( thorough) analysis of / discusses . . . / analyses these additional aspects ..

 

4. In conclusion, / Summing it all up . . . / by way of a summary / summarizing the above …

The author concludes / comes to the conclusion/ draws the conclusion / sums it all up by saying that . . . / suggests the following …

In my opinion . . .


 

Для заметок

 

Для заметок

 

 

Полушина Любовь Николаевна

Шлёнская Наталья Марковна

 

 

Английский язык

 

Учебно-методическое пособие по организации самостоятельной работы студентов с текстом при создании вторичных текстов

(на материале английского языка)

 

 

Подписано к печати: 11.03.09

 

Тираж: 250 экз.

 

Заказ №: 6177 изд.№378

 

 



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