VIII. Translate into Ukrainian in the written form.



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VIII. Translate into Ukrainian in the written form.



Alpha blockers.

These drugs work through the autonomic (automatic) nervous system by blocking nerve receptors that are called alpha receptors. Alpha receptors normally promote constriction of the arterioles. Blocking constriction promotes dilation of vessels and lowers blood pressure as well as reducing the work of the heart in some situations. Alpha-blocking drugs also inhibit the actions of one of the adrenal hormones, norepinephrine, that raise blood pressure as part of the fight-or-flight response. Alpha blockers are usually prescribed along with other blood-pressure-lowering drugs, such as a betablocking drug and/or a diuretic. In general, alpha blockers are not as effective for initial therapy as some of the other blood-pressure-lowering medications. There are now several medications available that combine the effects of blocking both the beta and alpha receptors.

 

IX. Read the text and answer the questions.

H 2 blockers

These drugs (cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, available intravenously and orally; and nizatidine available orally) are inhibitors of histamine at the H2 receptor, thus suppressing gastrin-stimulated acid secretion and reducing gastric juice volume. Histamine-mediated pepsin secretion is also decreased. Nizatidine, famotidine, cimetidine, and ranitidine are available without a prescription in the US. H2 blockers are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with onset of action 30 to 60 min after ingestion and peak effects at 1 to 2 hours. Duration of action is proportional to dose and ranges from 6 to 20 hours.

For duodenal ulcers, once daily oral administration of cimetidine 800 mg, ranitidine 300 mg, famotidine 40 mg, or nizatidine 300 mg given at bedtime or after dinner for 6 to 8 weeks is effective. Gastric ulcers may respond to the same regimen continued for 8 to 12 weeks. Children ≥ 40 kg may receive adult doses. Below that weight, the oral dosage is ranitidine 2 mg/kg for 12 hours and cimetidine 10 mg/kg for 12 hours. Cimetidine has minor antiandrogen effects expressed and, less commonly, erectile dysfunction with prolonged use. Mental status changes, diarrhea, rash, drug fever, myalgias, and hypotension after rapid IV administration have been reported with all H2 blockers, generally in < 1% of treated patients.

1.What are the drugs of the H2 blockers group?

2.Are H2 blockers the prescription drugs?

3.When does the action of the drugs start and how long does it last?

4.What diseases may be treated with H2 blockers?

5.What is the average dosage of these drugs?

6.What are the possible side effects of these drugs?

X. Answer the questions.

1. What is drug? Name the types of the drugs you know.

2. How do antibiotics work? Name the antibiotics you know.

3. What ways of drug administration do you know?

4. Why should a physician prescribe the topical application of drugs?

5. What products can we buy at chemist’s shops?

6. What are proteins? Name the proteins you know. What functions do they perform?

 

 


 

V-2

I. Match English words and word combinations with Ukrainian ones:

1. blood clotting a) протипоказання
2. store b) поглинання
3. absorption c) голка
4. shallow d) основа
5. needle e) імунна реакція
6. contraindications f) гіркий
7. base g) розчин
8. bitter h) зберігати
9. solution i) згортання крові
10. immune response j) поверхневий, неглибокий

II. Match the words with their definitions:

1. neuropharmacological a) administered under the tongue
2. gastrointestinal b) a compound of oxygen and another substance
3. sublingual c) the properties and reactions of a drug on and in the nervous system
4. parenteral d) sour, sharp, or biting to the taste
5. topical e) relating to both the stomach and the intestines
6. expiry date f) a branch of chemistry that is concerned with carbon
7. organic chemistry g) occurring outside the intestine
8. acids h) the date when something can no longer be used
9. oxide i) made to be put on the skin
10. protein j) any of various naturally occurring extremely complex substances that consist of amino-acid residues joined by peptide bonds

III. Correct the following statements:

1. Digitalis glycosides belong to the neuropharmacological drugs.

2. Antacids increase production of acid in the stomach.

3. Antihistamines increase production of histamine in the body.

4. Nitroglycerin is administered orally.

5. Parenteral administration includes injections and swallowing of the drug.

6.Intradermal injection is usually given into the buttocks.

7. The pharmacist shouldn’t instruct the patient about the drug as all information is present on the label.

8. Acids are bitter and turn litmus blue.

9. Carbohydrates are complex substances which consist of amino acids.

10. There are 94 identified chemical elements.

 

IV. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. After the drug dilates the vessel walls, the patient will feel himself better.

2. Sulfa drugs are prepared synthetically by pharmaceutical companies.

3. Over-the-counter drugs may be bought in each chemist’s shop and you don’t need a prescription for them.

4. Inhalation of medical gases produces quick effect, this is important is a person feels short of breath.

5. Atoms of one substance are bonded to the atoms of another substance and form a new compound.

6. Cellulose and starch are the essential components of the plants’ framework.

 

V. Fill in the gaps with words from the list:

Injection, prescription, relieve, disorders, digestive, public

1.The ……juices act onto the membrane of the stomach and produce pain.

2.The ……chemist’s shops usually from from 8 till 18, but this works at night because it is the ….one.

3.During the therapy cycle the students studied various …..of the human body.

4.The child was afraid of ……even though the nurse said that it wouldn’t be painful.

5.I lost my …….and couldn’t buy the drug without it.

6.Analgesics are the drugs which are used to …..pain.

VI. Replace the underlined words with their synonyms from the list and translate them:

absorbed, prevented, multiplication, advantages, guarantee, force

1. The medication may act with various power, according to the severity of condition of the patient.

2. The patient was vaccinated, which kept him from catching this terrible disease.

3. The other benefits of this method will be discussed in next chapter.

4. The surgeon couldn’t promise that they wouldn’t lose the patient on the operating table.

5. The drugs administered sublingually are very quickly taken in.

6. Garlic and other phytoncides may stop reproduction of bacteria.

 



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