ТОП 10:

Billy the Kid (William Bonny), 1860-1881



Billy the Kid (William Bonny), 1860-1881

Billy the Kid was a legend in the Wild West as a cattle rustler and murderer. Slim and fair, Billy was born in New York but soon moved to New

Mexico. He was apprenticed to a blacksmith but found this boring, so he shot the smith and became a cowboy. At first he worked for John Chisholm, who was fighting a range war in the Pecos Valley. He quarrelled with Chisholm and joined a band of cattle rustlers, killing as many of Chisholm's men as he could in the process. Pat Garrett was elected sheriff to capture Billy the Kid. He did this, but Billy shot two deputies and escaped from his cell just before he was due to be hanged. He was caught by Garrett two months and five murders later and shot dead in a gunfight. He was said to have shot twenty-one men, but in fact he probably only killed three.

Find in the text the English equivalents for the words and expressions below.

-скотокрад;

- стать подмастерьем у кузнеца;

- быть выбранным шерифом;

- тюремная камера;

- застрелить кого-либо в перестрелке.

Blake, George, b.1922

Born in Holland, he was a famous traitor (a) and Russian spy. During the Second World War, he was a member of the Dutch resistance until he escaped to England, joined the Navy and changed his name to Blake. He joined the intelligence services and was captured in Korea while serving in the British Embassy in Seoul. Blake was released (b) in 1953 but had been secretly converted to (c) communism while a prisoner. He then served as an agent for MI6 and as a double agent (d) for the Russians, first in Berlin and later in Britain. In 1960 he was arrested and sentenced (e) in 1961 to no less than forty-two years in prison. But in 1967, helped by a released fellow-prisoner, he made (f) a daring escape from Wormwood Scrubs prison and was smuggled out to Moscow (g) by the Russians.

Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right.

a) a traitor

b) to release a man from prison

c) to convert sb. to sth.

d) a double agent

l.to find a way out of prison

2.to state that a person has to have a certain

punishment

3.a person who is disloyal to his country

4.to allow a person to go free

e) to sentence sb. to... years in 5.a spy who supplies information to both prison sides

f) to make an escape from 6.to get sb. secretly and illegally from a place

g) to smuggle sb. out

7.to cause a person to change his beliefs

Guess the name of the character.

He is the most famous special agent in fiction, a kind of superman. As Agent 007 he appears in a series of thirteen stories written by Ian Fleming (1908 - 1964). He is always given the most dangerous jobs, and he succeeds in every case, even when faced by enormous difficulties. To help him, his boss in MI5, known only as "M", provides him with ingenious gadgets like a car which turns into a submarine. He enjoys the high life, good food, beautiful women and the best hotels. He is so well described by Fleming that he has almost become a real person. Films have been made of almost all stories, and he has been played by Sean Connery, George Lazonby and, most recently, by Roger Moore. The first book was Casino Royale, other well-known ones are From Russia with Love, Dr. No, On Her Majesty's Secret Service and Goldfinger.

Brown, Father

One of the great figures of detective fiction is Father Brown, created by G.K.Chesterton (1874-1936) and largely based on his friend Father John O'Connor. Father Brown is a plump, moon-faced Roman Catholic priest from Essex, apparently vague (a) and harmless, never separated from his large black umbrella and several brown paper parcels tied up with a string. In fact Father Brown is a master of detection (b) as Chesterton showed in forty-nine stories

published between 1911 and 1935. He finds himself involved (c). more or less by chance, in a crime (d)T which he solves by using common sense and his vast

knowledge of human nature. Father Brown appeared on film in 1954, with Alec Guinness in the title role, and later in a television series, starring Kenneth More.

Complete the following sentences with the underlined words from the text

1. He tried to escape____by disguising himself as an old man.

2. It's the business of the police to prevent_____.

3. He was a little____when I asked what had happened.

4. Don't____me in your quarrels.

Capone, Alphonse, 1899 - 1947

"Al" Capone is possibly the best-known of all American gangsters, though by no means the most important. His home ground was Chicago. He was brought into the rackets by Johnny Torrio and Tome's uncle "Big Jim" Colosimo. Capone seized his chance when prohibition was declared in 1920, which made the manufacture and sale of alcohol illegal in America. He soon rose to control a large part of the illegal liquor market in Chicago and the Middle West. A fierce and vicious man, he was responsible for many gangland killings, including the 1929 St. Valentine's Day Massacre, in which seven rival "bootleggers" (men selling illicit liquor) were trapped by gunmen dressed as police and machine-gunned to death. He was imprisoned in 1931 on income tax charges, became a model prisoner and was released in 1939.

Explain the meanings of the following words and expressions.

- gangster;

- racket;

- "prohibition law";

- "bootlegger".

Costello, Frank, 1891 - 1973

Known by American newspapers as "the Prime Minister of Crime", Costello was bora in Italy and came to America in 1896. Though not well educated, he had a very good brain, and rose steadily through the ranks of the Mafia until in 1936 he took over "Lucky" Luciano's position as capo di capo re, or head of all the Family heads. He avoided violence whenever possible, but was not afraid to use it where necessary. By 1943 he virtually owned New York, appointing city officials, judges and even mayors. He was jailed in 1954 on income tax charges and the resulting publicity made him less valuable to

Meyer Lansky's National Crime Syndicate, and he lost much of his power. An attempt was made on his life in 1957, but he was then allowed to retire in peace.

Find in the text the English equivalents for the following expressions.

- избегать насилия;

- посадить в тюрьму по обвинению в неуплате налогов;

- совершить покушение на кого-либо.

Ellery Queen

This was at the same time the name of a fictional detective (a) and also the pen-name (b) of the two authors, Frederick Dannay (1905-1071) and Manfred Lee (b. 1905). The books written by "Ellery Queen" are about Ellery Queen, an American playboy writer of detective stories (c). who keeps getting involved in mysteries (d) himself. He first appeared in The Roman Hat Mystery in 1929, and in many later books. He was also the hero of several films made between 1935 and 1943, and Peter Lawford starred in a television series based on the books in 1971. Ellery Queen (the author) also founded a Mystery Magazine, which was a popular outlet for detective stories by other writers.

Match each word and phrase on the left with the correct definition on the right.

a) a detective 1 .a name used by an author instead of a real name

b) a pen-name 2.a police officer whose job is to investigate a crime

c) a detective story 3.sth. of which the cause or origin is impossible to

explain or understand

d) a mystery and the 4.one in which the main interest is crime process of solving it

Fawkes, Guy, 1570 - 1606

Guy Fawkes is the best known member of the gang which planned Gunpowder plot of 1605. The originators of the plot were Robert Catesby, Thomas Winter, Thomas Percy and John Wright. Fawkes was only brought in later by Catesby, who knew of his reputation for courage. All were Roman Catholics and their plan was to destroy James I and his Protestant parliament by blowing them up. Percy rented a house next to parliament and later the cellar below the House of Lords. There Fawkes hid thirty-six barrels of gunpowder, covering them with wood and coal. The plot was discovered when one of the conspirators sent a letter to Lord Monteagle in October 1605 asking him not to attend the opening of parliament on 5th November. Suspicions were aroused and on the night of 4th November Fawkes was arrested in the cellar. He had been given the task of lighting the fuse to set off the explosion. Tortured, he refused to give the names of his fellow conspirators until they had either been killed or captured. He was executed by hanging on 31st January 1606.

Find in the text the words that mean:

- a group of criminals;

- a secret plan to do sth.;

- destroying sth. using explosives;

- a feeling of doubt or mistrust;

- a group of people involved in a secret operation;

- to cause intense suffering to sb.

20. Guess the name of the character.

A doctor and member of the French Legislative Assembly, he suggested the use of the guillotine for executions in 1789. The guillotine consists of a heavy blade with a diagonal edge, which falls between two upright posts to cut off the victim's head cleanly and quickly. Similar machines had been used in various other countries including Scotland and Italy. His main idea was to make execution as quick and painless as possible. The first person executed by guillotine was the highwayman Pelletier in 1792, but the machine came into its own in 1793, during the Reign of Terror following the French Revolution, when aristocrats were guillotined by the hundred. It is still the official means of execution in France.

21. Guess the name of the character.

The most famous of English outlaws, he was first mentioned in the second edition of William Langland's epic poem Piers Plowman in about 1377. His legend has grown steadily ever since. He is the great popular hero, robbing

the rich to help the poor, and defying evil King John and the Sheriff of Nottingham. He is supposed to have lived in Sherwood Forest, dressed in Lincoln Green, with his Merry Men who included Friar Tuck, Will Scarlett, Alan a Dale - and of course, Maid Marion (almost certainly a sixteenth century invention and addition to the legend). While there is probably some truth in the stories, it is impossible to decide if he was a real person or how many of his adventures are true, or just fiction. Many versions of this legend have been produced and he was a natural hero for both films and television.

22. Jack the Ripper

"Jack the Ripper" (a) was a mysterious killer who terrorised (b) the East End of London in the autumn of 1888. His victims (c). all women, were killed by having their throats cut, and in many cases the bodies were savagely mutilated as well. The number of victims is said to be between four and fourteen, though police authorities generally thought that only five murders (d) were definitely the work of the Ripper. The Ripper was never caught, and his identity (e) remains a mystery. All kinds of people have been suggested as possible Rippers, including the Duke of Clarence, a Russian barber/surgeon, a society doctor and even a barrister (f).

Match each underlined word in the text with the correct definition.

- facts that describe who a person is;

- to fill people with terror by threats or acts of violence;

- a robber;

- the unlawful killing of a person on purpose;

- a person suffering pain because of circumstances;

- a lawyer who has the right to speak and argue in higher law courts.

23. Dr.Jeckyll and Mr.Hyde

In 1866 Robert Louis Stevenson wrote his famous thriller The Strange Case of Dr.Jeckyll and Mr.Hyde. Dr.Jeckyll is a kind man who wants to find out more about the evil side of human nature. He invents a potion, which changes him into the bestial Mr.Hyde, who looks quite different and who roams the Streets committing terrible crimes. By taking an antidote Dr. Jeckyll is then able to revert to his former self. However, as time goes by, he finds it more and more difficult to change back, until finally he remains in the form of Mr.Hyde. In desperation he

commits suicide, and as soon as he is dead he returns to the form of Dr.Jeckyll and as such is found by his friends. Mr.Hyde is then hunted for the murder, never, of course, to be found. Many films have been made of the story, and the term "Jeckyll and Hyde" had entered the language to describe a person who has two personalities, one good and one evil.

Find in the text the words that correspond to the following definitions.

- a work of fiction, or drama in which excitement and emotional appeal are the essential elements, esp. one involving crime;

- an offence for which there is punishment by law;

- an act of taking one's own life intentionally;

- an unlawful killing of a person on purpose;

- a remedy that counteracts the effects of poison;

- utter loss of hope and surrender to despair.

Lombroso, Cesare, 1836 - 1909

Professor Lombroso, an Italian, is regarded as the father of the scientific study of criminals, or criminology. In an enormous book called The Criminal, he set out the idea that there is a definite criminal type, who can be recognized by his or her appearance. Some of what he said is difficult to believe- F°r example, he said that left-handed persons have a criminal instinct. Amon^ the things he considered important were the shape of the head, colour of the hair, the eyes, the curve of the chin and forehead and if the ears stick out. His i were very new at the time and, although not altogether correct, caused a interest and made other people look into the problem of crime in a scientific way.

Which derivative of the word "crime " matches the following definitions. 1) noun - the study of crime;

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2) noun - a person who commits crimes;

3) noun - delinquency.

27. Luciano, Charles "Lucky" (Salvatore Luciana), 1897 - 1962

"Lucky" Luciano, so called because he led a charmed life and avoided assassination, was one of the most powerful leaders of the Mafia in the USA. Having risen to be a trusted lieutenant of Joe Masseria ("Joe the Boss"), he had him killed in 1931. This was the first step Luciano was to make in getting rid of the old guard of the Mafia, to make way for younger men like himself. In the reorganisation that followed Luciano became capo or head of one of the five New York Mafia "Families". He became the most powerful chieftain in the Mafia, and formed alliances with gangsters of other national groups such as the Jews and Irish-Americans. In 1936 he was sent to prison but paroled in 1945 because of his and the Mafia's secret work for the US government during the Second World War. Afterwards he was deported to Italy, from where he ran the European end of the Mafia's drugs operation.

Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right.

a) to lead a charmed life

b) an assassination

c) a gangster

d) to send to prison

e) to parole

1. to jail

2. a member of a gang of armed criminals

3. a murder for political reasons

4. to free a prisoner on a promise that he will not repeat a crime

5. to be lucky

Oswald, Lee Harvey, 1940 -1963

Complete the text with the words that mean •

- to kill a person for political reasons;

- an offence for which there is punishment by law;

- an examination in law court;

- to examine carefully.

In 1963 the world was shaken by the news that President Kennedy had been (a) in Dallas, Texas, while driving from airport. The man arrested for this terrible (b) was Lee Harvey Oswald. After service in the US Marine Corps, Oswald went to the Soviet Union for a time and married a Russian girl. On returning to the United States he was for a time involved with Cuban revolutionary elements. On 22nd November 1963 he is said to have taken a rifle into the Texas Book Depository in Dallas, where he worked, and shot President Kennedy and Governor Conally of Texas as they drove past Conally survived, but the President died soon afterwards. Oswald tried to escape, shooting a policeman who tried to stop him. He was caught, but was later shot dead before he could be brought to (c) by the night-club owner Jack Ruby, who had got into the police station. The Warren Commission, which (d) the assassination, stated that Oswald had acted alone, but many people do not agree, and there are still a great many questions concerning the killing left unanswered.

Sunday Blues

TASK 1. Read the text.

The so-called blue laws in the United States might better be called Sunday laws, because their intent has been to restrict or forbid business, trade, paid work, or other commercial activities on Sunday, the Sabbath of major Christian sects. In the mid-1980s blue laws had been repealed or simply ignored in many parts of the nation but continued to be observed in certain religious communities.

Secular arguments against blue laws are that they violate the constitutional guarantee of separation of church and state and favour one religion, Christianity. A secular argument supporting them is that everybody needs a day of rest each week. Proscribing work on Sundays goes back at least to 4th-century Rome under Constantine the Great, and the practice was strictly supported in the religion-oriented American colonies. The term blue law is said to have arisen from a list of Sabbath rules printed on blue paper for residents of New Haven, Connecticut, in 1781.

TASK 2. Find in the text the words that mean the opposite.

- to unite;

- pay attention to;

- minor;

- for;

- to allow.

TASK 3. Find in the text the words that correspond to the following definitions.

- to regulate, limit;

- to revoke a law;

- to maintain a condition, course or action without interruption;

- to comply with, infringe;

- to put outside the protection of the law;

- meaning, significance.

4."Let the Body Be Brought..."

TASK 1. Read the text.

In the United States, Britain, and many other English-speaking countries, the law of Habeas Corpus guarantees that nobody can be held in prison without trial. Habeas Corpus became law because of a wild party held in 1621 at the London home of a notoriously rowdy lady, Alice Robinson. When a constable appeared and asked her and her guests to quiet down, Mrs. Robinson allegedly swore at him so violently that he arrested her, and a local justice of the peace committed her to jail.

When she was finally brought to trial, Mrs. Robinson's story of her treatment in prison caused an outcry. She had been put on a punishment diet of bread and water, forced to sleep on the bare earth, stripped, and given 50 lashes. Such treatment was barbaric even by the harsh standards of the time; what made it worse was that Mrs. Robinson was pregnant.

Public anger was so great that she was acquitted, the constable who had arrested her without a warrant was himself sent to prison, and the justice of the peace was severely reprimanded. And the case, along with other similar cases, led to the passing of the Habeas Corpus Act in Britain in 1679. The law is still on the British statute books, and a version of it is used in the United States, where the law was regarded as such an important guarantee of liberty that Article 1 of the Constitution declares that Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of "rebellion or invasion".

Habeas Corpus is part of a Latin phrase - Habeas corpus ad subjiciendum - that means "Let the body be brought before the judge." In effect, a writ of Habeas Corpus is an order in the name of the people (or, in Britain, of the sovereign) to produce an imprisoned person in court at once.

TASK 2 Find in the text the words that correspond to the following definitions.

- an order in writing issued under seal in the name of the sovereign or of a court or judicial officer commanding or forbidding an act specified in

it;

- a place of enforced confinement;

- the formal examination and determination by a competent tribunal of the matter at issue in a civil or criminal cause;

- sanction; a document authorizing an officer to make an arrest, a search, etc.;

- well-known, esp. for a specified unfavourable quality or trait;

- a public expression of anger or disapproval;

- a law passed by a legislative body and recorded;

- jail, penitentiary;

- entering the country with hostile purposes;

- to compel by physical, moral or intellectual means;

- to declare not guilty.

Stiff Sentences

TASK 1. Complete the following text with the words and expressions from the box. Some words can be used more than once.

treason; felons; inflict; deliberately; found guilty; legal; condemned; disembowel; punishment; execution; victim; abolish.

One of the most bizarre methods of____was____in ancient Rome

on people____of murdering their fathers. Their punishment was to be put in

a sack with a rooster, a viper, and a dog, then drowned along with the three

animals. In ancient Greece the custom of allowing a____man to end his own

life by poison was extended only to full citizens. The philosopher Socrates died in this way. Condemned slaves were beaten to death instead.

In medieval Europe some methods of_____were _____ drawn out

to____maximum suffering. ____were tied to a heavy wheel and rolled

around the streets until they were crushed to death. Others were strangled, very slowly. One of the most terrible punishments was hanging, drawing, and

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quartering. The __

pieces. It remained a

The first country to _

abolished it for every crime except

was hanged, beheaded and the body cut into four

__method of____in Britain until 1814.

__capital___was Austria in 1887. Russia

on the orders of Czar Nicholas 1 in

1826, but it was reintroduced after the Communist Revolution in 1917.

Curious Wills

Where there is a will, there is a won't.

TASK 1. Read the text.

When Margaret Montgomery of Chicago died in 1959, she left her five cats and a $15,000 trust fund for their care to a former employee, William Fields. The will stipulated that Fields was to use the trust income solely for the cats' care and feeding, including such delicacies as pot roast meat. If, however, he outlived all the cats, Fields would inherit the trust principal. Nine years later the last cat, Fat Nose, died at 20, and Fields, 79, was $15,000 richer.

Probably the largest single group of pets to be named specifically in a will were the 150 or so dogs given $4,3 million by Eleanor Ritchey, an oil company heiress who died in 1968. The dogs were mostly strays she had collected at her 180-acre ranch in Deerfield Beach, Florida. When the last dog, Musketeer, died in June 1984, the entire estate - by then grown to nearly $12 million - went under the will to the Auburn University School of Veterinary Medicine to support research on dog diseases.

Charles Vance Millar, a Canadian lawyer and financier who died a bachelor in 1926, bequeathed the bulk of his fortune to whichever Toronto women gave birth to the largest number of children in the 10 years after his death. Four women eventually tied in the "stork derby" that followed the publication of his will. Each had 9 children, and they shared between them $750,000. A fifth woman who had 10 children was ruled out because 5 were illegitimate.

One of the world's shortest wills was left by an Englishman named Dickens. Contested in 1906 but upheld by the courts, it read simply: "All for mother".

A 19th-century London tavernkeeper left his property to his wife - on the condition that every year, on the anniversary of his death, she would walk barefoot to the local market, hold up a lighted candle, and confess aloud how she had nagged him. The theme of the confession was that if her tongue had been shorter, her husband's days would have been longer. If she failed to keep the appointment, she was to receive no more than £20 a year, just enough to live on. Whether the wife decided to take the bigger bequest or spare herself humiliation is not known.

TASK 2. Work in pairs. Examine the wills. You are a lawyer of one these five -------- clients. Discuss with your client the terms of the will.

The Man They Couldn't Hang

TASK 1. Complete the text with the English equivalents of the following Russian words.

- просто;

- осужденный, приговоренный;

- пережил;

- попытки;

- приговор,приговаривать;

- заменялся;

- пожизненное заключение;

- признан виновным;

- казнить;

- виселица;

- открываться;

- хотя;

- тюрьма;

- освобожденный;

- причина.

It is no Ц) legend that if а Ш man 0} three £4} to hang him, his (5) was automatically £6) to Q. In 1885 John Lee, a 19-year-old footman was (8) of murdering his employer. (2) to death, Lee then (3J three (4) by a hangman John Perry, to (9J him at Exeter Gaol in Devon, England.

The wooden {Щ had warped in the rain, and three times the trapdoor refused to Щ) when Lee was placed on it - Щ) it worked perfectly when he was moved down to the ground. So Lee was (5J to (7) and spent 22 years in U2J. Ш) m 1907, he emigrated to the United States, married there, and died of natural (15) in 1933 at the age of 67.

Napoleon's Law

TASK 1. Complete the following text with the words from the box.

force; ordinary; civil; affected; adopted;

legal; dominated; studied; equals; drafted; emperor.

The laws of much of continental Europe (particularly France), of Quebec in Canada, and of much of Latin America - along with the (a) laws of Louisiana - owe their modern form largely to the work of a man who never even (b) law. Napoleon Bonaparte, the Corsican soldier who became (c) of France after the French Revolution, established in 1800 five commissions to refine and organise the disparate (d) systems of France. The result, enacted in 1804, was the Napoleon's Code.

Some of its original 2,281 articles were (e) by Napoleon himself, and all were (f) by his thinking, even though he was completely self-taught in legal matters. The code was a triumphant attempt to create a legal system that treated all citizens as (g) without regard to their rank or previous privileges. It was also so clearly written that it could be read and understood by (h) people at a time when only Latin scholars could make sense of the earlier laws handed down since Roman times. The code was (i) intact in most of the areas of Europe that Napoleon 0} and spread from there across the Atlantic, taking root particularly in French-speaking American communities. Many of its principles are still in (k) today.

TASK 2. Choose one of the topics and prepare a talk.

1. The main points of Napoleon's biography.

2. The great victories of Napoleon Bonaparte.

3. One hundred days of Napoleon Bonaparte.

4. Great emperor and romantic lover.

5. The legal system of France at the time of Napoleon.

6. The leaders of the French Revolution.

7. World literature about the French Revolution.

8."... prince and butcher"- Nostradamus's prophetic verse about Napoleon.

Birth of the Jury

TASK 1. Match each word on the left -with the correct definition on the right. Consult the text when necessary.

a) sole 1. to judge, consider

b) ordeal 2. to take to or upon oneself

c) convene 3. to give support to, maintain

d) medieval 4. to become manifest or known, to rise from an obscure

or inferior position

e) defendant 5. come together in a body

f) assume

g) reveal h) emerge i) uphold

j) superstition

k) admonish 1) deem

6. the only one

7. of the Middle Ages

8. to warn, advise against

9. sb. against whom a criminal charge or a civil claim is made

10. a method formerly used to determine guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to dangerous or painful tests whose outcome was believed to depend on divine or supernatural intervention

11. to make known

12. a belief or practice resulting from ignorance, fear of the unknown, trust in magic or chance

Juries first came into being in Norman Britain because of the Church. In medieval Europe, trials were usually decided by ordeals - in which it was believed God intervened, revealing the wrongdoer and upholding the righteous. In the ordeal by water, for instance, a priest admonished the water not to accept a liar. The person whose oath was being tested was then thrown in. If he floated, his oath was deemed to have been perjured. If he was telling the truth, he might drown but his innocence was clear.

In 1215, however, the Catholic Church decided that trial by ordeal was superstition, and priests were forbidden to take part. As a result, a new method of trial was needed, and the jury system emerged.

At first the jury was made up of local people who could be expected to know the defendant. A jury was convened only to "say the truth" on the basis of its knowledge of local affairs. The word verdict reflects this early function; the Latin world from which it is derived, veredictum, means "truly said". It was not until centuries later that the jury assumed its modern role of deciding facts on the sole basis of what is heard in court. Today the jury system has spread to numerous other countries. Every year more than 100,000 jury trials are held in US courts - 90 per cent of the world total.

Good Men and True

TASK 1. Work in groups. Make a list of famous English and American detective story writers and their famous characters.

TASK 2. Complete the following text with the words from the box.

really; detective; guilt; trifle; featuring;
founder, trusted; virtues; justly; catalogued;
value; common; juror.    

G.K.Chesterton (1874-1936), the English author who created the (a) stories (b) a Roman Catholic priest named Father Brown, was also a powerful champion of the (c) of traditional (d) sense. After serving as a (e) himself, Chesterton wrote an essay in which he summed up the (fj of the jury system in this way:"Our civilisation has decided, and very (g) decided, that determining the (h) or innocence of men is a thing too important to be Ц) to trained men... When it wants a library {]), or the solar system discovered, or any (k) of that kind, it uses its specialists. But when it wishes anything done which is 0} serious, it collects 12 of the ordinary men standing round. The same thing was done, if I remember right, by the (m) of Christianity."

TASK 3 Explain the allusion used by G.K.Chesterton. TASK 4. Answer the question.

What does O.K. Chesterton approve of in the way the jury is selected?

TASK 5. Work in groups Discuss the question.

Is the institution of jury useful and important? Prove your point of view.

Morality Repealed

TASK I. Read the text.

Ratified in January 1919, the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution prohibited "the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors" within the United States. A little less than 15 years later, the 21st Amendment repealed Prohibition. Viewed as a triumph of morality by its backers, Prohibition forced a double standard on many tippling politicians, among them the next US president, Warren G.Harding. As a senator in 1919, he had spearheaded passage in the Senate of some tough laws to enforce the 18th Amendment. Two years later Harding brought many of his drinking buddies with him as advisers into the White House.

TASK 2. Find in the text the words that correspond to the following definitions.

- to end, cancel, revoke (a law);

- supporters;

- severe or uncompromisingly determined;

- to cause (a rule or law) to be carried out effectively;

- persons who give recommendations, information, warning;

- to approve or confirm formally;

- to serve as leader or leading force of companions, partners;

- to forbid by authority;

- an action of getting approval by legislature;

- being obsessed by alcoholic drinks;

- change or revision;

- a person experienced or engaged in politics;

- the large-scale making of wares by hand or by machinery.

Silent Witness

TASK 1. Read the text.

A slander case in Thailand was once settled by a witness who said nothing at all. According to the memoirs of Justice Gerald Sparrow, a 20th century British barrister who served as a judge in Bangkok, the case involved two rival Chinese merchants, Pu Lin and Swee Ho. Pu Lin had stated sneeringly at a party that Swee Ho's new wife, Li Bua, was merely a decoration to show how rich her husband was. Swee Ho, he said, could no longer "please the ladies".

Swee Ho sued for slander, claiming Li Bua was his wife in every sense -and he won his case, along with substantial damages, without a word of evidence being taken. Swee Ho's lawyer simply put the blushing bride in the witness box. She had decorative, gold-painted fingernails, to be sure, but she was also quite obviously pregnant.

TASK 2. Find in the text the words that correspond to the following definitions.

- the utterance of false charges which do damage to another's reputation;

- a lawyer who has the right to plead as an advocate in an English superior court;

- sb. who tries to compete with and be superior to another;

- considerable in quantity; significantly large;

- information used (by a tribunal) to arrive at the truth;

- an enclosure in which a witness testifies in court.

TASK 3. What do you think gold-painted fingernails symbolise in China?

Killer Tortoise

TASK 1. Complete the text -with the English equivalents of the following Russian words.

- подозревать;

- гнев;

- осудили;

- расследование;

- приковать к дереву;

- приговорить к смерти;

- казнь;

- явно;

- привести в исполнение;

- старейшины племени.

In July 1981 a tortoise was (a) for murder, (b) in Kyuasini, a village in Kenya, formally (c) the tortoise because they (d) it of causing the death of six people, (e) through magic. However, because none of the villagers was prepared to risk the tortoise's (f) by (g) the (h). it was (i) instead. The tortoise was later freed after the government promised an official (j) into the deaths.

Part III TOM SAWYER TESTIFIES

TASKl. Read the text.

At last the sleepy atmosphere of the village was stirred and vigorously: Muff Potter was being tried for the alleged murder of Dr. Robinson. It became the absorbing topic of village talk immediately. Tom knew that he was not suspected of knowing anything about the murder, but every reference to it sent a shudder to his heart. His dreams at night were full of horrors. In the daytime he was drawn to the courtroom by an almost irresistible impulse to go in, but he forced himself to stay out. Tom kept his ears open, but invariably heard distressing news: Indian Joe's evidence was unshaken and there was not the slightest doubt that Muff Potter would be-convicted.

On Friday morning all the village flocked to the courthouse for it was to be the last day of the trial. After a long wait the jury took their places; shortly afterwards Potter, pale, timid and hopeless, was brought in, with chains upon him, and seated where all the curious eyes could stare at him. Then the Judge arrived, and the opening of the court was proclaimed.

Now a witness was called who testified that he had found Muff Potter washing in the brook at an early hour of the morning that the murder was discovered and that Potter immediately sneaked away. The next witness proved the finding of the knife near the corpse. A third witness swore that he had often seen the knife in Potter's possession. Several witnesses testified to Potter's guilty behaviour when he had been brought to the scene of the murder. But they

were all allowed to leave the stand without being cross-examined by Potter's

lawyer. The perplexity and dissatisfaction of the house were expressed in

murmurs and provoked a reproof from the Judge.

A groan escaped from poor Potter, and he put his face in his hands and

rocked his body to and fro, while a painful silence reigned in the courtroom.

Many men were moved, and many women's compassion testified itself in tears.

Counsel for the defence rose and asked the Judge for permission to call Thomas

Sawyer as a witness for the defence.

Tom rose and took his place upon the stand. Every eye fastened itself on him as the oath was being administered.

"Thomas Sawyer, where were you on the seventeenth of June, about the hour of midnight?"

Tom glanced at Indian Joe's iron face and his tongue failed him. After a few moments, however, he managed to put enough strength into his voice so that he could be heard by part of the house. Tom was asked to speak up a little louder and to tell the court about everything that occurred that night without skipping anything. Tom was also asked not to mention his companion's name as the latter would be produced at the proper time.

Tom began - hesitatingly at first, but as he warmed to his subject, his words flowed more easily; in a little while only his voice was heard; every eye was fixed upon him; the audience hung upon his lips rapt in the ghastly fascination of the tale. Tom said that he had been hidden behind the elms in the graveyard. He confessed a trifle shyly that he had taken a dead cat with him to the graveyard. Potter's lawyer added that the skeleton of the cat would be produced as evidence. There was a ripple of laughter when the dead cat was mentioned, but it was checked by the Judge.

The strain of the audience reached its climax when Tom began describing the fight in the graveyard. The audience heard that Dr. Robinson had

been killed by Indian Joe with Muff Potter's knife while Potter lay unconscious on the ground.

Crash! Quick as lightning, Indian Joe sprang for a window, tore his way through all opposers, and was gone!

Tom was a glittering hero once more - the pet of the old, the envy of the young. His name was even immortalized in print, for the village paper magnified him. There were some that believed that he would be elected President yet, if he escaped hanging.

Tom's days were days of splendour and exultation for him, but his nights were seasons of horror. His dreams were infested by Indian Joe, and always with doom in his eyes. Half the time Tom was afraid that Indian Joe would never be captured; the other half he was afraid he would be. Daily Tom was made happy by Muff Potter's gratitude, but nightly he was sorry that he had not sealed up his tongue.

Rewards had been offered, the country had been scoured, but no Indian Joe was found. The slow days drifted on, and each left behind it a slightly lightened weight of apprehension.

(After M Twain)

TASK 2. Find in the text the equivalents for the following words and expressions.

- свидетель;

- вызвать свидетеля;

- давать свидетельские показания;

- поклясться;

- место преступления;

- доказать;

- подвергнуть перекрестному допросу;

- судить кого-либо за преступление;

- зал суда;

- подозревать кого-либо в убийстве;

- свидетельство;

- предъявить вещественное доказательство;

- назначить награду за что-либо;

- осудить кого-либо за убийство;

- объявить заседание суда открытым;

- поймать (схватить) кого-либо;

- адвокат обвиняемого;

- свидетель со стороны защиты;

- привести к присяге.

195 TASK 3. Answer the questions, making use oj the above - given vocabulary.

\. What event stirred the monotonous life of the village where Tom Sawyer lived?

2. Was Tom Sawyer suspected of knowing anything about the murder? How did he feel about the situation?

3. Who was likely to be convicted of the murder? Was his guilt proved?

4. What testimony was given by the witnesses on the last day of the trial?

5. Why were the people present at the trial dissatisfied?

6. What testimony did Tom Sawyer give? What was the reaction of the audience to it?

7. How did Indian Joe manage to escape?

8. Was Tom Sawyer satisfied with what he had done? What was he terribly afraid of?

TASK 4. Look at the picture of an American court Match the numbers in the picture with the words below.

Jury;tH robe; court officer; reporter; gavel; transcript; court; jurybox;^ defendant;

witness; prosecuting attorney; bench; defence attorney; judge;* witness stand, x

TASK 5 Role-play. Inclass, distribute the roles and play the scene of cross-examining the witnesses on the last day of the trial.

accomplice [s'komplis] affidavit [.aeff deivit] assault [s'sorlt] bigamist ['bigamist] caucus ['korkos ] councillor ['kaunsdld] counterfeit ['kauntafitj delinquent [df hrjkwsnt] deterrent [di'terant] employee [.emploi'i:] enquire [m'kwais] forger [' hijack impartial [im'pa:J 1] injure ['ind^s] indictment [m'daitmgnt] indict [m'dait] illegal [i'li:gl] juvenile ['d^uivanail] legal [li:gl] license ['laisans] magistrate ['maed^istreit] marijuanna ['msen'hwa:n9] misdemeanor [^isdi'miina] peremptory [ps'remptsn] perjury ['p9:d5n] personnel [,рэ:8Э'пе1] plaintiff ['plemtifj prejudice ['predzudis] preponderance [pn'pondarans] rehabilitate [,ri:h9'biliteit] sovereign ['sovrin] stowaway ['stous.wei] unanimous Ou: 'naemmas] voir dire [.vua'di (r)]

SOME NAMES WITH DIFFICULT PRONUNCIATION

John Chisholm [4| i zam] Sean Connery [Jorn ' Roger Moore [mua] Kenneth More [mo:] Cassius ['kaefasj Julius Caesar ['si za] Cain [kern] Abel [e ibl] Eden [idn]

Cagliostro [kae'ljostrsu] Caligula [.kae'ligjab] Al Capone [ka'pauni] Dreyfus ['draifas] Zola [zau'la:] Thomas More fmo:] Fawkes [fo:ks] Macbeth Duncan Banquo f'baerjkwau] Robespierre [.raubes'pja]

Лицензия ЛР 066348 от 17.07.97.

Подписанов печать 25.09.97г. Формат 60x88/16. Печать офсетная. Печ.л. 12,5. Тираж 10000 экз. Зак. 6858.

ТОО "ТЕИС"

115407, Москва, Судостроительная ул., 59.

Отпечатано с готовых диапозитивов в филиале Государственного ордена

Октябрьской революции, ордена Трудового Красного Знамени

Московского предприятия "Первая Образцовая типография"

Государственного комитета Российской Федерации по печати.

113114, Москва, Шлюзовая наб., 10.

 

 

Billy the Kid (William Bonny), 1860-1881

Billy the Kid was a legend in the Wild West as a cattle rustler and murderer. Slim and fair, Billy was born in New York but soon moved to New

Mexico. He was apprenticed to a blacksmith but found this boring, so he shot the smith and became a cowboy. At first he worked for John Chisholm, who was fighting a range war in the Pecos Valley. He quarrelled with Chisholm and joined a band of cattle rustlers, killing as many of Chisholm's men as he could in the process. Pat Garrett was elected sheriff to capture Billy the Kid. He did this, but Billy shot two deputies and escaped from his cell just before he was due to be hanged. He was caught by Garrett two months and five murders later and shot dead in a gunfight. He was said to have shot twenty-one men, but in fact he probably only killed three.

Find in the text the English equivalents for the words and expressions below.

-скотокрад;

- стать подмастерьем у кузнеца;

- быть выбранным шерифом;

- тюремная камера;

- застрелить кого-либо в перестрелке.

Blake, George, b.1922

Born in Holland, he was a famous traitor (a) and Russian spy. During the Second World War, he was a member of the Dutch resistance until he escaped to England, joined the Navy and changed his name to Blake. He joined the intelligence services and was captured in Korea while serving in the British Embassy in Seoul. Blake was released (b) in 1953 but had been secretly converted to (c) communism while a prisoner. He then served as an agent for MI6 and as a double agent (d) for the Russians, first in Berlin and later in Britain. In 1960 he was arrested and sentenced (e) in 1961 to no less than forty-two years in prison. But in 1967, helped by a released fellow-prisoner, he made (f) a daring escape from Wormwood Scrubs prison and was smuggled out to Moscow (g) by the Russians.

Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right.

a) a traitor

b) to release a man from prison

c) to convert sb. to sth.

d) a double agent

l.to find a way out of prison

2.to state that a person has to have a certain

punishment

3.a person who is disloyal to his country

4.to allow a person to go free

e) to sentence sb. to... years in 5.a spy who supplies information to both prison sides

f) to make an escape from 6.to get sb. secretly and illegally from a place

g) to smuggle sb. out

7.to cause a person to change his beliefs







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