ТОП 10:

Geographical Position of the Arctic Ocean. Discovery.



The Arctic Ocean is situated in the centre of the arctic, around the North Pole. It washes Eurasia and North America. It is connected with the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans by straits.

The coastlines of the ocean are broken .There are many islands: Greenland, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Spitsbergen, Novayya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya, Zemlya Frantsa Iosifa, Ostrova Novo Sibirskie. There are many seas near the continents: the Norwegian sea, Barents sea, Kara sea, Laptev sea, East Siberian sea, etc.

It is very difficult to explore the Arctic Ocean, because of severe weather. Its discovery needed heroism from the traveler and scientists of many countries. Russian sailors went to Spitsbergen in the 16th century. In the 17th century the participants of the great northern expedition made a map of the Arctic shores and discovered many islands. At the end of the 19th century the Russian-Swedish expedition crossed the Arctic Ocean from the west to the east.

In 1937 new methods of Arctic exploration were put to live. The first polar drifting station “North Pole 1” was set on one of the ice-floes. The expedition under the direction of Papanin drifted on the ice-floe from the North Pole to the Greenland sea.

The Arctic Ocean is the shallowest. The deepest place is 5449m.The relief of the bottom is complex.

The Arctic Ocean is situated in the arctic climatic belt. The arctic air masses are predominant in this region. The average winter t*-20*-40*C, summer t* is 0*C. The lowest t* is -50*C. Warm water currents from the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans influence on the climate. The arctic air masses blow to the north of Eurasia and North America. Strong north Atlantic current penetrated into the arctic. There is a current which crosses the Arctic Ocean from the Bering Strait to Greenland along the coasts of Eurasia.

The arctic Ocean is covered with ice. The formation of the ice is connected with low t*and low saltiness of the water.

The vegetation and animal life differ greatly in the centre and near the coastline. There is a lot of plankton , fish, walruses, seals.

The Arctic Ocean is rich in gas, oil, tin.

 

 

 

 

Table:Natural Resources.

 

      Natural gas Природный газ Gold Золото
    Oil Нефть   Uranium Урановая руда
      Iron ore Железная руда Diamonds Алмазы
        Coal Каменный уголь   Aluminum Алюминий
        Copper Медь   Zinc ore Цинковая руда
    Tin Олово   Bauxites Бокситы
      Manganese Марганцевые руды   Chrome ore Хромовые руды
        Phosphorites Фосфориты Cobalt Кобальт

 

        Nickel Никелевые руды   Mercury Ртуть
      Silver Серебро   Titanic ore Титановые руды
        Platinum Платина      

 

 

Exercises and Tests.

Introduction.

Task 1.

Complete the table.

Continents Parts of the World
   

Task 2.

Characterize the oceans:

The Pacific Ocean The Atlantic Ocean The Indian Ocean The Arctic Ocean
       

Task 3.

1. The continent that consists of two parts of the world;

2. The smallest continent of the world;

3. The warmest ocean of the world;

4. Part of the world that is formed by two continents;

5. The coldest ocean in the world.

A – Australia;

B – the Indian Ocean;

C – Eurasia;

D – the Arctic Ocean;

E – North America;

F – South America;

G – America;

H – The Pacific Ocean;

I – Antarctica.

Task 4.

Complete the table.

Geographical maps are divided:
By scope of the territory By contains By scale
     

Task 5.

1. The outer layer of the earth crust;

2. Large scope of air with the same qualities;

3. The total sum of weather during the period of years;

4. The roughness of the earth;

5. The plot of the surface of the earth with different natural components.

A – natural complex;

B – natural zone;

C – air masses;

D – lithosphere;

E – climatic belt;

F – climate;

G – relief;

H – highlands.

Task 6.

Complete the table.

There are different kinds of relief:
On the continent On the oceanic bottom
   

 

Task 7.

Complete the table.

Climate
Reasons, influencing climate Elements of climate
   

 

Task 8.

Complete the table.

Climatic belts
main transitional
     

Task 9.

Write down the components of natural complexes of the dry land and oceans. Show the connections between the components.

a) _________________________________________

 


b) _________________________________________

 


Task 10.

Complete the table.

Natural zones on the continent Natural belts of the World Ocean
   

Task 11.

Form adjectives:

1. Africa –

2. Australia –

3. Ocean –

4. Antarctica –

5. Europe –

6. Asia –

7. Equator –

8. Climate –

9. Nature –

10. Atmosphere –

11. Continent –

 

The World Ocean.

Task 12.

Complete the table.

Water masses
types reasons of the formation
   

Task 13.

Complete the table.

Oceanic currents
warm cold
     

Task 14. The Indian Ocean.

1. The continent that is not washed by the ocean;

2. The island near which the deepest place of the ocean is situated;

3. A warm current of the ocean;

4. The object which separates the Arabian Peninsula from the continent;

5. The warm and salty sea of the ocean.

A – Antarctica;

B – the Bay of Bengal;

C – Monsoon;

D – Persian Bay;

E – Java;

F – North America;

G – Red;

H – Gulf Stream.

Task 15. The Pacific Ocean.

1. The continent that is not washed by the ocean;

2. The sea of the ocean;

3. We can’t see this climatic belt in the ocean;

4. The gulf of the ocean that has the same name as one of the states in the USA;

5. The cold current of the ocean.

A – Australia;

B – arctic;

C – Peruvian;

D - Curocio;

E – Africa;

F – antarctic;

G – California;

H – South Trade.

Task 16. The Atlantic Ocean.

1. A large peninsula in this ocean;

2. The sea of the ocean;

3. A strong warm current;

4. The river that flows into the ocean;

5. The continent that is not washed by this ocean.

A – Marmara;

B – Gulf Stream;

C – Amazon;

D – Zambezi;

E – Red;

F – Australia;

G – Labrador;

H – Canarian.

Task 17. The Arctic Ocean.

1. A large island in the ocean;

2. The current that warms the water in the ocean;

3. The continent that is washed by this ocean;

4. The straight connecting the Arctic and the Pacific Oceans;

5. We can find this climatic belt in the ocean.

A – North Atlantic;

B – Australia;

C – Bering;

D – Guinea;

E – Greenland;

F – antarctic;

G – North America;

H – arctic.

 

Africa.

Task 18. Geographical Position.

1. The extreme point in the south of Africa;

2. The isthmus that separates Africa from Asia;

3. The sea in the north of Africa;

4. The straight that separates Africa from Europe;

5. The largest gulf of the continent.

A – El-Abyard;

B – Guinea;

C – Red;

D – Somaliland;

E – Suez;

F – Gibraltar;

G – Mediterranean;

H – Igolny.

Task 19. Relief.

1. The young mountains in Africa;

2. The highest volcano of the continent;

3. The mountains in the south of Africa;

4. The desert on the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean;

5. The highlands in the east of Africa.

A – Sahara;

B – Abyssinian;

C – Atlas;

D – Alps;

E – Drakensberg;

F – East-African;

G – Kilimanjaro;

H – Namib.

Task 20. Inland Waters.

1. The river that flows into the Indian Ocean;

2. The longest river in Africa;

3. The largest lake of the continent;

4. The second largest river in Africa;

5. The deepest lake of the continent.

A – Nile;

B – Tanganyika;

C – Congo;

D – Aswan;

E – Nyasa;

F – Victoria;

G – Chad;

H – Zambezi.

Task 21. Natural Zones.

1. There are a lot of fruit trees in this zone;

2. We can see baobabs and high grass there;

3. Lions and snakes live there;

4. Tough leaved evergreen shrubs grow in this zone;

5. The Atlas Mountains are situated in this zone.

A – arctic deserts;

B – wet equatorial forests;

C – taiga;

D – savannahs;

E – high altitude zone;

F – tropical deserts;

G – subtropical forests;

H – mixed forests.

 

Australia.

Task 22. Geographical Position.

1. The largest coral reef in the world;

2. The gulf in the south of the continent;

3. The sea in the north-east of Australia;

4. A big island near the northern coasts of Australia;

5. The western extreme point of Australia.

A – Carpentaria;

B – Great Australian;

C – Tasmania;

D – New Guinea;

E – Coral;

F – Great Barrier;

G – Byron;

H – Steep Point.

Task 23. Relief and Inland Waters.

1. The longest river of Australia;

2. A big desert in the western part of the continents;

3. The lake in the centre of the continent;

4. The river that is drying;

5. The mountain range in the east.

A – Murray;

B – Eyre;

C – Great Dividing Range;

D – Great Sand;

E – Great Victoria;

F – Darling;

G – Australian Alps;

H – Mc Kai.

Task 24. Climate and Natural Zones.

1. The largest climatic belt in Australia;

2. The Cape York peninsula is situated in this climatic belt;

3. This natural zone occupies the eastern coast of the continent;

4. Lizards and snakes live in this zone;

5. You can find red ferro-aluminum soils in this zone.

A – subtropical;

B – savannahs;

C – deserts;

D – equatorial;

E – tropical;

F – subequatorial;

G – monsoon forests;

H – temperate.

 

Antarctica.

Task 25.

1. The sea near Antarctica;

2. The nearest continent;

3. The largest peninsula;

4. The name of the explorer, who reached the South Pole the first;

5. The explorer, who died after reaching the South Pole.

A – Weddell;

B – Lasarev;

C – Amundsen;

D – Bellingshausen;

E – Australia;

F – Scott;

G – South America;

H – Antarctic.

 

South America.

Task 26. Geographical Position.

(A)

1. The ocean that washes South America in the east;

2. The only bay of the continent;

3. The traveler who discovered America;

4. The sea in the north of South America;

5. The extreme point in the south of the continent.

A – Froward;

B – Pacific;

C – Drake;

D – Atlantic;

E – Magellan;

F – La Plata;

G – Columbus;

H – Caribbean.

(B)

1. The extreme northern point;

2. The straight between Tierra del Fuego and South America;

3. The canal that connects the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans;

4. The extreme western point;

5. The extreme eastern point .

A – Panama;

B – Parinas;

C – Kabu – Branku;

D – Caribbean;

E – Gallinas;

F – Froward;

G – Magellan;

H – Pacific.

 

Task 27. Relief.

(A)

1. The largest plain in the world;

2. The young mountains of the continent;

3. The vast highlands in the eastern part of the continent;

4. The highest peak of the continent;

5. The volcano near the equator.

A – Guiana;

B – Chimborazo;

C – La Plata;

D – Amazon;

E – Andes;

F – Aconcagua;

G – Cotopaxi;

H – Brazilian.

(B)

1. The lowland in the north of the continent;

2. The highlands in the north of the continent;

3. The lowland in the south of the continent;

4. The highest peak of the Andes;

5. The plain, where the biggest river of the continent flows.

A – Orinoco;

B – Brazilian;

C – Amazon;

D – La Plata;

E – Guiana;

F – Cotopaxi;

G – Parana;

H – Aconcagua.

 

Task 28. Climate.

1. The cold current near the western coast of the continent;

2. The climatic belt where it is warm and wet all year round;

3. The climatic belt where cape Froward is situated;

4. The type of climate in the Andes;

5. The climatic belt in the north of the continent.

A – equatorial;

B – Aconcagua;

C – temperate;

D – Peruvian;

E – subtropical;

F – tropical;

G – alpine;

H – subequatorial.

Task 29. Inland Waters.

1. The ocean into which all large rivers of South America flow;

2. The river that flows across the La Plata Lowland;

3. The river that rises in the Guiana Highlands;

4. The deepest lake of South America;

5. The greatest river of the continent;

6. The northern tributary of the Amazon River.

A – Atlantic;

B – Amazon;

C – Pacific;

D – Titicaca;

E – Parana;

F – La Plata;

G – Indian;

H – Orinoco;

I – Maracaibo;

J – Riu-Negru.

Task 30. Natural Zones.

1. You can find grey and brown soils in this zone;

2. You can see a lot of different beetles and butterflies there;

3. Rodents live in this zone and feather bushes grow there.

4. You can find this zone in the Andes;

5. Armadillo and deer live and bottle trees grow in this zone.

A – equatorial forests;

B – savannahs;

C – high altitude zone;

D – deserts;

E – tundra;

F – steppes;

G – tough evergreen forests;

H – mixed forests.

North America.

Task 31. Geographical Position.

1. The straight between North America and Eurasia;

2. The gulf in the north of the continent;

3. The name of a big island archipelago in the north of the continent;

4. The largest island in the world;

5. The largest peninsula of the continent.

A – Labrador;

B – Bering;

C – Panama;

D – Florida;

E – Hudson;

F – Mexico;

G - Canadian Arctic;

H – Greenland.

Task 32. Relief.

1. The young mountains in the east;

2. The lowland in the south of the continent;

3. An old mountain system;

4. The highest peak in the Cordilleras;

5. The plain in the middle of the continent.

A – McKinley;

B – Orizaba;

C – Cordilleras;

D – Central Plains;

E – Great Plains;

F - Mississippi;

G – Mexican;

H – Appalachian.

 

Task 33. Climate.

1. The climatic belt which occupies the largest part of the continent;

2. The cold current near the western coasts;

3. The climatic belt where night lasts for 5 months;

4. You can’t find this climatic belt in North America;

5. The climatic belt where the Yucatan peninsula is situated.

A – equatorial;

B – temperate;

C - Subequatorial;

D - Subtropical;

E – Californian;

F – arctic;

G – Labrador;

H – tropical.

 

Task 34. Inland Waters.

1. The largest river of the continent;

2. One of the Great American Lakes;

3. The river that connects 5 Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean;

4. The river with the largest waterfall;

5. The river that flows into the Arctic Ocean.

A – Colorado;

B – Mackenzie;

C – Missouri;

D – Mississippi;

E – St. Lawrence;

F – Superior;

G - Niagara;

H – Great Salt.

 

Task 35. Natural Zones.

1. Only moss and lichen grow in this zone;

2. There are a lot of cactuses and prickly shrubs in this zone;

3. Foxes, mustangs and different rodents live in this zone;

4. You can find grey and brown soils in this zone;

5. Polar foxes, reindeer and polar owls live there.

A – high altitude;

B – savannahs;

C – tundra;

D – deserts;

E – deciduous forests;

F – arctic deserts;

G – prairies;

H – taiga.

 

Eurasia.

Task 36. Geographical Position.

1. The extreme point in the south of Eurasia;

2. The straight that separates Eurasia from North America;

3. The mountains that separate Europe from Asia;

4. The extreme point in the west;

5. The ocean that washes the northern coastlines of Eurasia.

A – Arctic;

B – Bering;

C – Caucasus;

D – Piai;

E – Pacific;

F –Roca;

G – Dezhnev;

H – Urals.

 

Task 37. The “Champions” of the continent.

1. The highest mountain of Eurasia;

2. The largest peninsular of the continent;

3. The deepest lake in the world;

4. The wettest place in Eurasia;

5. The coldest place in Eurasia.

A – Elbrus;

B – Everest;

C – Baikal;

D – Arabian;

E – Balkan;

F – North Pole;

G - Brahmaputra basin;

H – Oimyakon.

 

Task 38. Relief.

1. The highest mountain system of the world;

2. The plateau on the Hindustan peninsula;

3. The highest active volcano of the continent;

4. An old mountain range of Eurasia;

5. The highest mountains of Europe.

A – Deccan;

B – Alps;

C – Hekla;

D - Pamir;

E – Scandinavian;

F - Klyuchevskaya;

G – Carpathians;

H - Himalayas.

 

Task 39. Climate.

1. The climatic belt that occupies the largest territory in Eurasia;

2. The winds that influence the southern part of Eurasia;

3. The high mountains that block the way to the cold arctic winds;

4. The type of the climate on the Apennine peninsular;

5. The circle that crosses Eurasia in the north.

A – arctic;

B – Himalayas;

C – trade winds;

D – alpine;

E – antarctic;

F – temperate;

G – Tien-Shan;

H – Mediterranean.

 

Task 40. Inland Waters.

1. The longest river of Europe;

2. The most beautiful lake in the Alps;

3. The water of this river is yellow;

4. The largest salty lake in the world;

5. The tributary of the Yenisei.

A – Danube;

B – Baikal;

C – Angara;

D – Hwang Ho;

E – Caspian;

F – Volga;

G – Yangtze;

H - Geneva.

 

Laboratory work.

Climatic Belts
Task: write down the names of all the climatic belts.

Table: The World Ocean.

Ocean Continents it washes Coastlines Islands and peninsulas Seas and bays Warm and cold currents Climatic belts to saltiness Animals and plants
The Indian Ocean – the warmest; the saltiest. S= 76.2 million sq km Africa Eurasia Australia Antarctica unbroken I: Madagascar Sri-Lanka Java Sumatra   P: Arabian Hindustan Indo-China Malacca Somaliland   The Red Sea; The Arabian Sea; The Bay of Bengal; The Persian Gulf   Monsoon; South Trade; Western Winds Equatorial Subequatorial Tropical Subtropical Temperate Subantarctic Antarctic   +300C 00C Not very salty, only in some places Dolphin Wale Shark Seal Tortoise Sea-star Octopus Pilchard Anchovy Mackerel Sea weeds
The Arctic Ocean – the coldest, the smallest. S= 14.75 million sq km Eurasia; North America   broken I: Greenland; The Canadian Arctic Archipelago; Spitsbergen; New Land; North Land; Frantz Josef Land; New Siberian I.; Wrangle I.   P: Kolsky; Jamal; Taimyr; Chukot; Scandinavian   Seas: Norwegian; Barents; Kara; Laptev; East Siberian; White; Greenland; Chukot     Norwegian Arctic Subarctic 00C -50C Not salty because of ice Polar bear; Walrus; Fur – seal; Seal; Herring; Brown sea weeds  
The Pacific Ocean – the largest, the deepest. S= 178.6 million sq km North America; South America; Eurasia Australia Antarctica East – broken; West – unbroken I: Aleutian; Kuril; Japanese; Sakhalin; Philippines; The Great Sundae ; New Guinea; New Zealand   P: Kamchatka; Korea; Indo-China; California; Scandinavian   Seas: Bering; Okhotsk; Japan; Yellow; East-China; South-China; Coral; Tasmanian; Fiji North Trade; Curocio; North Pacific; Californian; Western Winds; South Trade; East Australian; Peruvian Equatorial Subequatorial Tropical Subtropical Temperate Subantarctic Antarctic Subarctic Arctic   +290C +20C Not salty because of the rivers and rainfalls Wale; Seal; Dolphin; Horse-fish; Bath sponge; A coral polyp; Oyster; Freshwater Perl- mussel; Star fish; Sea hedgehog; Shark; Herring; Octopus; Crab; Jelly-fish; Prawn; Lobster; Mackerel  
The Atlantic Ocean - S= 80.5 million sq km North America; South America; Eurasia Africa Antarctica     North – broken; South - unbroken I: Greenland; Iceland; Ireland; Great Britain; Bahamas; Greater Antilles; Lesser Antilles; Canarian   P: Florida Yucatan Labrador Scandinavian; Pyrenean   Seas: Caribbean; Mediterranean; Black; Azov; North; Baltic; Marmara; Aegean; Adriatic; Sargasso; Baffin;   The Bay of Biscay; The Gulf of Mexico; Canarian; Gulf Stream; North Atlantic; Brazilian; Bengel; West Winds; Guiana; Labrador; Guinea Equatorial Subequatorial Tropical Subtropical Temperate Subantarctic Antarctic Subarctic +250C +160C   +50C +20C   Very salty Dolphin; Wale; Seal; Fur-seal; Tortoise; Oyster; Shark; Jelly fish; Lobster; Prawn; Sea weeds

 







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