V. Answer the following questions.

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V. Answer the following questions.

1. How can you defend yourself against pop-up ads?

2. Can you name the Web sites where the amount of online advertising is great?

3. Do you always click online ads?

4. What “tricks” do advertisers usually use to make users click their ads? Are these “tricks” effective to your mind? Name the most and the least effective “trick”.

5. Have Websites any connection with the offering ads? How are these ads delivered?

6. Why do users transfer their dislike to the advertisers behind the ad and to the website that exposed them to it? Give your own reasons.

7. What ads do not cause negative reactions from users?


VI. Put the items of the plan in the correct order according to the text.

1. Why users dislike advertisers and websites.

2. Negative reactions to ads.

3. What’s good.

4. Advertising as an integral part of the Web.

5. Users’ defense against pop-ups.


VII. Points for discussion.

1. What are the bad sides of online advertisement?

2. What are the good sides of online advertisement?

3. What are the differences between:

a) print and online advertising;

b) broadcast and online advertising;

c) outdoor and online advertising?

State the advantages and drawbacks of each advertising medium.

Which advertising medium is the most effective to your mind?

4. Divide into two groups – web users and online advertisers. Advertisers should speak in support of online advertising. Web users should bring their arguments against online advertising. Each group should try to convince the other in its reasons. Make your arguments sound persuasive.





A Pre-Reading Discussion

Do you buy things because you need them or because you like the way they are advertised?

Can you say that advertising influence on your choice when you buy something?

Do you realize that advertisers use a number of methods to convince you to buy this or that thing?



Companies appeal to consumers in many different ways to persuade them to buy their products. Advertisers use several recognizable techniques in order to better convince the public to buy a product. These may include:

Advertising Techniques  
association advertisers often attempt to associate their product with desirable imagery to make it seem equally desirable. The use of attractive models, picturesque landscapes and other seductive images is common. As a rule the image is not connected to the product. An advertisement set in tranquil mountains in the Alps has no connection to a chewing gum or washing powder, yet disconnected images are often used because they evoke positive feelings
avant garde the suggestion that using this product puts the user ahead of the times e.g. a toy manufacturer inspires kids to be the first to have a new toy
bandwagon the suggestion that everybody is using the product and that you should too in order to be part of the group, to “get on the bandwagon” e.g. a credit card company quotes the number of millions of people who use their card
facts and figures statistics and objective factual information is used to prove the superiority of the product e.g. a car manufacturer quotes the amount of time it takes their car to get from 0 to 100 k.p.h.
glittering generalities “weasel words” are used to suggest a positive meaning without actually really making any guarantee e.g. a famous sports personality says that a diet product might help you to lose weight the way it helped him to lose weight
hidden fears the suggestion that this product will protect the user from some danger e.g. a laundry detergent manufacturer suggests that you will be embarrassed when strangers see “ring around the collar” of your shirts or blouses
magic ingredients the suggestion that some almost miraculous discovery makes the product exceptionally effective e.g. a pharmaceutical manufacturer describes a special coating that makes their pain reliever less irritating to the stomach than a competitor’s
patriotism the suggestion that purchasing this product shows your love of your country e.g. a company brags about its product being made in Canada and employing Canadian workers
plain folks the suggestion that the product is a practical product of good value for ordinary people e.g. a cereal manufacturer shows an ordinary family sitting down to breakfast and enjoying their product
pressure by attempting to make people choose quickly and without long consideration, some advertisers hope to make rapid sales: Buy now, before they're all gone!
repetition some advertisers concentrate on making sure their product is widely recognized. To that end, they simply attempt to make the name remembered through repetition (at least four times)
sex appeal other people will think that you are more attractive or desirable because you use that product. An attractive model may be used to gain your attention.
slogans the most effective means of drawing attention to one or more aspects of a product. Typically they make claims about being the best quality, providing an important benefit or solution, or being most suitable for the potential customer: Skim milk does not come from skinny cows, Candy can do
snob appeal the suggestion that the use of the product makes the customer part of an elite group with a luxurious and glamorous life style e.g. a coffee manufacturer shows people dressed in formal gowns and tuxedos drinking their brand at an art gallery
subliminal messages It was feared that some advertisements would present hidden messages, for example through brief flashed messages or the soundtrack, that would have a hypnotic effect on viewers ('Must buy car. Must buy car.') The notion that techniques of hypnosis are used by advertisers is now generally discredited, though subliminal sexual messages are extremely common
transfer words and ideas with positive connotations are used to suggest that the positive qualities should be associated with the product and the user e.g. a textile manufacturer wanting people to wear their product to stay cool during the summer shows people wearing fashions made from their cloth at a sunny seaside setting where there is a cool breeze
testimonial a famous personality is used to promote the superior quality of the product e.g. a famous hockey player recommends a particular brand of skates; Three out of four dentists recommend... This approach often involves an appeal to authority.
wit and humour customers are attracted to products that divert the audience by giving viewers a reason to laugh or to be entertained by clever use of visuals or language

It is important to note: During the past decade, advertising has increasingly employed the device of irony. Aware that today's media-savvy viewers are familiar with the traditional methods listed above, advertisers have turned to poking fun at those very methods. This approach is intended to tell viewers, “We know that YOU know we're trying to sell you something, so bear with us and let's have fun.” The final goal of such advertising is to convey a sense of trust and confidence with viewers, by saying, “We respect your intelligence, and you should respect us because we're not trying to fool you.” Common television examples of this approach include most beer advertising.


a Post-Reading Tasks

I. Discussion section.

1. Which advertising technique do you consider to be the most/ the least influential? Prove your point of view.

2. Which advertising technique will make the greatest effect on you? Why?

3. Which advertising technique is used more often by advertisers? Give examples.

4. Find as many advertising techniques as you can in the following pictures (pic. 4.1 – 4.7).


Pic. 4.2 G Unit
Pic. 4.1. J’adore Dior



Pic. 4.3. L’Instant Taittinger
Pic. 4.4. Café de matin

Pic. 4.5. Grand Parisy
Pic. 4.6. L. Evangelisti


Pic. 4.7. Biere de Maxeville



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