# S. SEIFFULIN KAZAKH AGRO TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

S. SEIFFULIN KAZAKH AGRO TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

D. M. Rakhimova, E. A. Unissov

food industry

ASTANA 2011

Д.М.Рахимова, Е.А.Юнисов

Английский язык (для студентов факультета ВиТЖ, обучающихся по специальности 5В072700 «Технология продовольственных продуктов»

Астана, 2011. – 121 стр.

Рецензии написаны:

Кандидатом педагогических наук, доцентом кафедры СГД университета «Туран-Астана» Калдаяковой Г.С.

Старшим преподавателем английского языка КАТУ им. С.Сейфуллина Байгашкаровой М.И.

Учебное пособие включает в себя специализированные тексты и грамматические темы, а также дополнительные тексты. Упражнения направлены на развитие навыков письма, перевода, чтения и говорения, а также тесты для самоконтроля на закрепление изучаемого лексико-грамматического материала. Образцы промежуточных и экзаменационных тестов позволяют студентам самостоятельно подготовиться к рубежному и итоговому контролю. Данные в учебном пособии грамматические справочники позволяют систематизировать грамматический материал.

Студенты могут пользоваться учебное пособие на занятиях под руководством преподавателя, а также самостоятельно.

Учебное пособие содержит лексический материал для составления тематических текстов.

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов факультета ВиТЖ рекомендоано УС КазАТУ им.С.Сейфуллина ( протокол № 13 от 30.06.11г)

Introduction

Renowned international academicians and food industry professionals have collaborated to create Food Processing: Principles and Applications. This practical, fully illustrated resource examines the principles of food processing and demonstrates their application by describing the stages and operations for manufacturing different categories of basic food products

As hands - on guide to the essential processing principles and their application, this book serves as a relevant primary or supplemental text for students of food.

Food processing is a major contributor to food technology, and provides important and useful tools for the food technologist to apply in designing, developing and controlling food processes. Process engineering principles are the basis for food processing, but only some of them are important and commonly encountered in the food industry. This book aims to select these important principles and show how they can be quantitatively applied in the food industry. It explains, develops and illustrates them at a level of understanding which covers most of the needs of the food technologist in industry and of the student working to become one. It can also be used as an introduction to food engineering.

Unit 1

Text: Food

Grammar: Passive Voice

Food

Food and cooking

Food is one our most basic needs. We cannot live without it. Food gives us the energy for everything we do – walking, talking, working, playing, reading and even thinking and breathing. Food also provides the energy our nerves, muscles, heart, and glands need to work. In addition, food supplies the nourishing substances our bodies require to build and repair tissues and to regulate body organs and systems.

All living things must have food to live. Green plants use the energy of sunlight to make food out of carbon dioxide(a gas in the air) and water and other substances from the soil. Other living things depend on the food made by green plants. The food that people and other animals eat comes chiefly from plants or from animals that eat plants.

Food does more than help keep us alive, strong and healthy. It also adds pleasure to living. We enjoy the flavors, odors, and textures of foods. We celebrate special occasions with favorite meals and feasts.

Although most of the food we eat comes from plants or animals, the variety of foods as grains, fruits and vegetables. Animals provide meat, eggs and milk. These basic foods may require little or no preparation before they are eaten. Or they may be greatly changed by processing. For example, milk may be made into such foods as butter, cheese, ice cream, and yogurt.

The chief foods that people eat differ widely throughout the world. Millions of people in the Orient eat rice as their main food. People of the Pacific Islands depend heavily on fish. Most people of Turkey eat mainly cracked-wheat bread and yogurt. The people of Argentina and Uruguay eat much beef. What people eat depends chiefly on where they live and how much money they have. It also depends on their customs, health, life style, and religious beliefs. Children learn many eating habits from their parents. But each person develops individual food preferences and prejudices. Eating habits are also influenced by how much time people have to buy, prepare, and eat food.

In developing countries, many families must produce all their food themselves. In the United States, Canada, and other developed countries, however, most people rely on the food industry for their food. The food industry includes farmers, food-processing companies, researchers, shipping companies, and food stores. The growth of the food industry has greatly increased the amount and kinds of foods available in developed countries.

Exercises

Passive Voice

When we use an active verb, we say what the subject does:

My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1935.

It's a big company. It employs two hundred people.

When we use a passive verb, we say what happens to the subject: This house is quite old. It was built in 1935. Two hundred people are employed by the company.

When we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant:

A lot of money was stolen in the robbery, (somebody stole it, but we don't know who)

Is this room cleaned every day? (does somebody clean it? - it's not important who)

If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by ... This house was built by my grandfather.

Two hundred people are employed by the company.

The passive is be (is/was etc.) + past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.): (be) done (be) cleaned (be) damaged (be) built (be) seen etc.

For irregular past participles (done/seen/known etc.), Study the active and passive forms of the present simple and past simple:

Present simple

active: clean(s) / see(s) etc.

passive: am/is/are + cleaned/seen etc.

Somebodv cleans this room every day.

This room is cleaned every day.

Many accidents are caused by careless driving. D I'm not often invited to parties. How is this word pronounced?

Past simple

active: cleaned/saw etc.

passive: was/were + cleaned/seen etc.

Somebody cleaned this room yesterday. This room was cleaned yesterday.

We were woken up by a loud noise during the night.

'Did you go to the party?' 'No, I wasn't invited.'

How much money was stolen in the robber

Perfect infinitive

active: (to) have + done/cleaned/seen etc. Somebody should have cleaned the room

passive: (to) have been + done/cleaned/seen etc. The room should have been cleaned.

I haven't received the letter yet. It might have been sent to the wrong address.

If you hadn't left the car unlocked, it wouldn't have been stolen.

There were some problems at first, but they seem to have been solved.

Present perfect

active: have/has + done etc. The room looks nice. Somebody has cleaned it

passive: have/has been + done etc. The room looks nice. It has been cleaned.

Have you heard? The concert has been cancelled. D Have you ever been bitten by a dog?

'Are you going to the party?' 'No, I haven't been invited.'

Past perfect

active: had + done etc. The room looked nice. Somebody had cleaned it

passive: had been + done etc. The room looked nice. It had been cleaned.

The vegetables didn't taste very good. They had been cooked too long.

The car was three years old but hadn't been used very much.

Present continuous

active: am/is/are + (do)ing Somebody is cleaning the room at the moment.

passive: am/is/are + being (done) The room is being cleaned at the moment.

There's somebody walking behind us. I think we are being followed. (in a shop) 'Can I help you?' 'No, thank you. I'm being served.'

Past continuous

active: was/were + (do)ing Somebody was cleaning the room when I arrived.

passive: was/were + being (done) The room was being cleaned when I arrived.

There was somebody walking behind us. We were being followed.

Sources of food

Plants supply most of the food people eat. In many African, Asian, and Latin-American countries, the people depend on plants for more than two-thirds of their food. In Australia, Europe, North America, and parts of South America, the people eat much meat. But even these areas, over half the diet consists of food from plants.

Consumers commonly buy some basic foods, including eggs, fruits, and vegetables, in their natural form. But basic foods are also processed before they reach the market. Most of foods have been processed. Processors also produce baked goods, frozen dinners, and many other convenience foods, which save work for the cook when preparing a meal.

The most important food obtained from plants are grains and fruits and vegetables.

Grains, also called cereals, are the seeds of such plants as barley, corn, millet, oats, rice, rye, sorghum and wheat. The human diet has been based on grains for thousands of years. Rice or a grain product, particularly bread, is the main food in many cultures. Millers grind much of the world’s grain, especially wheat, into flour. Wheat flour is used in almost all breads, in pastries, and in macaroni and other kinds of noodles. Processors also make breakfast cereals from grains.

Fruits and vegetables add a variety of colors, flavors, and textures to the diet. Popular fruits include apples, bananas, cherries, melons, oranges, peaches, pineapples and strawberries. Most fruits are eaten as snacks or in a salad or dessert.

Favorite vegetables include beans, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, celery, lettuce, onions, peas, potatoes, and sweet corn. Vegetables are commonly eaten during the main part of a meal. They may be served raw in a salad, cooked and served with a sauce, or added to a soup.

Other foods from plants include nuts, herbs and spices, and beverages. Coffee, cocoa, tea and many other drinks are made from plants. Nuts are popular snacks and can be used as flavorings in other foods.

Exercises

Food from animals

Food from animals includes meat, eggs, and dairy products. These foods cost more to produce than do foods from plants. As a result, foods from animals are eaten more in developed countries than in developing ones.

Meat consists mainly of the muscle, fat, and other parts of an animal’s body. The word meat most commonly means the red meat of cattle, hogs, sheep, and game animals. However, the flesh of fish and poultry is also considered meat.

In the United States and Canada, popular red meats include beef and veal from cattle, pork from hogs, and lamb and mutton from sheep. Many Americans and Canadians also enjoy kidney, liver, tongue, and variety meats. Favorite fish include cod, perch, salmon, trout, and tuna. Clams, crabs, lobsters, oysters, scallops and shrimp are favorite shellfish. The most popular kinds of poultry are chicken, duck, goose, and turkey. In some countries, people enjoy the meat of caribou, goats, horses, monkeys, rabbits and snakes. They might also eat ants, grasshoppers, snails, or turtles.

Much poultry is marketed as the whole animal. Many other meats are sold as cuts, such as chops and steaks. Meat usually is heated before it is eaten. Heating develops the flavor and destroys microbes that may cause illness if present in the meat. Ham and corned beef are preserved before being marketed. Meats also are processed into such products as frankfurters and cold cuts. Meat is commonly eaten during the main part of a meal.

Farmers raise poultry, especially chickens, for their eggs as well as for their meat. Chicken eggs are popular as a breakfast or supper dish, or they can be used in custards and other cooked dishes. The eggs of certain kinds of fish are used to make a delicacy called caviar. In some countries also eat the eggs of alligators, crocodiles or certain other reptiles.

Dairy products are important foods in many cultures. Cows provide most of the milk used in the United States and Canada. But such animals as camels, goats, reindeer and sheep supply milk in other parts of the world. Milk and milk products reach the market in many forms. In addition to whole milk, people can buy buttermilk, skim milk, low-fat milk, and condensed, dried and evaporated milk. Other products include butter, cheese, cream, ice-cream, sour cream and yogurt.

Exercises

1. Find the Passive sentences and translate into your own language

Retell the text

Test . Passive Voice

a) are eaten b) ate c) is eaten d) is being eaten

2. This letter … tomorrow.

a) was written b) was being written c) will write d) will be written

3. Many houses … during the Great Fire of London.

a) were burned b) are burned c) will be burned d) is burned

4. From the station they … straight to the hotel.

a) was taken b) is taken c) am taken d) will be taken

5. The telegram … tomorrow.

6. Don’t enter the room. The student … right now by the professor.

7. The letter … at this time yesterday.

a) is written b) will be written c) was being written d) are written

8. The work … by 5 o’clock tomorrow.

a) will do b) will be done c) will have been done d) would do

9. The doctor says she …to the hospital.

a) will take b) must take c) must be taken d) must have been taken

10. The building of the house … very soon.

a) can finish b) can being finished c) can be finish d) can be finished

11. The doctor will operate on him in a week.

a) Him will be operated on in a week.

b) He will be operated on in a week.

c) He is operated on in a week.

d) The doctor will be operated on in a week.

12. They looked for the girl everywhere.

a) Everywhere they were looking for the girl.

b) The girl was looked for everywhere.

c) The girl is looked for everywhere.

d) The girl was looked everywhere.

13. I bought apples yesterday.

a) The apples are bought yesterday.

b) The apples have been bought yesterday.

c) The apples will be bought yesterday.

d) The apples were bought yesterday.

14. We did not invite her to the party.

a) Her was not invited to the party.

b) She was not invited to the party.

c) Party was not invited her.

d) She has not been invited to the party.

15. Someone wants you on the phone.

a) You want someone on the phone.

b) The phone is wanted on you.

c) You were wanted on the phone.

d) You are wanted on the phone.

16. The film will be shown on TV …

a) tomorrow b) yesterday c) then d) last year

17. Tom has … been asked.

a) yesterday b) yet c) just d) now

18. Milk is sold in this shop …

a) every day b) yesterday c) tomorrow d) never

19. Tennis was being played yesterday …

a) - b) at 5 o’clock c) by 5 o’clock d) already

20. The window was broken …

a) last week b) tomorrow c) every day d) ever

Unit 2

Text: The food of the Nomad

Grammar: Question tags

The Kazakhs’ traditional diet depended on their basic economic activities: herding and arable farming, and consisted almost exclusively of what they produced themselves: milk, meat, grains and other plants. In many respects this dietary pattern is still followed by the Kazakhs of today.

They consume a great variety and quantity of dairy food. All possible types of yoghurt and sour-cream products are made from the milk of sheep, goats and cows, as well as many kinds of dried cheese, which can be preserved for a long time and are highly calorific. There are also sweetmeats made of milk beverages to which millet, wheat or rice are added. Mare’s milk, koumiss, specially prepared in a wooden bowl, is highly valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties. In the same way a drink called shubat is made from camel’s milk. Today, these beverages are used effectively in the treatment of various illnesses in modern medical institutions.

Meat also figured largely in the nomad’s diet. There was a plentiful supply from domesticated animals: sheep, goats, camels and large horned cattle, and also from wild sheep, elik (hornless small deer), steppe antelope and other animals caught by hunting. A special place in the Kazakh cuisine belongs today, as it did in the past, to horse sausage and various other delicacies are made. Horse meat, smoked and dried, is usually prepared for the winter. Fish is also eaten. In the southern regions there is a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables.

A great variety of dishes and many types of bread are made from cereals, particularly wheat, millet and rice. Grain is first boiled, then roasted and crushed in a mortar, after which creamy butter and sugar are added. These and various milk-based sweets take the place of other types of confectionery.

One of the favorite drinks of the Kazakhs is tea. The black varieties are drunk with or without milk. In the southern regions green tea is popular. In the past the Kazakhs had no alcoholic beverages.

The cuisine of the modern Kazakh is much more varied, since it has assimilated the traditions of many peoples. Certain Kazakh national dishes are now prepared only for holidays or special celebrations.

New words

Nomad, diet, herding, arable farming, pattern, consume, preserve, bowl, cuisine, consumption, assimilate

Exercises

I. Choose the right variant

1. … produced milk, meat, grains and other plants, …?

a) Our grandparents\didn’t they, b) They\did they, c) My parents\weren’t they, d) Their parents\aren’t they, e) His family\don’t they

2. The Kazakhs’ traditional diet depended on their basic economic activities, …?

a) did it, b) wasn’t it, c) didn’t it, d) isn’t it, e) weren’t it

3. … consume a great variety and quantity of dairy food …?

a) Our people\aren’t they, b) My family\do they, c) My sister\doesn’t she, d) Kazakhs\don’t they, e) They\didn’t they

4. These beverages are used effectively in the treatment, …?

a) are it, b) aren’t it, c) is it, d) isn’t it, e) aren’t they

5. Meat also figured largely in the nomad’s diet, …?

a) wasn’t it, b) didn’t it, c) doesn’t it, d) hadn’t it, e) also not it

6. One of the favorite drinks of the Kazakhs … tea, …?

a) is\is it, b)isn’t\isn’t it, c) was\wasn’t it, d) is\it isn’t, e) wasn’t\is it

7. Clothing … made of woolen, …?

a) was\wasn’t it, b) is\aren’t it, c) does\doesn’t it, d) has\hasn’t it, e) are\aren’t they

8. In the past the Kazakhs had no alcoholic beverages …?

a) didn’t it, b) had it, c) hadn’t they, d) did they, e) did it

9. … never tasted shubat, …?

a) I\wasn’t I, b) He\did he, c)She\hadn’t she, d) They\weren’t they, e) We\didn’t we

10. … likes traditional beverages, …?

a) I\don’t I, b) My mother\isn’t she, c) My grandmother\doesn’t she, d) His aunt\does she, e) Her sister-in-law\aren’t she

Unit 3

Grammar: Reported speech

How the body uses food

Food supplies the nutrients (nourishing substances) that the body needs for producing energy, building and repairing tissues, and regulating body processes. The main kinds of nutrients are water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Each kind of nutrient plays as important role in keeping the body healthy. Many foods are highly nourishing, but no one food supplies every necessary nutrient.

As the body digests food, the food is broken down into the various nutrients. The food eventually enters the small intestine, and the nutrients pass through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream. The blood distributes the nutrients to cells throughout the body.

In addition to nutrients, food supplies other important substances, especially water and fiber. Every living thing must maintain a certain water supply, or it will die. Fiber adds bulk to food and keeps waste products moving through the intestine.

People who do not get enough food to eat suffer from under nutrition. A person whose diet seriously lacks any nutrient is said to be malnourished. Some malnourished people have plenty of food, but they choose to eat foods that do not supply all the necessary nutrients. Some people develop health problems because they eat too much and become overweight.

New words:

Supply, nutrient, nourish, substance, tissue, process, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, digest, small intestine, distribute, fiber, bulk, under nutrition, malnourished, lack

Exercises

Exercises

Reported Speech

The past simple (did/saw/knew etc.) can usually stay the same in reported speech, or you can change it to the past perfect (had done / had seen / had known etc.):

direct Paul said: 'I woke up feeling ill, so I didn't go to work.'

Exercises

I variant

II variant

III variant

IV variant

Unit 4

Text: The food industry

Grammar: Verb+ -ing or Gerund

The food industry

In developing countries, many families produce their own food or buy food from local farmers. In developed countries, however, most people depend on the food industry. This section describes the food industry in the United States. However, much of the information also applies to the food industries in Canada and other developed countries.

The food industry consists of all the activities involved in producing food and getting it to consumers. The main branches of the industry include production, processing, packaging, transportation and marketing. Government regulations cover each branch and help assure consumers of safe, good-quality products. In addition, food companies and other organizations conduct research to increase the food supply and to improve food products.

The food industry is one of the largest industries in the United States. About 3 million Americans, including self-employed farmers, work on farms to produce basic foods. Food-processing plants employ more than one and a half million workers to prepare and package foods for the market. Millions of other workers are involved in the transporting and marketing of food.

Each branch of the food industry contributes to the prices of foods in the market place. The prices reflect the cost of producing the basic food as well as the processing, packaging, transportation and marketing costs. All these costs, plus the profits of each branch of the industry, are paid by consumers.

Exercises

Unit 5

Text: History of Chocolate

Grammar: Verb+ to or Infinitive

Verb + to ... (decide to ... / forget to ... etc.)

Short History of Chocolate

Aztec Indian legend held that cacao seeds had been brought from Paradise and that wisdom and power came from eating the fruit of the cacao tree. Because of a spelling error, probably by English traders long ago, the cacao beans became know as the cocoa beans.

The Spanish general, Hernando Cortes, landed in Mexico in 1519. The Aztecs believed he was the reincarnation of one of their lost gods. They honored him by serving him an unusual drink, presented in a cup of pure gold. This unusual drink was called "chocolatl" by the Aztecs.

When Cortes returned to Spain, he took the cocoa bean with him and there is was mixed with sugar and vanilla. this sweet drink became fashionable and soon there were chocolate houses in all the capitals of Europe.

A delicate tree, cacao is only grown in rain forests in the tropics, usually on large plantations, where it must be protected from wind and intense sunlight. The tree is harvested twice a year.

Milk chocolate was invented in 1876 by a Swiss chocolatier, Daniel Peter (1836-1919) of Vevey, Geneva. Daniel Peter successfully combined chocolate with powdered milk to produce the first milk chocolate. Today, the finest chocolate is still made in Switzerland, and the consumption of milk chocolate far outweighs that of plain chocolate.

Chocolate was introduced to the United States in 1765 when John Hanan brought cocoa beans from the West Indies into Dorchester, Massachusetts, to refine them with the help of Dr. James Baker. The first chocolate factory in the country was established there.

Exercises

a) Do you find it difficult to remember people’s names?

b) Do you think it’s important to learn to cook?

c) What’s the most interesting place to visit in your town?

d) Have you ever forgotten to turn off your mobile in a cinema or a concert?

e) Do you think it’s possible to learn a foreign language without going to the country?

f) Is there any part of your town where it’s dangerous to go at night?

g) Do you always remember to phone your friends on their holidays?

h) When was the last time you promised not to come home late?

i) Have you ever pretended to be ill?

j) Have you decided to go anywhere next summer?

Unit 6

Food transportation

Commercial shipping companies transport most of the food from producers to processors and from processors to market. Nearly all fresh foods are perishable and must be shipped quickly. Many vegetable farmers haul their produce to nearby markets soon after it is harvested. Over longer distances, however, refrigerated trucks, railroad cars, and ship help keep perishable produce fresh. Refrigerated vehicles also haul dairy products and frozen foods. In some cases, airplanes transport highly perishable foods, such as fish or expensive foods, such as live lobsters.

Some farmers sell eggs or fresh fruits and vegetables directly to consumers at roadside stands or through home deliveries. Many farmers take produce to a farmers’ market in a nearby city. There food dealers and homemakers can purchase it.

Numerous grain, dairy, and other farmers sell their products directly to a food processor. Many other farmers belong to marketing cooperative. A marketing cooperative collects the products of member farmers. It then sells the products to processors. Farmers sell their livestock to meat packers at large centres called terminal markets or at smaller auction markets.

Most food processors and a number of farmers sell their products to a wholesaler. Wholesalers buy large quantities of a product and then sell smaller amounts to retailers. Food retailers include supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores, delicatessens, butcher shops, restaurants, and other businesses that sell food to consumers.

Supermarkets and groceries sell a variety of foods. Other stores sell only one line of food, such as baked goods, fish, or meat. Consumers can buy prepared meals at restaurants and cafeterias. In many office and public buildings, vending machines dispense foods.

Grammar:

Verb (+ object) + to ...

(I want you to ... etc.)

expect beg mean (= intend) would prefer

These verbs are followed by to ... {infinitive). The structure can be:

verb + to ... or verb + object + to ...

We expected to be late. We expected Dan to be late.

Would you like to go now? Would you like me to go now?

He doesn't want to know. He doesn't want anybody to know.

Do not say 'want that':

Do you want me to come with you? {not Do you want that I come)

After help you can use the infinitive with or without to. So you can say:

Can you help me to move this table? or Can you help me move this table?

remind force encourage teach enable

These verbs have the structure verb + object + to ...

Can you remind me to phone Sam tomorrow?

Who taught you to drive? I didn't move the piano by myself. I got somebody to help me.

Jim said the switch was dangerous and warned me not to touch it.

In the next example, the verb is passive (I was warned / we were told etc.):

I was warned not to touch the switch.

You cannot use suggest with the structure verb + object + to ... :

After advise, recommend and allow, two structures are possible. Compare: verb + -ing (without an object)

verb + -ing (without an object)

I wouldn't advise/recommend staying in that hotel.

They don't allow parking in front of the building.

Study these examples with (be) allowed {passive):

Parking isn't allowed in front of the building.

verb + object + to

Make and let

These verbs have the structure verb + object + infinitive (without to):

I made him promise that he wouldn't tell anybody what happened, {not to promise)

Hot weather makes me feel tired. (= causes me to feel tired)

Her parents wouldn't let her go out alone. (= wouldn't allow her to go out)

Let me carry your bag for you.

We say 'make somebody do' {not to do), but the passive is '(be) made to do' (with to):

We were made to wait for two hours. (= They made us wait ...)

Exercises:

1 Complete the questions. Use do you want me to ... ? or would you like me to ... ? with these verbs (+ any other necessary words):

come lend repeat show shut wait

1 Do you want to go alone, or .................................................................. ?

2 Do you have enough money, or do you want ....................................... ?

3 Shall I leave the window open, or would you ....................................... ?

4 Do you know how to use the machine, or wou........................................ ?

5 Did you hear what I said, or do .............................................................. ?

6 Can I go now, or do ...............................................................................?

Unit 7

Problems with frozen foods

Frozen foods can cause food poisoning if they are not frozen soon enough or if they are not cooked soon enough after thawing. Food-poisoning organisms can grow in food if its temperature exceeds 45◦ to 50◦ F for only a few hours. If the food cooked before it is frozen, it should immediately be put in a refrigerator or freezer. Allowing warm food to cool at room temperature permits the growth of food-poisoning microbes that may survive the freezing process.

Foods should be thawed in a microwave oven or if such an oven is not available, in a refrigerator. Both methods prevent the growth of food-poisoning organisms. However, refrigerator thawing allows physical and chemical changes that reduce food quality.

To help prevent the loss of quality that occurs in vegetables as a result of slow thawing, processing firms package many kinds of vegetables in sealed plastic pouches. Consumers can thaw the vegetables rapidly and cook them - by transferring the unopened pouch from a freezer directly into boiling water. The tightly packed pouches also prevent freezer burn and the formation of package ice. Many frozen foods can be cooked in a microwave oven as soon as they are removed from the freezer.

Grammar:

Some verbs are followed by -ing and some are followed by to

Verbs usually followec by -ing:

avoid finish risk

consider imagine stop

deny keep (on) suggest

enjoy mind

Verbs usually followed by to ... :

afford fail offer

agree forget plan

arrange hope promise

decide learn refuse

deserve manage threaten

Some verbs can be followed by -ing or to ... with a difference of meaning: remember

I remember doing something = I did it and I remembered to do something = I now I remember this. remembered that I had to do it, so I did it.

You remember doing something after you You remember to do something before you

have done it. do it.

I know I locked the door. I clearly D I remembered to lock the door, but I

remember locking it. forgot to shut the windows.

(= I locked it, and now I remember this) (= I remembered that I had to lock it,

□ He could remember driving along the and so I locked it)

road just before the accident, but he D Please remember to post the letter.

couldn't remember the accident itself. (= don't forget to post it)

I regret doing something = I did it and now I regret to say / to tell you / to inform you

I'm sorry about it: = I'm sorry that I have to say (etc.):

□ I now regret saying what I said. I □ (from a formal letter) We regret to

shouldn't have said it. inform you that we cannot offer you

□ It began to get cold and he regretted not the job.

wearing his coat.

go on

Go on doing something = continue with the Go on to do something = do or say

same thing: something new:

□ The president paused for a moment and □ After discussing the economy, the

then went on talking. president then went on to talk about

□ We need to change. We can't go on foreign policy.

living like this.

The following verbs can be followed by -ing or to ... : begin start continue intend bother

So you can say:

D It has started raining, or It has started to rain.

□ John intends buying a house, or John intends to buy ...

□ Don't bother locking the door, or Don't bother to lock

But normally we do not use -ing after -ing:

□ It's starting to rain, [not It's starting raining)

1 Put the verb into the correct form, -ing or to ... . Sometimes either form is possible.

1 They denied...........the money, (steal)

2 I don't enjoy......................................................very much, (drive)

3 I don't want......................................................out tonight. I'm too tired, (go)

4 I can't afford............................out tonight. I don't have enough money, (go)

5 Has it stopped......................................................yet? (rain)

6 Our team was unlucky to lose the game. We deserved ...................... (win)

7 Why do you keep.................me questions? Can't you leave me alone? (ask)

9 I refuse......................................................any more questions, (answer)

10 One of the boys admitted........................................the window, (break)

11 The boy's father promised.............for the window to be repaired, (pay)

12 If the company continues..............money, the factory may be closed, (lose)

13 'Does Sarah know about the meeting?' 'No, I forgot ..................her.' (tell)

14 The baby began..........................................in the middle of the night, (cry)

15 Julia has been ill, but now she's beginning ..............................better, (get)

16 I've enjoyed.........................you. I hope..............you again soon, (meet, see)

REVISION.

Verbs + -ing form or infinitive

Verb + -ing form

Some verbs are followed by an -ing form if the next word is a verb. Here are some of them,

Manage refuse promise offer

It's a long walk so I offered to take them in the car.

I expect (= think or believe something will happen) to get the results before next week.

I meant (= planned/intended) to get the information, but I forgot (= didn't remember) to

phone.

It was hard work but we managed to finish it. (= we were able to finish it but it was

difficult)

I asked her to carry the suitcases but she refused to help. (= she said 'no')

They promised to phone me as soon as they arrived. (= they said they would) I

Verb + -ing form or infinitive

Some verbs can be followed by an -ing form or infinitive and the meaning is very similar, e.g. love, like and prefer. But with some verbs there is a difference in meaning:

I remembered to buy my grandmother a birthday card. (= I didn't forget to buy one) I remember making cards for her when I was small. (= it's one of my memories from the past)

Verb + infinitive without 'to*

Two common verbs are followed by an object + infinitive without 'to': makesomeone do something, and letsomeone do something.

My parents make me do my homework every night. (= They force me to do my homework.) My parents let me go out at the weekend. (= They allow/permit me to go out.)

Exercises:

Unit 8

English Pub Food

Have you ever wondered how some of your favourite foods came to be discovered or invented?

Here are ten interesting facts (or myths) about British food, some going back to Roman times:

1. It was the Romans who made oysters popular in Britain and were responsible for establishing their cultivation . The rich waters of Camulodunum (Colchester today) are ideal for cultivating the delicious Colchester oysters .

2. In Spring, you can trace the routes of the Roman Army through the south of England by following the white blossom on tall, wild cherry trees. Roman soldiers brought cherries from Italy and spat the pips out as they marched.

3. The world’s most eaten ‘convenience’ food, the humble sandwich was named after an English aristocrat. The Earl of Sandwich had such a passion for gambling, that he didn’t want to have to stop playing – gambling addiction? To ensure his game was not interrupted and to keep his hands clean for the cards, the Earl of Sandwich asked for meat to be put between two slices of bread.

4. King James I of England and VI of Scotland imported 10,000 mulberry trees to start a silk industry. Unfortunately, he ordered the wrong variety and the silk worms wouldn’t eat the leaves. The mulberry tree ‘berries,’ however, made excellent jam.

English Cream Teas

5. Crowdie, a soft, fresh milk cheese, also known as ‘gruth’ in Gaelic is the result of traditional methods dating back to Scotland’s Viking occupation. The first farm to flavor it with garlic only did so after their cows had escaped from their field, wandered into woods and ate wild garlic. The flavor that went into the milk was so good that garlic crowdie quickly became a favorite item.

6. ‘Bletted’ Medlars were a much loved after dinner treat in Victorian homes in November and December. The fruit was gathered from trees in September, laid in sawdust and kept until the flesh turned dark and soft, as they had to be ‘rotten to be ripe’. I’ll give this one a miss!

7. It is not only Stilton cheese that is important to the people of the Heart of England. In 1734, the Mayor of Nottingham was bowled over with a 100 lb. wheel of cheese during a riot after stall-holders at an annual street market had increased cheese prices by more than a third.

8. The world’s first chocolate bar was made in Bristol in the late 1720s by Joseph Fry. His company was eventually taken over by Cadbury, another British, family owned firm.

9. Mint sauce became the ‘essential’ accompaniment to roast lamb in Britain thanks to Queen Elizabeth I. To stop her subjects eating lamb and mutton (and help the wool industry), she decreed that the meat could only be served with bitter herbs. Enterprising cooks discovered that mint made the meat taste better, not worse.

10. Ice cream was so popular in London in the 19th century that massive ‘ice wells’ were dug in the city. Ice was imported from America, and later from Norway to fill them.

Unit 9

Potatoes

Potatoes were introduced in Europe in the 16 th century, and has since then been a regular feature of our history books. Though its appearance can be linked to other unfortunate instances of nature like crop failure and severe famine, it is and will continue in all probability, to feature prominently in the diet of most western families. Much like tomatoes, the stem and leaves of the potatoes too contain poison. This includes the potatoes itself if left to turn green, with it being indicative of high concentrations of glykoalkaloid poison. Instances of poisoning due to potatoes are rare and far between, but it does happen often and on. Common symptoms are a period of weakness and a state of confusion that can lead to coma, followed by even death. Consuming green potatoes or drinking potato leaf tea has been found to be the prime reason for causing most deaths due to potato poisoning in the US in the last fifty years.

Tomatoes

First, an interesting piece of information: tomatoes came to be considered as vegetables in the US as per a US Supreme Court order of 1893, though in the rest of the world, it continues to be designated as a fruit; or a berry, to be more precise. All of it had to do with a tax that was levied on vegetables but not on fruits. However, it is interesting to note that technically, a tomato is nothing but an ovary. A chemical called ‘Glycoalkaloid’, present in the leaves and stems of the tomato plant can lead to the occurrence of extreme nervousness and stomach upsets, though they may be used to enhance flavor in cooking. However, they have to be removed before eating. This makes a huge difference as far as taste is concerned while this method of cooking also preventing poison to seep out in appreciable quantity. Also, sprinkling a little sugar on the tomatoes further enhances their flavor. Now the thing that needs to be sorted out is whether they are ‘toe-mah-toes’ or ‘toe-may-toes’.

Almonds

First of all, almonds are not nuts, as many believe it to be, but seeds. And the most wonderful seed at that that also serves many purpose. The utter ease with which it can be used in cooking along with a taste that is unique to it, almonds have created a niche of its own for centuries, and without which, pastries won’t perhaps taste as great. Almond that exudes the best flavor are the bitter almonds and not the sweet ones. It is their strong scent that has made them extremely popular in many parts of the world. However, there’s a flip side though, for they’re full of cyanide. This makes bitter almonds to be dangerous if consumed without proper processing done to remove the poison. Unfortunately, in spite of such a requirement, some countries have deemed it illegal to sell bitter almonds, with New Zealand being one of them. In such cases, the pip from an apricot stone, with a similar flavor and poison content, can be an excellent alternative to bitter almonds. A way to rid the almonds of its poison is to heat them, which destroys the poison. In fact, not many may be knowing the fact that the sale of raw almonds have now been banned by law in many countries and that all almonds sold is required to be heat treated to remove poison and bacteria.

Cherries

Cherry is an extremely popular fruit, one that can be put to a variety of uses. For instance, they are required in liqueur production, in cooking or can also be eaten raw. It belongs to the same family as plums, apricots, peaches as well as almonds. However, what makes almonds unique is that it is the only fruit that is cultivated especially for its seed. A common feature of the above mentioned fruits are that their leaves and seeds contain certain chemicals that are extremely poisonous in nature. Crushing, chewing or even slight injury to cherry seeds is all that is required for it to release prussic acid or hydrogen cyanide. So the next time you are enjoying your cherries, you know what is to be avoided.

Apples

Much like almonds and cherries, apple seeds too contain cyanide, though in very less concentrations. We often end up eating apple seeds unknowingly but since the poison content in the seeds of a single apple is much less, there’s no real risk of getting severely sick. However, the same cannot be said if one chews and consumes a large number of them, and can even lead to death if apple seeds in sufficient quantities is consumed. A single apple simply does not have enough seeds to make one fall ill, let alone die, but one will do good to avoid apple-eating competitions.

Mushrooms

Toadstools are known to us all, along with the fact that they are poisonous. Not many of us are aware that toadstools are actually mushrooms and not a different type of plant. In fact, toadstool is often used as slang for poisonous mushroom. Though there are some tell-tale signs that indicate whether a mushroom is poisonous or not, they may well vary for different varieties. So it’s always a good idea to stay clear of unknown varieties of mushrooms. Some signs that may be indicative of its poisonous nature are that the mushroom should have a flat cap that is devoid of any bumps while gills should be pink or black in color since mushrooms with white gills have often been found to be poisonous. Also the gills should remain attached to the cap instead of the stalk if it is pulled off. However, it’s extremely important to understand that the above rules may not be applicable to each and every type of mushroom and that those mushrooms whose origin is unknown is best avoided.

Elderberry

Elderberry trees are large and quite attractive to look at. They produce thousands of tiny flowers that sport a nice soft aroma, all of which goes in the making of elderberry liqueur and soda. The flower is also eatable, and is prepared by first battering them followed by deep-frying. However, we need to be on our guard since the beauty is just not skin deep. In fact, some parts of the tree including the roots are extremely poisonous, enough to create severe stomach ailments. So, the next time you wish to include elderberry flowers in your menu, make sure that its just the flowers that you consume.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb is one plant of whose potential we are perhaps yet to be fully aware of. Responsible for some of the finest tasting puddings, rhubarb can also be grown easily at home. The stem of this plant is eatable and tastes fantastic while the roots work great as a laxative and has been in use as a poop-softener for over 5000 years. However, there’s a twist to the story. For the leaves of rhubarb plants is known to contain a poison as well as a corrosive acid, which becomes all the more potent when mixed with water and soda.

Castor Oil

Castor oil is an integral constituent of many food items that we eat, including candies and chocolates. Apart from this, some people have developed a habit of consuming small amount of it on a daily basis, besides forcing it down on their unwilling children as well. However, what most of us are unaware of is that castor bean is deadly, and that just one bean is enough to kill a human, while for a horse, four of it will be required to bring upon it a similar fate. Fortunately, the castor oil marked for human consumption is prepared with enough care to ensure it is safe. It’s the chemical ricin that makes castor beans so destructive, and it is due to its extreme toxicity that workers engaged in collecting seeds have strict guidelines to follow so as to prevent accidental death.

Pufferfish

Only the flesh of the pufferfish is considered to be eatable since it is believed to contain the poison in far less concentrations. It is in fact, considered a delicacy in many parts of the world like Japan or Korea. Such is the poisonous nature of pufferfish, referred to as fugu in Japan, that chefs dealing with it need to undergo special training that spans from 2 to 3 years and are required to clear a set of tests so as to obtain the mandatory certificate of practice. Apart from a written test, the chef will have to demonstrate his cutting abilities with him actually consuming the parts that he has cut forming the culminating part of the test. The tests are demanding, so much that only about 30% of the applicants make it through. This does not mean that the rest die due to consumption of fugu fish since they can fail in the earlier rounds as well. The poison causes a slight tingling sensation of the mouth and it forms the only food that the Emperor of Japan is legally barred from eating, keeping in mind his safety and health concerns.

Unit 10

Interesting Food Facts

During the Alaskan Klondike gold rush, (1897-1898) potatoes were practically worth their weight in gold. Potatoes were so valued for their vitamin C content that miners traded gold for potatoes.

Astronaut John Glenn ate the first meal in space when he ate pureed applesauce squeezed from a tube aboard Friendship 7 in 1962.

Fortune cookies were invented in 1916 by George Jung, a Los Angeles noodle maker.

In 1990, Bill Carson, of Arrington, Tennessee, grew the largest watermelon at 262 pounds.

In a true Chinese meal, the last course is soup because it allows the roast duck entree to "swim" toward digestion.

In the United States, a pound of potato chips costs two hundred times more than a pound of potatoes.

Pine, spruce, or other evergreen wood should never be used in barbecues. These woods, when burning or smoking, can add harmful tar and resins to the food. Only hardwoods should be used for smoking and grilling, such as oak, pecan, hickory, maple, cherry, alder, apple, or mesquite, depending on the type of meat being cooked.

Refried beans aren't really what they seem. Although their name seems like a reasonable translation of Spanish frijoles refritos, the fact is that these beans aren't fried twice. In Spanish, refritos literally means "well-fried," not "re-fried."

Rice is the staple food of more than one-half of the world's population.

Saffron, made from the dried stamens of cultivated crocus flowers, is the most expensive cooking spice.

Since Hindus don't eat beef, the MacDonald's in New Delhi makes its burgers with mutton.

The colour of a chilli is no indication of its spiciness, but size usually is - the smaller the pepper, the hotter it is.

The difference between apple juice and apple cider is that the juice is pasteurized and the cider is not.

The dye used to stamp the grade on meat is edible. It's made from grape skins.

The fungus called truffles are sniffed out from the ground by female pigs, which detect a compound that is in the saliva of male pigs as well. The same chemical is found in the sweat of human males. One variety, Tuber melanosporum, can cost between $800 and$1,500 a pound.

The largest living organism ever found is a honey mushroom, Armillaria ostoyae. It covers 3.4 square miles of land in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, and it's still growing

The world’s deadliest mushroom is the Amanita phalloides, the death cap. The five different poisons contained by the mushroom cause diarrhea and vomiting within 6 to 12 hours of ingestion. This is followed by damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system - and, in the majority of cases, coma and death.

When honey is swallowed, it enters the blood stream within a period of 20 minutes.

When Swiss cheese ferments, a bacterial action generates gas. As the gas is liberated, it bubbles through the cheese leaving holes. Cheese-makers call them "eyes."

Unit 11

Text: History of Tomatoes

Formation

A phrasal verb is a verb + adverb or preposition, and occasionally a verb + adverb and preposition.

The price of petrol is going up (= increasing) again.

He fell over (= fell to the ground) and hurt his knee.

She's trying to find out (= learn/discover) the name of that new hotel.

Who's going to look after (= take care of) the children when their mother is in hospital?

If you don't understand the meaning, look it up. (= find the meaning in a dictionary)

He doesn't get on with (= have a good relationship with) his parents, (verb + adv + prep)

Meaning

Sometimes the adverb or preposition doesn't change the meaning, but makes it sound more natural.

I didn't wake up until 7 o'clock. I'm saving up for a new computer.

Hurry up or we'll be late. She stood up and went over to the door.

Sit down and be quiet. He told me to lie down on the bed.

Sometimes an adverb adds a particular meaning. For example, back can mean 'return'.

I'm going to take that jacket back to the shop; it's too small.

You can look at the books but remember to put them back on the shelf.

More often, the adverb or preposition changes the meaning of the verb: 'take off doesn't mean the same as 'take', and 'get on' doesn't mean the same as 'get'. Here are some examples:

It took her a long time to get over (= get better/recover from) her illness.

We'll take a short break and then carry on (= continue) with the meeting.

My wife has decided to give up (= stop) smoking.

I can't make any sandwiches - we've run out of bread. (= no bread is left; it is finished)

I've told them we can't put the meeting off. (= change the time of the meeting to a later date)

Multiple meanings

Be careful: many phrasal verbs have more than one meaning.

It was so hot I had to take off (= remove) my jacket.

I'm always nervous when the plane takes off. (= leaves the ground)

I've got a lot of work to get through (= finish) before Friday.

I tried phoning him, but I couldn't get through. (= make contact and

talk to him)

My alarm clock didn't go off (= ring) this morning.

The bomb could go off (= explode) at any minute. [See picture.]

The fish will go off (= go bad) if you don't put it in the fridge.

I picked up most of the rubbish. (= took it from a place, using my hands) I have to pick Jane up (= collect her in my car) from the station.

Grammar: intransitive verbs

Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. They don't need an object after the verb, and we cannol put another word between different parts of the verb.

He grew up in a city. (= spent his childhood/developed into an adult) (NOT He grew

in a city up.)

Don't wait out there. Please come in. (= enter)

I'm going to stay in (= stay at home) this evening.

We set off (= started the journey; usually a long journey) at about 7.30.

В Grammar: transitive verbs

Many phrasal verbs are transitive: they need a direct object after the verb. You can usually put the object between the different parts of the verb, or after the phrasal verb.

Put on your shoes. / Turn on the TV. / Take off your coat. /

Put your shoes on. / Turn the TV on. У Take your coat off. У

If the object is a pronoun, it must go in the middle.

Put them on. / (Put on them.) Turn it on. J (Turn on it.) Take it off. У (Take off it,)

С In dictionaries

You can use a dictionary to check the grammar. Most dictionaries show it like this:

carry on, get by (= intransitive phrasal verb)

I can get by in French. (= I can manage in French, but I don't speak it well.)

put sth<—>on, throw sth<—>away (= transitive phrasal verb)

Did you throw those books away? (= get rid of them/put them in a rubbish bin)

Did you throw away those books?

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