Match the words to their definitions.
1. canvas 8. scenery
2. sketch 9. background
3. prominent 10. prophetic
4. still life 11. disaster
5. sitter 12.to apply
6. style 13. to fade
1. a sudden great misfortune
2. to put on
3. correctly describing events that will happen in the future
4. a general manner or way of doing something
5. natural surroundings, features of a particular part of a country
6. to lose colour
7. a person whose picture is painted, one who sits for an artist
8. a painting of inanimate objects
9. oil painting
10. of great ability, fame
11. a rough drawing
12. the part of the painting that shows what is behind the main object
13. a piece of art which is the best of its type
What is the difference between?
- A canvas and a sketch;
- A portrait and a landscape;
- Watercolour and oil paintings.
Fill in the chart.
Complete the charts.
1. )__ is an outstanding (a prominent, brilliant) English painter of century.
2. )__ is well-known as a portraitist.
__ is well-known as a landscape painter.
__ is well-known as a colourist.
__ is well-known as a humorist and satirist on canvas.
__ is well-known as a marine painter.
__ is well-known as a watercolour master.
3. )__ reflected the inner world of the sitter.
__ showed the scenes of social life.
__ portrayed the beauty of his native countryside.
__ depicted socially prominent people of that period.
__ painted the portraits of the most famous people.
__ depicted the sea, as it affected the ships, storms,
7. best works are (masterpieces/ paintings/ portraits/ landscapes).
Music in our life
Do you believe rock music can be harmful? Why or why not?
- music is often played loud and can damage people's hearing:
- it can make people aggressive:
- the words to the songs may cause negative emotions (sometimes the
texts are absolutely senseless):
- in Australia taped rock music is used to frighten the sharks off the
public beaches. Obviously, the sharks' nerves cannot endure such noise etc.
POSSITIVE HARMLESS EFFECTS
- it can make people feel excited and fit 11 of life, energy;
- it makes people want to dance:
- it stimulates their minds and gives people creative power:
- young people search for new rhythms and new styles;
- the words of the songs relate to the younger people world, their hopes,
dreams, disappointments, and joys;
- young people "get tremendous kick' listening to this kind of music etc.
Surprising power of music
Marane Sterbely was lying on a hospital bed waiting for her operation. She was hooked up to a computer that monitored her heart rate and brain waves. She was also hooked up, by earphones, to a CD of Vivaldi's The Four Seasons.
During the operation, the surgical team listened to Mozart and Brahms from another CD player. "Music reduces staff tension in the operating theatre", says Dr Clyde Nash, Marianne's surgeon, "and also helps to relax the patient".
Marianne claims the music was much better than medication. This was her
second operation and this time the music helped her to remain calm and she didn't need as much sedation. After the operation she was able to manage without pain killers simply by listening to music.
Nash is one of many doctors who are finding that music can help to heal the sick. But how does it help?
When the body is stressed, our heart beats faster, and we take in more air. Studies show that music can help us to reduce the effect of this by lowering our blood pressure and breathing rate. Music can also reduce pain by making our bodies produce endorphins (natural pain relievers).
The benefits of music are not confined to people who are ill. Music can help us in our daily lives. For example, playing a favourite song before an important exam or big match can allow us to relax and forget our worries. In this way we can face difficult situations with a calm heart and a dear mind.
1. Do you agree that music helps to ease pain during the operation?
2. What kind of music do you think really helps in this case?
3. Is music better than medication?
4. Does body depend on how our heart beats?
5. Have you ever experienced a great power of music for healing?
6. How can music help to overcome different problems in our daily life?
Write down a piece of information how music helped you in a difficult situation.
Read and retell the text
I love music, I think people can not live without it. The first thing I do in the morning I switch on my tape - recorder. We can hear music everywhere: in the streets, in the shops, on TV, over the radio, in the cars, in the parks, everywhere. I think it's really doesn't matter what kind of music you prefer: rock, pop, classical, jazz. A lot of people are fond of music. They buy tapes, go to the concerts, visit Concert Halls and Opera Theatres.
I enjoy listening music because it reflects my moods and emotions. Very often when I'm blue, I play my favourite merry songs and feel much better.
Sometimes I attend music halls and the concerts, when popular groups and singers are there. I like watching music programs on TV. I like to know more and more about popular talented groups and singers I like. One wall of my room is covered with posters of "Bon Jovi", "Scorpions", "Roxette", Russian singers Agutin, Sjutkin, Linda and others.
Some people go to music schools, they play different musical instruments, sing in the chorus, try to compose music.
Unfortunately there are so many ungifted singers on the stages, that it makes me sad. To have a good producer doesn't mean to have good ears and voice. I think that only talented people can claim to be singers.
Think and say what you associate with the term ‘terrorism’.
Possible mind map:
• Pre-listening task
T: You will listen to the letter written by a boy to the magazine "An End to Intolerance". What do you think you will hear about?
LIVING IN THE NEW CENTURY
There are no impossible things. Today it is even possible to ruin skyscrapers and to change the way of thinking of the whole nation. After 11 September we are living in a new world where the madness of some terrorists made the airplanes flying bombs. Maybe the half-destroyed Pentagon shows us that safety is just a word, imagination and dream. Even here in Bulgaria I cannot be sure that someday the American Embassy won't be destroyed. I expect worse scenarios like disasters caused by chemical or bacteriological weapons which don't choose whether you will die or not. My parents think the same way as I do. They also think we should buy gas masks and move to the village if something happens.
Perhaps the whole human race will have to unite against those terrorists, so I believe there is only one sure thing: mankind must put an end to war before war puts an end to mankind. After all we have to be optimistic. We should believe that some people still have brains in spite of the religious ideas, because instincts help humans to survive.
Europeans and Americans always talk about democracy and human rights, but why don't such people, the terrorists, use their right to explain and fix problems with their neighbours? Maybe they gore just mad. But I suspect that there is something wrong with our way of living or behaviour. Such problems must be fixed as soon as possible because the buildings will be still falling down, and the relatives will still be crying.
In this world one won't find safety anywhere. We all are potential victims, so we must improve the life on the planet; because if we don't help ourselves, there is nobody to do it.
T: Nowadays there are so many places in the world where innocent people suffer and die, where the buildings are destroyed, and where there is no peaceful place, no hope, no life. You know there exists an international organisation UN, the main task of which is to solve the international conflicts and to help people in difficult moments. I suggest that you divide into two groups, one of which will represent the victims of intolerant attitudes, and the other will work as the experts of UN listening to them and giving their opinions.
The situations for the victims:
-You were among the hostages in Moscow Theatre.
- You are a child from Chechnia. Your family had to leave the country.
- Your friend was in the Trade Centre in New York on September 11.
- You are from Iraq, a schoolboy of 15.
SI: I was among those who survived a nightmare. It seemed to be quite a usual and unusual day at the same time. I was having a nice evening at the theatre watching a famous popular musical. It was like a great holiday. Suddenly the holiday was over. The terrorists destroyed the holiday, the theatre and the people's lives. Those were innocent people, whose sufferings and deaths brought only grief to their families and friends. The terrorists took their lives. Did they "get anything in return? Did they achieve anything? Did they solve their problems?
S2:1 am from Chechnia. Together with my family I was a hostage in Budionovsk. I thank God we have survived;. Being a hostage has changed my thoughts about Good and Evil, my ideas and views about the world. In Chechnia I saw that human life is of no importance or value. If someone's goal is death, why then one causes death to thousands of innocent people in the world. Plenty of people die in Chechnia. The buildings are destroyed, the schools don't work. People have forgotten what a holiday is. Their life is in grey and black colours. The whole generation has grown up in such conditions. It's not human, we should stop it.
S3: "Why did it happen?" people ask themselves. The death toll is beyond our imagination.
We have always thought we were the most protected and safest country. Now we see we were wrong. My Friend worked in the Trade Centre and he perished in the ruins. I will never see him again. This unbelievable tragedy has changed our lives, the words we use, the way we think.
From this moment I believe that I live in danger and such nightmares can happen not only in films but also in real life.
S4: I am from Iraq. I live with my family in a small town. I attend school, my father works, and my mother takes care of the family. We are doing nothing wrong. I heard that our time is called "the age of Muslim wars". I should say that my religion doesn't teach people to kill others. I also want to live in peace, I don't want my town to be destroyed with bombs, I don't want war. It is not humane. It should be stopped.
The samples of the experts ' answers:
S1: Long time ago terrorism appeared in our society, and now it is one of the burning and terrible problems. As every problem it has got reasons and must have the solution. From my point of view the terrorist acts are undertaken by the people who can't or don't even want to look for a peaceful wise solution to the problem.
The harm caused by the terrorist acts is huge. The worst thing here is that innocent people usually suffer or are even murdered.
In September 2001, the whole world was shocked, frightened, and looked in despair at the ruins of the Trade Centre. I think that the terrorist act was directed riot against the USA, but the whole world. The aim was to threaten, to fill the hearts of all people on the Earth with fear.
• LESSON 12
• Mass Media: Radio and Television
Radio is one of the most important means of communication. Radio broadcasts feature music, news, interviews, discussions, descriptions of sports events, advertising.
There are more than 25.000 radio stations and more than 1.750 millions of radios in the world. A major reason for the widespread use of radio is its portability. It means that a radio can be carried around easily. People like to listen to it in homes, at beaches and picnics, while walking down the street or driving a car
. Music is the chief kind of radio entertainment. Usually, stations specialize in one kind of music such as rock, classical, country, etc. Such stations have disc jockeys who introduce and comment on the music.
Programs that provide information include newscasts, talk shows, and descriptions of sport events. Newscasts may include weather forecasts, traffic reports and stock market information. Talk shows present discussions on current political topics such as an election or government policy or on a social issue, such as crime, pollution, poverty, racism, or sexism. Each show has a host or hostess who leads the discussion. Listeners are invited to telephone the stations to ask question or give their opinion about the topic. Most of the games played by major league baseball, basketball, and hockey teams in the US and Canada are broadcast on radio.
Television, also called TV, is one of our most important means of communication. It brings moving pictures and sounds from around the world into millions of homes.
Commercial TV stations broadcast mostly entertainment programs because they must attract larger numbers of viewers in order to sell advertising time at high prices. These programs include light dramas called situation comedies; action-packed dramas about life of detectives, police officers, lawyers and doctors; shows featuring comedians, dancers and singers; movies; quiz shows; soap operas; cartoons. Commercial TV broadcasts also documentaries and talk shows. Documentary is dramatic, but nonfictional presentation of information. It can be programs about people, animals in faraway places or programs on such issues as alcoholism, drug abuse, racial prejudice. On talk shows a host interviews politicians, TV and movie stars, athletes, authors. There are also sport programs and brief summaries of local, national and international news. Advertising is an important part of commercial TV. Commercials appear between and during most programs. They urge viewers to buy different kinds of products - from dog food to hair spray, and from cars to insurance policies.
Public television focuses mainly on education and culture. There are programs on wide range of subjects - from physics and literature to cooking and yoga. Public TV also broadcasts plays, ballets, symphonies as well as programs about art and history. Public TV attracts less viewers than commercial TV.
Mass Media: newspapers and magazines
Newspaper is a publication that presents and comments on the news. Newspapers play an important role in shaping public opinion and informing people of current events.
Newspapers have certain advantages over other mass media - magazines, TV and radio. Newspaper can cover more news and in much detail than TV or radio newscast can do. Magazines focus on major national and international events of the preceding week. But newspaper focuses on local news as well and provides information and comments faster than magazine can do.
There are daily newspapers and weekly newspapers. Daily newspapers print world, national and local news. Many dailies are morning papers, others are afternoon papers. Sunday issues of the dailies are usually larger than the weekday ones. They may include special sections on such topics as entertainment, finance and travel or Sunday magazine, a guide to TV programmes, colored comics. The major dailies in the US are "Christian Science Monitor", "New York Times", "USA Today", "Wall Street Journal", "Washington Post".
Weekly newspapers serve usually for smaller areas. They are printed in small communities where people know each other and are interested in activities of their friends and neighbors. Weeklies report of weddings, births, deaths and news of local business and politics. Most weeklies do not print world or national news.
Magazine is a collection of articles and stories. Usually magazines also contain illustrations.
Magazines provide information on a wide range of topics such as business, culture, hobbies, medicine, religion, science and sports. Some magazines entertain their readers with fiction, poetry, photography, or articles about TV or movie stars.
There are specialized magazines intended for special business, industrial and professional groups, and consumer magazines intended for general public. There are several kinds of consumer magazines.
Children's magazines contain stories, jokes and articles on subjects especially interesting for children and instructions for making games or useful items.
Hobby magazines are intended for collectors of coins, stamps and other items; people interested in certain sports or games; photography enthusiasts.
Intellectual magazines provide analysis of current cultural and political events. Many of them publish fiction and poetry as well.
Men's magazines focus on such topics as adventure, entertainment, men's fashion, and sports.
Women's magazines deal with child-raising, fashion trends, romance. They offer ideas on cooking and home decorating. Many of the monthlies with big circulations are women's magazines.
A mobile phone (also called mobile, cellular telephone, or cell phone) is an electronic device used to make mobile telephone calls across a wide geographic area. Mobile phones are different from cordless telephones, which only offer telephone service within a limited range of a fixed land line, for example within a home or an office.
A mobile phone can make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and fixed-line phones across the world. It does this by connecting to a cellular network owned by a mobile network operator.
In addition to being a telephone, modern mobile phones also support many additional services, and accessories, such as SMS (or text) messages, e-mail, Internet access, gaming, Bluetooth and infrared short range wireless communication, camera, MMS messaging, MP3 player, radio and GPS. Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones, whereas high-end mobile phones that offer more advanced computing ability are referred to as smartphones.
The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kg. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first to be commercially available. In the twenty years from 1990 to 2010, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 4.6 billion, penetrating the developing economies and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid.
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