Спеціальності: Cоціальна педагогіка/робота; Психологія; Історія, )


Спеціальності: Cоціальна педагогіка/робота; Психологія; Історія, )

ІІ семестр

Task І: Read the text and do exercises below

Good Manners in Business

 

Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global village, but how well do we know and understand each other? Here is a simple test. Imagine you have arranged a meeting at four o'clock. What time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive? If they're German, they'll be bang on time. If they're American, they'll probably be 15 minutes early. If they're British, they'll be 15 minutes late, and you should allow up to an hour for the Italians.

When the European Economic Community began to increase, several guidebooks appeared giving advice on international etiquette. At first many people thought this was a joke, especially the British, who seemed to assume that the widespread understanding of their language meant a corresponding understanding of English customs. Very soon they had to change their ideas, as they realized that they had a lot to learn about how to behave with their foreign business partners.

For example: The British are happy to discuss business matters with a drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work while eating. Lunch is a time to relax and get to know one another, and they rarely drink at lunchtime. The Germans like to talk business before dinner; the French like to eat first and talk afterwards. They have to be well fed and watered before they discuss anything.

Taking off your jacket and rolling up your sleeves is a sign of getting down to work in Britain and Holland, but in Germany people regard it as taking it easy. American executives sometimes signal their feelings of ease and importance in their offices by putting their feet on the desk whilst on the telephone. In Japan people would be shocked. Showing the soles of your feet is the height of bad manners. It is a social insult only exceeded by blowing your nose in public.

The Japanese have perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behavior. Seniority is very important, and a younger man should never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. The Japanese business card almost needs a rulebook of its own. You must exchange business cards immediately on meeting because it is essential to establish everyone's status and position. When the business card is handed to a person in a superior position, it must be given and received with both hands, and you must take time to read it carefully and not just put it in your pocket! Also the bow is a very important part of greeting someone. You should not expect the Japanese to shake hands with you. Bowing the head is a mark of respect, and the first bow of the day should be lower than when you meet thereafter.

The Americans sometimes find it difficult to accept the more formal Japanese manners. They prefer to be casual and more informal, as illustrated by the universal "Have a nice day!"

The British, of course, are cool and reserved. The great topic of conversation between strangers in Britain is the weather — unemotional and impersonal. In America the main topic between strangers is the search to find a geographical link. "Oh, really? You live in Ohio? I had an uncle who once worked there."

"When in Rome, do as the Romans do." Here are some final tips for travellers.
• In France you shouldn't sit down in a cafe until you've shaken hands with everyone you know.
• In Afghanistan you should spend at least five minutes saying hello.

• In Pakistan you mustn't wink. It is offensive.
• In the Middle East you must never use the left hand for greeting, eating, drinking, or smoking. Also, you should take care not to admire anything in your hosts' home. They will feel that they have to give it to you.
• In Russia you must match your hosts drink for drink or they will think you are unfriendly.
• In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your head when you greet someone.
• In America you should eat your hamburger with both hands and as quickly as possible. You shouldn't try to have a conversation until it is eaten.

Vocabulary
to be bang on time — прибыть как раз вовремя
widespread — широко распространненый
custom — обычай
take it easy — не торопитесь, не спешите, относитесь спокойно, принимайте близко к сердцу
executive — руководитель, администратор фирмы
feeling of ease — чувство непринужденности
to exceed — превышать, выходить за пределы
casual — небрежный
cool — хладнокровный, невозмутимый
tip — совет
to clasp — сложить

Ex. 1 Choose the proper answer.

1. The Japanese prefer _______ during eating.

a) to run business; b) to keep silence; c) to relax; d) to drink

2. The German comes usually _______ to an appointment.

a) 15 minutes early; b) half an hour later; c) bang on time; d) after the dinner

3. The American businessmen show their feelings of ease and importance by ________.

a) rolling up their sleeves; b) talking a lot about geographical link;

c) drinking and eating; d) putting their feet on the desk

4. One of the strangest traditions in Russia is _______.

a) being late for a meeting; b) shaking hands with somebody when greeting; c) drinking for drinking with a host; d) admiring somebody or something in a host’s house

5. In Holland people express their readiness for work by _______.

a) showing the soles of their feet; b) rolling up their sleeves; c) exchanging business cards; d) discussing something

6. The British seemed to assume that the widespread understanding of their _______ meant understanding of their customs.

a) traditions; b) ideas; c) culture; d) language

7. When you exchange business cards with the Japanese you should _______.

a) read it carefully; b) give and receive it with both hands; c) wink to your business partner; d) clasp your hands together.

8. In conversation the British as a rule _______.

a) Attentive; b) emotional and personal; c) reserved and cool; d) polite

 

Ex. 2 Correct the mistakes in sentences.

1. In Afghanistan you shouldn’t say hello meeting.

2. The American people eat their hamburgers with both hands and slowly.

3. The British are usually very casual and easy-going.

4. The Japanese shake hands for 5 minutes with their business partners.

5. In Japan people take showing the soles of ones feet as a worse insult than blowing ones nose in public.

6. The French like to talk business before dinner.

7. In the Middle East you should greet, drink, eat or smoke only with the left hand.

8. The Italians come to a meeting 10 minutes later sometimes.

Ex. 3 Give English equivalents and write your sentences with them.

Хлопать; моргать; кланяться; сморкаться; здороваться за руку; приветствовать; хвалить; закатывать рукава; обмениваться; руководство; вовремя; быть смытым; общественное оскорбление; поведение; немедленно; приступать к делу; обычай; совет; соответствовать.

Ex. 4 Match parts of the sentences.

1. Seniority is very important… 2. When the European Community began to increase in size… 3. Bowing the head is a mark of respect… 4. The British are happy … 5. American executives sometimes signal their feelings of ease… 6. You must exchange business cards immediately on meeting … 7. The great topic of conversation between strangers in Britain… 8. In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your head and your eyes…   a) …several guidebooks appeared giving advice on international etiquette. b) …to have a business lunch and discuss business matters with a drink the meal. c) …by putting their feet on the desk whilst on the telephone. d) …end a younger man should never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. e) …because it is so essential to establish everyone’s status and position. f) …and the first bow of the day should be lower than when you meet thereafter. g) …is the weather – unemotional and impersonal. h) …when you greet someone.    

Ex. 3 Give English equivalents to the Russian words and make sentences with them.

Связи (люди); должностное лицо; зарабатывать; льготы; конечный срок; переговоры; окружающая обстановка; достоинства; вакансия; предоставлять; творческий; обязательства; привыкнуть; переносить; предыдущий; конкурентоспособный.

 

Social pedagogy

One of the first key thinkers, Paul Natorp, “claimed that all pedagogy should be social, that is, that in the philosophy of education the interaction of educational processes and society must be taken into consideration”. His social pedagogic theories were influenced by Plato’s doctrine of ideas, together with Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative of treating people as subjects in their own rights instead of treating them as means to an end, and Pestalozzi’s method.

In the 1920s, with influential educationalists such as Herman Nohl, German social pedagogy was interpreted from a hermeneutical perspective, which acknowledged that an individual’s life and their problems can only be understood through their eyes and in their social context, by understanding how the individual interacts with their social environment. Following World War II and the experiences within National Socialism that exposed the dangers of collective education in the hands of a totalitarian state, social pedagogy “became more critical, revealing a critical attitude towards society and taking the structural factors of society that produce social suffering into consideration”.[2] Consequently, contemporary social pedagogy in Germany is as a discipline linked more closely to social work and sociology than to psychology.

Due to different historical developments and cultural notions, social pedagogy has very different traditions in other countries, although these are connected through the overarching core principles of social pedagogy. And even within one country, there is not the pedagogic approach – within the general discipline pedagogy we can distinguish various approaches. Some of these are named after key thinkers like Frobel or Montessori who have created a very specific pedagogic concept for the context of their work, while others are termed according to the medium they are utilizing, such as adventure, play, circus, music, or theatre pedagogy.

 

Спеціальність: Історія

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is the earliest known history of England written in the English language. It was probably first compiled at the behest of King Alfred (848/9 to 899), and distributed to monasteries throughout the land for copying in around 892, after which each copy was kept up to date by a member of the monastic community.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is the oldest history of any European country in a vernacular language. It begins with the birth of Christ and, in most versions, the entries cease soon after the Norman Conquest in 1066. However one version continued until as late as 1154. The court origins of the Chronicle mean that its early entries are essentially an official history of the West Saxon royal dynasty (although some Mercian material is drawn upon), but from the late 10th century, the entries made in the various versions kept in different monasteries became increasingly independent.

Eight manuscripts of the Chronicle have survived, of which six are in the British Library. This manuscript formerly belonged to Abingdon Abbey - it gives local information about Abingdon, strongly suggesting that it was also written there. It was written in about 1046 and contains additions to 1066. The pages shown here contain entries for the years 824 to 833.

 

 

Спеціальність: Психологія

Popularizing Behaviorism

A professor of psychology at Johns Hopkins University (1908–1920), Watson is often listed as one of the most influential psychologists of the twentieth century; his work is standard material in most introductory psychology and educational psychology texts. Yet his academic career was brief, lasting for only fourteen years, and his legacy has been hotly debated for nearly a century. Watson helped define the study of behavior, anticipated Skinner's emphasis on operant conditioning, and emphasized the importance of learning and environmental influences in human development. Watson's often harsh criticism of Sigmund Freud has been given credit for helping to disseminate principles of Freudian psychoanalysis. Watson is widely known for the Little Albert study and his "dozen healthy infants" quote.

John B. Watson is generally given credit for creating and popularizing the term behaviorism with the publication of his seminal 1913 article "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It." In the article, Watson argued that psychology had failed in its quest to become a natural science, largely due to a focus on consciousness and other unseen phenomena. Rather than study these unverifiable ideas, Watson urged the careful scientific study of observable behavior. His view of behaviorism was a reaction to introspection, where each researcher served as his or her own research subject, and the study of consciousness by Freud and others, which Watson believed to be highly subjective and unscientific.

In response to introspection, Watson and other early behaviorists believed that controlled laboratory studies were the most effective way to study learning. With this approach, manipulation of the learner's environment was the key to fostering development. This approach stands in contrast to techniques that placed the emphasis for learning in the mind of the learner. The 1913 article is often given credit for the founding of behaviorism, but it had a minor impact after its publication. His popular 1919 psychology text is probably more responsible for introducing behaviorist principles to a generation of future scholars of learning. In this way, Watson prepared psychologists and educators for the highly influential work of Skinner and other radical behaviorists in subsequent decades.

 

План анотації

(Annotation)

  1. Назва статті (матеріалу):The title of the article (material) is…

The head-line of the article (material) is…

 

  1. Автор статті (матеріалу):The author of the given article is…

The material is written by…

  1. Джерело інформації (місце, дата видання):The article was published

in “The Times”, 7th June, 2005.

The source of the material is…

  1. Короткий зміст статті:The plot of the article:…

The article is about…

The material is devoted to…

The article deals with…

The author in the article raises a very serious (important, urgent) problem, concerning…

 

  1. Структура статті (кількість абзаців, послідовність викладання матеріалу):The article consists of 3 paragraphs.

At first the author tells about… (Firstly…)

Next (then) he/she gives information about…

Finally (in the end of the article) the narrator concludes that…

 

  1. Цільова аудиторія:The article is written (prepared) mostly for…

It is going to be interesting for…

 

Спеціальності: Cоціальна педагогіка/робота; Психологія; Історія, )

ІІ семестр

Task І: Read the text and do exercises below

Good Manners in Business

 

Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global village, but how well do we know and understand each other? Here is a simple test. Imagine you have arranged a meeting at four o'clock. What time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive? If they're German, they'll be bang on time. If they're American, they'll probably be 15 minutes early. If they're British, they'll be 15 minutes late, and you should allow up to an hour for the Italians.

When the European Economic Community began to increase, several guidebooks appeared giving advice on international etiquette. At first many people thought this was a joke, especially the British, who seemed to assume that the widespread understanding of their language meant a corresponding understanding of English customs. Very soon they had to change their ideas, as they realized that they had a lot to learn about how to behave with their foreign business partners.

For example: The British are happy to discuss business matters with a drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work while eating. Lunch is a time to relax and get to know one another, and they rarely drink at lunchtime. The Germans like to talk business before dinner; the French like to eat first and talk afterwards. They have to be well fed and watered before they discuss anything.

Taking off your jacket and rolling up your sleeves is a sign of getting down to work in Britain and Holland, but in Germany people regard it as taking it easy. American executives sometimes signal their feelings of ease and importance in their offices by putting their feet on the desk whilst on the telephone. In Japan people would be shocked. Showing the soles of your feet is the height of bad manners. It is a social insult only exceeded by blowing your nose in public.

The Japanese have perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behavior. Seniority is very important, and a younger man should never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. The Japanese business card almost needs a rulebook of its own. You must exchange business cards immediately on meeting because it is essential to establish everyone's status and position. When the business card is handed to a person in a superior position, it must be given and received with both hands, and you must take time to read it carefully and not just put it in your pocket! Also the bow is a very important part of greeting someone. You should not expect the Japanese to shake hands with you. Bowing the head is a mark of respect, and the first bow of the day should be lower than when you meet thereafter.

The Americans sometimes find it difficult to accept the more formal Japanese manners. They prefer to be casual and more informal, as illustrated by the universal "Have a nice day!"

The British, of course, are cool and reserved. The great topic of conversation between strangers in Britain is the weather — unemotional and impersonal. In America the main topic between strangers is the search to find a geographical link. "Oh, really? You live in Ohio? I had an uncle who once worked there."

"When in Rome, do as the Romans do." Here are some final tips for travellers.
• In France you shouldn't sit down in a cafe until you've shaken hands with everyone you know.
• In Afghanistan you should spend at least five minutes saying hello.

• In Pakistan you mustn't wink. It is offensive.
• In the Middle East you must never use the left hand for greeting, eating, drinking, or smoking. Also, you should take care not to admire anything in your hosts' home. They will feel that they have to give it to you.
• In Russia you must match your hosts drink for drink or they will think you are unfriendly.
• In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your head when you greet someone.
• In America you should eat your hamburger with both hands and as quickly as possible. You shouldn't try to have a conversation until it is eaten.

Vocabulary
to be bang on time — прибыть как раз вовремя
widespread — широко распространненый
custom — обычай
take it easy — не торопитесь, не спешите, относитесь спокойно, принимайте близко к сердцу
executive — руководитель, администратор фирмы
feeling of ease — чувство непринужденности
to exceed — превышать, выходить за пределы
casual — небрежный
cool — хладнокровный, невозмутимый
tip — совет
to clasp — сложить









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