State Power Institutions in Ukraine: The System of Judicial Authority
1. Answer the questions:
1. What bodies represent the judicial power in Ukraine? 2. What powers are watched over by the judicial one? 3. What bodies carry legal proceedings in Ukraine? 4. What is the supreme authority of the system of courts of general jurisdiction? 5. What is the system of courts of general jurisdiction based on? 6. Speak on the Constitutional Court of Ukraine as a separate entity.
2. Match the political terms listed up in column A with the definitions provided in column B.
3. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Суб’єкт, суть, юридична особа; визначений Конституцією; наглядати за владою; юридична справа;
суди загальної юрисдикції; касація; контрольний орган; підтримувати, підвищувати конституційний контроль в усіх сферах; зміцнювати конституційний порядок; принцип верховенства права.
4. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Supervisory authority; to be outlined by the Constitution; promote constitutional control in all spheres; watch over the power; legal proceeding; courts of general jurisdiction; entity; cassation; supervisory authority; promote constitutional control in all spheres; strengthen the constitutional order; principle of primacy of law/ the rule of law.
5. Develop the idea
1. The judicial power is represented by … 2. Legal proceedings are carried out by… 3. The supreme authority of the system of courts of general jurisdiction is … 4. Courts’ jurisdiction covers … 5. The Constitutional Court of Ukraine is … 6. The activities of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine promote …
The reported speech is used:
'Iwill not come to the College tomorrow. She said (that) she would not come to the College the next day.
'This is the first bad letter we've had this month. He said (that) that was the first bad letter they had that month.
Can we send you these documents today? She asked whether she could send us those documents the same day.
'Will you for this year, please? They asked whether we would count our good/high grades for that year.
Are you seeing my mates next week? She wanted to know if they were seeing her mates the week after.
Which of the two grammar Tests is this year's?' They wanted to know which of the two grammar Tests of accounts was that year's.
Observe the Sequence of Tenses:
When the reporting verb is simple present, present perfect, or future, the verb in the clause is not changed.
He says, ‘I listen to the music every day.’ ? He says he listens to the music every day.
He has said, ‘I listen to the music every day.’ He has said (that) he listens to the music every day.
He will say, ‘I listen to the music every day.’ He will say (that) he listens to the music every day.
some pronouns, adverbs and words that indicate the time of acting are changed as follows:
Quoted (or Direct) Speech→Reported Speech
a) They change to the when used as adjectives, that is, when they are followed by a noun. E.g. ‘This film is boring,’ Clare told me. – Clare told me that the film was boring.
b) They change to it or they/them when used as pronouns, that is, when they are not followed by a noun. E.g. ‘Thisis an unusual situation,’ Dad said – Dad said (that) itwas an unusual situation.
Would, could, might, should, ought to, had better, used toand mustn’t do not change.Must does not change when it expresses a logical assumption. E.g. a) ‘I might talk to her,’ she said. - She said (that) she might talk to her. b) ‘You must be tired,’ Paul told Susan. - Paul told Susan (that) she must be tired.
An imperative sentence is changed to an infinitive
The Table of Rules
He asked (me) He asked (me)
-"Where are you" - where I was
-"Where were you?" - where I had been
-"Where have you been? - where I had been
-"Where had you been? - where I had been
-"Where will you be? - where I would be
-"Are you at home?" - whether I was at home.
The Passive Voice
The passive is formed with the appropriate tense of the verb to be + past participle (V3). Only transitive verbs (which take an object) can be put into the passive.
· The present continuous,the past perfect continuous, the future perfect continuousand the future continuous are normally not used in the passive.
· The verb to get is used instead of to be in every day speech when we talk about things that happen by accident or unexpectedly. E.g. Four people got hurt in the car crash.
We use the passive:
a) when the person who carries out the action is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context. E.g. a) My flat was broken into last week. (We do not know who broke into the flat.) b) Coffee beans are grown in Brazil. (It is not important to know who grows the coffee.) c) My car was serviced yesterday. (It is obvious that a mechanic serviced it.)
b) When the action itself is more important that the person who carries it out, as in news headlines, newspaper articles, formal notices, instructions, advertisements, processes, scientific literature, etc. E.g. a) The new hospital will be opened by the Queen on May 15th. (formal notice) b) Then, the milk is taken to a factory where it is pasteurized.(process)
c) when we refer to an unpleasant event and we do not want to say who or what is to blame. E.g. A lot of mistakes have been made. (instead of ‘You have made a lot of mistakes.’)
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