State Power Institutions in Ukraine: The System of Judicial Authority


1. Answer the questions:

1. What bodies represent the judicial power in Ukraine? 2. What powers are watched over by the judicial one? 3. What bodies carry legal proceedings in Ukraine? 4. What is the supreme authority of the system of courts of general jurisdiction? 5. What is the system of courts of general jurisdiction based on? 6. Speak on the Constitutional Court of Ukraine as a separate entity.

2. Match the political terms listed up in column A with the definitions provided in column B.

A B
1. judicial; a. pertaining to or proper to courts of law or the administration of justice/ relative to judgement;
2. court; b. established or authorized by law;
3. jurisdiction; c. the transfer of a case from a lower to a higher court for a new hearing;
4. legal; d. body of persons appointed to hear and submit a decision on legal cases;
5. appeal, n. e. the authority to interpret and apply the law.

3. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

Суб’єкт, суть, юридична особа; визначений Конституцією; наглядати за владою; юридична справа;

суди загальної юрисдикції; касація; контрольний орган; підтримувати, підвищувати конституційний контроль в усіх сферах; зміцнювати конституційний порядок; принцип верховенства права.

4. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:

Supervisory authority; to be outlined by the Constitution; promote constitutional control in all spheres; watch over the power; legal proceeding; courts of general jurisdiction; entity; cassation; supervisory authority; promote constitutional control in all spheres; strengthen the constitutional order; principle of primacy of law/ the rule of law.

5. Develop the idea

1. The judicial power is represented by … 2. Legal proceedings are carried out by… 3. The supreme authority of the system of courts of general jurisdiction is … 4. Courts’ jurisdiction covers … 5. The Constitutional Court of Ukraine is … 6. The activities of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine promote …

 

Grammar Supplement

Reported Speech

The reported speech is used:

In statements:

'Iwill not come to the College tomorrow. She said (that) she would not come to the College the next day.

'This is the first bad letter we've had this month. He said (that) that was the first bad letter they had that month.

In requests:

Can we send you these documents today? She asked whether she could send us those documents the same day.

'Will you for this year, please? They asked whether we would count our good/high grades for that year.

In questions:

Are you seeing my mates next week? She wanted to know if they were seeing her mates the week after.

Which of the two grammar Tests is this year's?' They wanted to know which of the two grammar Tests of accounts was that year's.

Observe the Sequence of Tenses:

  Simple Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous
Past   (→)  
Present
Future
Future-in-the-Past        
(a) She said," I make a deal every week". She said (that) she made a deal every day.
(b) She said," I am making a deal today". (c) She said," I have made a good deal". (d) She said," I made a deal last week". (e) She said," I will make a deal soon". (f) She said," I am going to make a deal in May". She said she was making a deal that day. She said she had made a good deal. She said she had made a deal the previous week. She said she would make a deal soon. She said she was going to make a deal in May.
(g) She said," I can make a deal with the firm". (h) She said," I may make a deal myself'. (i) She said," I have to make a deal". (j) She said," I must make a deal right now". (k) She said," I should make a deal with them". (l) She said," I ought to make a deal". (m) She said, "Mr. Waterman, make a deal". (n) She said," Do you often make deals?" (o) She said," I might make a deal". She said she could make a deal with the firm. She said she might make a deal herself. She said she had to make a deal. She said she had to make a deal right then. She said she should make a deal with them. She said she ought to make a deal. She told (asked) him to make a deal. She asked me (she wondered) if I often made deals. She said she might make a deal.

When the reporting verb is simple present, present perfect, or future, the verb in the clause is not changed.

He says, ‘I listen to the music every day.’ ? He says he listens to the music every day.

He has said, ‘I listen to the music every day.’ He has said (that) he listens to the music every day.



He will say, ‘I listen to the music every day.’ He will say (that) he listens to the music every day.

some pronouns, adverbs and words that indicate the time of acting are changed as follows:

Quoted (or Direct) SpeechReported Speech

this, these → that, those (time expressions) the day after tomorrow → two days later the day before yesterday → two days before
today → that day tonight → that night this week → that week here → there come → go last → the previous / before last week – the week before, the previous week
tomorrow → the next day/the following day     following day in (a week) → (a week) later yesterday → the day before
next → the following now → then ago → before
  • When this/these are used in time expressions, they change to that/those. E.g. thisweek –that week; these days – those days
  • When this/these are not used in time expressions, they change as follows:

a) They change to the when used as adjectives, that is, when they are followed by a noun. E.g.This film is boring,’ Clare told me. – Clare told me that the film was boring.

b) They change to it or they/them when used as pronouns, that is, when they are not followed by a noun. E.g.Thisis an unusual situation,’ Dad said – Dad said (that) itwas an unusual situation.

Would, could, might, should, ought to, had better, used toand mustn’t do not change.Must does not change when it expresses a logical assumption. E.g. a) ‘I might talk to her,’ she said. - She said (that) she might talk to her. b) ‘You must be tired,’ Paul told Susan. - Paul told Susan (that) she must be tired.

An imperative sentence is changed to an infinitive

The Table of Rules

Direct Speech Reported Speech Rules
General / Yes; No questions
She asked him, "Do you want to dance?" He asked me, "Are you tired?" "Do you like coffee?" he asked. She asked him if he Wanted to dance. he asked me if I was tired. He asked whether I liked coffee. Remove do or did. Add if. Change present verbs to past. Change order of subject and auxiliary. Change personal pronouns.
Special / Information questions
Tom asked Joan, "When do you go to the College?" He asked / required Joan when she went to the College. Remove do ordid. Change present verb to past. Change personal pronouns.
Positive Commands
"Eat slowly," he said to me. He told / ordered / recommended me to eat slowly. Use told + person spoken to + infinitive verb. Change personal pronouns.
Negative commands
Jane said to her friend, "Don't drop out of school." Jane told her friend not to drop out of school. Use not before infinitive verb.
Please, ............. do it!
"Please, please, don't go", he said to me. He begged me not to go. Change personal pronouns. Use beg.
Suggestions
‘How about going to the cinema?’ I said to them. I suggested going to the cinema. Use suggest – V-ing.
Conversational formulas
She said to them, "How do you do?" She said to them, "Happy to see you at my place." He said to them, "Good-bye!" She said to them, "Good night!" She greeted them. She welcomed them. He bade them. She wished them good night. Use the verb 'greet'. Use the verb 'welcome'. Use the verb 'bid'. Use the verb 'wish'.
Statements
He said, "I will teach you how to skate." He said / offered (that) he would teach me how to skate. Change personal pronouns. Add that. Change present v. to past.
       

Reported Questions

He asked (me) He asked (me)

-"Where are you" - where I was

-"Where were you?" - where I had been

-"Where have you been? - where I had been

-"Where had you been? - where I had been

-"Where will you be? - where I would be

-"Are you at home?" - whether I was at home.

The Passive Voice

The passive is formed with the appropriate tense of the verb to be + past participle (V3). Only transitive verbs (which take an object) can be put into the passive.

  Present Past Future
Simple am S is Past Participle (V3) are   S was Past Participle (V3) were   S will be Past Participle (V3)
Conti- nuous am S is being PP (V3) are   S was being PP (V3) were - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Perfect have S has been PP (V3)   S had been PP (V3)   S will have been PP (V3)

The Passive

  Active Passive
Present Simple He delivers the parcels. The parcels are delivered.
Present Continuous He is delivering the parcels. The parcels are being delivered.
Present Perfect He has delivered the parcels. The parcels have been delivered.
Past Simple He delivered the parcels. The parcels were delivered.
Past Continuous He was delivering the parcels. The parcels were being delivered.
Past Perfect He had delivered the parcels. The parcels had been delivered.
Future Simple He will deliver the parcels. The parcels will be delivered.
Future Perfect He will have delivered the parcels. The parcels will have been delivered.
Present Infinitive He must deliver the parcels. The parcels must be delivered.
Perfect Infinitive He must have delivered the parcels. The parcels must have been delivered.
Simple –ing form I object to his delivering the parcels. I object to parcels being delivered.
Perfect –ing form Having delivered the parcels The parcels having been delivered…

· The present continuous,the past perfect continuous, the future perfect continuousand the future continuous are normally not used in the passive.

· The verb to get is used instead of to be in every day speech when we talk about things that happen by accident or unexpectedly. E.g. Four people got hurt in the car crash.

Use

We use the passive:

a) when the person who carries out the action is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context. E.g. a) My flat was broken into last week. (We do not know who broke into the flat.) b) Coffee beans are grown in Brazil. (It is not important to know who grows the coffee.) c) My car was serviced yesterday. (It is obvious that a mechanic serviced it.)

b) When the action itself is more important that the person who carries it out, as in news headlines, newspaper articles, formal notices, instructions, advertisements, processes, scientific literature, etc. E.g. a) The new hospital will be opened by the Queen on May 15th. (formal notice) b) Then, the milk is taken to a factory where it is pasteurized.(process)

c) when we refer to an unpleasant event and we do not want to say who or what is to blame. E.g. A lot of mistakes have been made. (instead of ‘You have made a lot of mistakes.’)









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