The United States of America. Making Laws


Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):

΄option pro΄vision ,appro΄priation

΄reconcile a΄djourn ,characte΄ristics

΄schedule a΄ssume ,organi΄zation

΄tantamount de΄feat ,intro΄duction

΄agriculture ex΄pire ,presen΄tation

΄signature ig΄nore ,par,tici΄pation

΄legislature ne΄gate ,legi΄slation

΄conference re΄fer co΄mmittee

B) Complete the word building table.

Verb Noun Noun / Verb Adjective
- action action
- appropriation appropriation
to adjourn option
to assume to designate
to designate to ignore
to expire to negate
to ignore to reconcile
to negate provision
to reconcile support
to refer exception
to revise - major

1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.

action to take prompt action to be out of action to put into action to bring / institute / take an action against smb for smth дія, вчинок, акція; діяльність, робота; вплив; позов; прийняти негайні міри; не працювати; вийти зі строю; вводити в дію; порушити справу проти когось;
appropriation [ə,prəupri´ei∫(ə)n]   appropriation of property executive appropriations Appropriation Bill привласнення, незаконне придбання; асигнування, виділення коштів; асигновані кошти; привласнення майна; асигнування на потреби апарата виконавчої влади; фінансовий законопроект;
floor [flo:] House floor to ask for the floor to be on the floor to give the floor to have the floor to take the floor місця в залі засідань; аудиторія, публіка Палата представників; просити слова; обговорювати, стояти на обговоренні; дати слово; виступати; брати слово;
option[΄op∫(ə)n] soft option option of fine with / without the option (of a fine) to keep smb's options open вибір, право вибору (заміни); предмет вибору; оптація; легкий вибір; право заміни ув’язнення на штраф; з правом / без права вибору (штрафу); залишити за собою право вибору;
provision[prə´viЗ(ə)n] treaty provisions to make provision against smth provision of law constitutional provision запобіжний захід, застереження; положення, умова; умови договору; прийняти міри застереження; норма права; норма закону; положення конституції, конституційна норма;
to act to act at one's authority to act legally діяти, працювати; прикидатися, удавати; впливати; діяти на свій ризик; діяти правомірно, законно;
to adjourn [ə´dЗə:n]   to adjourn the court to adjourn the trial відстрочувати, відкладати; перенести засідання (в інше місце); оголошувати перерву, припиняти; відкладати засідання суду; відстрочувати судовий розгляд;
to assume [ə´sju:m]   to assume control to assume office to assume responsibility набувати, приймати, брати на себе; вживати (заходів); присвоювати, узурпувати; вважати, припускати; взяти на себе керівництво; вступити на посаду; взяти на себе відповідальність;
to defeat [di´fi:t]   to defeat decisively to defeat a motion to defeat the action to defeat the course of justice to defeat the law завдати поразки, розбивати; знищувати, відміняти, анулювати; приводити до невдачі в справах; провалити; завдати вирішальної поразки, відхилити клопотання; надати достатні заперечення за позовом; завадити інтересам правосуддя; перешкоджати здійсненню законності;
to designate [´dezigneit]   to designate specifically designate smb. for a post визначати, встановлювати; позначати, називати; означати; призначати (на посаду); дати конкретне визначення; призначити когось на посаду;
to draw [dro:]   to draw up привертати, притягувати, збирати; вибирати; здобувати, діставати; складати (документ)
to expire [i/ək´spaiə]   When does your driving licence expire? закінчуватися (про строк); втрачати силу (чинність) (про закон); Коли закінчується строк дії твоїх водійських прав?
to ignore [ig´no:]   to ignore completely / totally не звертати уваги, не помічати; відхиляти (скаргу, законопроект); повністю ігнорувати;
to kill to kill the amendment розгромити, провалити; руйнувати; анулювати поправку;
to negate [ni´geit]   to negate novelty заперечувати існування, відкидати; зводити нанівець, спростовувати; заперечувати новизну;
to reconcile [´rekənsail]   to reconcile the factions to reconcile her with her family reconciled to hardship to reconcile oneself to one's fate / lot мирити, улагоджувати, урегульовувати; примирити; узгоджувати, погоджувати (думки); мирити ворожі фракції; примирити її з родиною; звиклий до труднощів; змиритися з долею;
to refer [ri´fə:]   to refer to arbitration відсилати, спрямовувати; звертатися, приписувати; направляти; посилатися; передати в арбітраж;
to revise [ri´vaiz] to revise an article виправляти, змінювати; переробляти; переглядати; виправляти статтю;
to schedule [´∫edju:l], [´skedju:l] to schedule jobs складати; планувати, намічати; розробляти; призначати; скласти графік робіт;
to table   ставити на обговорення, пропонувати обговорити; заносити до списку; відкладати (відтягувати) обговорення; відкладати у довгий ящик
standing standing committee постійний, безперервний; непорушний; постійний комітет;
tantamount [´tæntəmaunt] рівносильний, рівнозначний; рівноцінний, еквівалентний

2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.

MAKING LAWS

One of the major characteristics of Congress is the dominant role committees play in legislative proceedings. They have assumedtheir present-day importance by evolution, not by constitutional design, since the Constitution makes no provisionfor their establishment.

At present the Senate has 17 standingcommittees and the House of Representatives has 19 committees. Each specializes in specific area of legislation: foreign affairs, defence, banking, agriculture, commerce, appropriations, and other fields. Almost every bill introduced in either house is referred to a committee for study and recommendation. The committee may approve, revise, kill, or ignoreany measure referred to it. It is nearly impossible for a bill to reach the House or Senate floor without first winning committee approval.

Bills are introduced by a variety of methods. Some are drawn up by standing committees, some by special committees created to deal with specific legislative issues, and some may be suggested by the President or other executive officers. Citizens and organizations outside Congress may suggest legislation to members, and individual members themselves may initiatebills. After introduction, bills are sent to designated committees that, in most cases, schedule a series of public hearings to permit presentation of views by persons who support or oppose the legislation. The hearing process which can last several weeks or months opens the legislature process to public participation.

When a committee has actedfavourably on a bill, the proposed legislation is then sent to the open debate. In the Senate the rules permit virtually unlimited debate. In the House, because of the large number of members, the Rules Committee usually sets limits. When debate is ended, members vote either to approve the bill, defeat it, tableit – which means setting it aside and is tantamount to defeat – or return it to committee. A bill passed by one house is sent to the other for action. If the bill is amended by the second house, a conference committee composed of members of both houses attempts to reconcile the differences.

Once passed by both houses, the bill is sent to the president, for constitutionally the president must act on a bill to become law. The president has the option of signing the bill – by which it become law – or vetoing (veto – [´vi:təu]) it. A bill vetoed by the president must be re-approved by a two-thirds vote of both houses to become law.

The president may also refuse either to sign or veto a bill. In that case, the bill becomes law without his signature 10 days after it reaches him (not counting Sundays). The single exception to this rule is when Congress adjourns after sending a bill to the president and before the 10-day period has expired his refusal to take any action then negates the bill – a process known as the “pocket veto”.

3. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following words and expressions:

dominant role; to introduce a bill; foreign affairs; to kill any measure; to win committee approval; variety of methods; to permit presentation; to be tantamount to defeat; to set aside; to pass the bill; conference committee; the option of signing the bill; refusal to take any action; to negate the bill; pocket veto

4. Find in the text the words or expressions that mean the following:

сучасне значення; за задумом конституції; постійний комітет; асигнування коштів; вийти на рівень Палати Представників чи Сенату; вносити законопроекти різними способами; спеціальні комітети, що створюються задля / для розв‘язання особливих законодавчих проблем; виконавчий урядовець; організації непричетні до Конгресу; відповідний профільний комітет; серія громадських слухань; бути прибічником/противником законопроекту; відкрити процес законотворення для громадськості; схвалити законопроект; дати змогу проводити практично необмежене у часі обговорення; комітет з процедурних питань; встановити часове обмеження; вносити поправки до законопроекту; узгодити різночитання; накласти вето; розходитися на канікули.

5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.

Appropriation,killed, acts, tantamount, defeats, expires, options, reconcile, table, action, ignore, referred, provision, designated, scheduled, assumed

1. She claimed she was anxious to avoid any … which might harm him. 2. Our government made an …. for the project. 3. I took Law courses as the most interesting of the … . 4. She accepted the job with …. that she should work part-time. 5. His behaviouron my nerves. 6. Mr. Maples has been …. as a Partner in the Edinburgh Branch of the Bank. 7. A man who commits a crime .... the end of his existence. 8. Mr. Sharp is … as the next chairman of this committee. 9. His term of office as President … next year. 10. You'll have to … their talking so loud. 11. His constant failureshis ambition. 12. The people must …. themselves to a reduced standard of living. 13. He …. his fast recovery to this new medicine he had been taking. 14. A presidential election was …. for December. 15. We will …. that for later. 16. Isn’t this ….to a refusal of the first treaty?

B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.

1. He's been … … action …6 months with a serious knee injury. 2. They have excelled in learning the lessons …business management theory, and putting themaction. 3. They were given the option … a fine. 4. Has your lawyer drawn …the contract yet? 5. How do you reconcile your principlesyour behaviour? 6. The new law does not refer …land used … farming. 7. The Constitution makes no provision…their establishment … legislative proceedings. 8. When members vote to tablethe bill, it means setting it aside and is tantamount … defeat. 9. To become law a bill vetoed …the president must be re-approveda two-thirds majority … both houses.

6. Translate the words given in two columns and match the pairs as they are used in the text.

1. головна a. дискусія
2. законодавча b. чиновник
3. специфічна c. законопроект
4. закордонні d. законодавча проблема
5. виконавчий e. комісія
6. відкритий f. справи
7. кишенькове g. характеристика
8. публічна h. задум
9. конституційний i. роль
10. постійний j. процедура
11. панівна k. сфера
12. запропонований l. вето
13. особлива m. участь

7. Study the following expressions with the word “floor” and use them in the sentences of your own.

1.право виступу, слово – the floor; 2. брати слово – to take (to have) the floor; 3. амер. керівник партійної фракції в Конгресі – floor leader; 4. мінімальна зарплата – floor wage; 5. запитання з місця – questions from the floor; 6. перейти з однієї фракції в іншу – to cross the floor of the House

8. Match the words given on the left with their definitions on the right.

1. to legislate a. a clause (речення, клаузула) in a law or contract stating that a particular condition must be met;
2. defence b. a legal matter in a dispute between two parties;
3. to adjourn c. to write and pass laws; to make laws or rules designed to bring about some action or condition;
4. appropriation d. the protection of something, especially from attack by an enemy a country’s armed forces;
5. bill e. the exercise of the power or right to reject something, especially a political measure;
6. issue f. the right, power, or freedom to make a choice;
7. debate g. somebody who is elected or appointed to an administrative position in a society, corporation, or government department;
8. to amend h. the suggestion or endorsement (підтвердження, підтримка) of something as the most worthy;
9. veto i. to approve something such as a law, measure, or proposal, or to get official approval;
10. process j. to make changes to something, especially a piece of text, in order to improve or correct it; to revise or alter formally a motion, bill, or constitution
11. to pass k. an organized or public discussion of something;
12. to sign l. a sum of money that has been set aside from a budget, especially a government budget, for a particular purpose (often used in the plural);
13. provision m. to suspend the business of a court, legislature, or committee temporarily or indefinitely, or become suspended temporarily or indefinitely;
14. option n. a written proposal for a new law, discussed and voted upon by the members of a legislative body;
15. study o. a series of actions directed toward a particular aim; a summons or writ ordering somebody to appear in court; the entire proceedings in a lawsuit;
16. recommendation p. to affirm or approve a document formally by affixing a signature or seal;
17. officer q. an investigation or research project designed to discover facts about smth.

9. Answer the following questions.

1. What is one of the major characteristics of Congress? 2. What areas do the committees specialize in? 3. In what ways are the bills introduced? 4. What happens to a bill after a committee has acted favourably on it? 5. Why is the bill sent to the president? 6. Can a bill become a law without the president’s signature? 7. What is ‘pocket veto’?

Part 3









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