The United Kingdom. The Monarchy
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄statutory he΄reditary ,parlia΄mentary
΄exercise e΄volve re΄sidual
΄ mercy a΄ssent pre΄rogative
΄summon pro΄rogue con΄vict
΄policy con΄sent im΄pose
΄temporal a΄pproval con΄fer
B) Complete the word building table.
1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy. That is, it is a country whose government is controlled by a parliament. Parliament is the supreme legislative authority. Its three elements, the Queen, The House of Commons and the House of Lords are formed on different principles.
The monarchy is hereditary. The Monarch, who succeeds to the throne, is, in addition to being an integral part of the legislature, is the head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Crown and the temporal head of the established Church of England.
The monarchy in the United Kingdom has evolved over the centuries from absolute personal authority to the present constitutional form by which the King or the Queen reigns but does not rule. His/her Majesty’s government governs in the name of the King/Queen who must act on the advice of his/her ministers. The Monarch summons, prorogues (dismisses at the end of the session) and dissolves Parliament; he/she usually opens new sessions of Parliament with a speech from the throne in which the major governmental policies are outlined. These acts form part of the Royal Prerogative. The Prerogative rights are of legislative, executive and judicial character. The Monarch must give the Royal Assent before a bill which has passed all its stages in both Houses of Parliament can become a legal enactment (Act of Parliament). The Monarch’s consent and approval is required before a Cabinet can be formed or a minister takes up office. As Head of State the Monarch has the power to sign international agreements, to cede or receive territory, and to declare war or make peace. The Monarch confers honours and makes appointments to all important offices of state, including judges, officers in the armed services, diplomats and the leading positions in the Established Church. As the “fountain of justice”, it is only the Monarch who is able to remit all or part of the penalties imposed upon persons convicted of crimes through the exercise of the prerogative of mercy on the advice of the appropriate minister.
At the present time the Monarch, although exercising residual authority by consent of Parliament and according to the advice of the government of the day is regularly informed and consulted on many aspects of public affairs. The Privy Council is the body on whose advice and through which the Monarch exercises most statutory and many prerogative powers. There are about 330 members of the Privy Council, who, however, only meets as a full body on the death of the Monarch. All Cabinet ministers are members; other members are appointed by the Monarch on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
Note: The Privy Council [΄privi ΄kauns(ə)l] - is a body that advises the head of state of a nation on how to exercise their executive authority, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government. The word "privy" means "private" or "secret"; thus, a privy council was originally a committee of the monarch's closest advisors to give confidential advice on affairs of state. In non-monarchical nations, the equivalent body is the cabinet, although in some nations the cabinet is a committee of the privy council.
3. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Верховна законодавча влада; успадкувати трон; правити від імені королеви; світський голова; невідємна частина законодавства; державна англіканська церква; діяти за породами своїх міністрів; законодавчий акт; головнокомандуючий збройними силами; надати королівську санкцію; скликати, призначати перерву у роботі та розпускати парламент; прийняти законопроект; оголошувати війну; заключати мир; підписати міжнародну угоду; віддавати територію; вимогати згоду та схвалення монарха; проводити призначення на важливі державні посади; призначатися монархом за рекомендацією Прем’єр-міністра; особи, засуджені за злочини; джерело правосуддя; здійснення привілею помилування; Таємна Рада; зустрічатися у повному складі; консультувати з багатьох аспектів громадських справ.
4. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences or situations using them.
parliamentary democracy; to be an integral part of the legislature; the head of the judiciary; the temporal head of the established Church of England; to outline governmental policies; to pass all its stages in both Houses of Parliament; a legal enactment; to act on the advice of her ministers; to summon Parliament; to prorogue Parliament; to give the Royal Assent; to dissolve Parliament; to take up office; to cede or receive territories; to make appointments to all important offices of state; to confer honours; to declare war; the “fountain of justice”; to remit all or part of the penalties imposed upon persons; on the advice of the appropriate minister; to exercise residual authority; a full body; statutory and many prerogative powers; to require consent and approval.
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Approval,exercise, conferred, evolved, mercies, remitted, pass, prerogative,dissolved, ceded, outlined, imposed, bill
1. Some people still do not believe that man … from monkeys. 2. She … what I would be doing. 3. Congress is expected to ... the bill. 4. The ... was passed without substantial alteration. 5. He gave his ... to our plan. 6. The island was … to the mainland nation by its former owners. 7. The system … great benefits. 8. Every farmer has the rent of his farm …..for the next thirty years. 9. A special tax is … on very high incomes. 10. Leadership does not rest on the … of force alone. 11. Luxuries were considered the … of the rich. 12. We turned him over to the mercies of the student court. 13. They have …. partnership, and started each on his own account.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. Mr. Mitterrand conferred the Legion of Honour ... seven war veterans. 2. The prisoner asked permission to confer … his lawyer. . 3. The prisoner was remitted … good behaviour. 4. The prisoner was convicted … robbery. 5. The Monarch usually opens new sessions … Parliament … a speech ….the throne. 6. The Monarch makes appointments … all important offices …. state. 7. The Monarch can remit all or part … the penalties imposed …. persons convicted … crimes. 8. The Monarch exercises the prerogative … mercy … the advice of the appropriate minister. 9. The Monarch exercises residual authority …consent of Parliament and according … the advice of the government … the day.
6. Match the definitions in the right column to the words given in the left.
7. Choose word or phrase (a, b or c) which best completes the unfinished sentence:
1. The Monarchy in the United Kingdom is ….. a) elected, b) hereditary, c) adopted.
2. Queen Elizabeth II succeeded to the throne ……
a) in 1973, b) at the beginning of the century, c) in 1952.
3. The monarchy in the United Kingdom has …..
a) absolute personal authority, b) constitutional authority, c) dictatorial authority.
4. According to the present constitutional form of the Monarchy the Queen …
a) reigns, b) rules, c) dictates.
5. The Privy Council meets as s full body ….
a) at regular sessions, b) once a year, c) in case of the death of the Monarch.
6. The Monarchy is most …. secular institution in the United Kingdom.
a) modern, b) young, c) ancient
7. Queen Elizabeth II in addition to being …. part of the legislature is the head of the judiciary.
a) an residual, b) an integral, c) a judicial;
8. The United Kingdom government ….. in the name of the Queen. a) legislates, b) governs, c) reigns
9. The Monarch can ….. all the penalties imposed upon criminals. a) remit, b) carry out, c) prosecute;
10. The Monarch ….. the members of the Privy Council on the …..of the Prime Minister.
1. a) chooses, b) appoints, c) decides; 2. a) prohibition, b) recommendation, c) statement.
8. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:
1. Government is the supreme legislative authority. 2. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of the state. 3. The Monarchy in the United Kingdom is absolute personal authority. 4. The government rules the state in the name of the Queen. 5. The Queen opens new sessions of Parliament with the speech from the throne. 6. A Bill can become an Act of Parliament without the Queen’s approval. 7. The Monarch gives the consent and approval to form a Cabinet or a minister accepts office. 8. The Monarch exercises most powers through the Privy Council. 9. The Minister of Justice exercises the prerogative of mercy. 10 The Privy Council presided over by the Queen meets regularly as a full body at its sessions.
9. Study the text more carefully and answer the following questions:
1. What is the political system of the United Kingdom? 2. What are the three elements of legislative authority? 3. What are the Queen’s powers? 4. How has the Monarchy evolved in the United Kingdom? 5. What role does the Monarch have in legislating? 6. What forms the Royal Prerogative? 7. What is the Privy Council? 8. What are the Privy Council’s functions?
10. Translate into English using the active vocabulary.
1. Законопроект потребує королівську санкцію, щоб стати законом. Але зараз королівська санкція просто формальність. 2. Теоретично монарх може відмовити у згоді, але останній монарх, який використав цю владу, була королева Анна, яка наложила вето на законопроект (to veto a bill) у 1707 році. 3. Уряд було розпущено та нові вибори у парламент оголошені. 4. Британська політика надає перевагу еволюції над революцією. 5. У Великобританії суверен царює, але не управляє державою. 6. Його обрали лідером за загальною згодою. 7. Королева насправді є номінальним (figurehead) представником своєї країни, вона не має повної влади. 8. Королева займає центральне положення в державних справах, не тільки через виконання своїх церемоніальних (ceremonial) функцій, таких як, відкриття Парламенту, а тому що вона зустрічається кожного тижня з Прем’єр-Міністром і отримує копії всіх документів Кабінету. 9. Його засудили за вбивство. 10. Сьогодні головна роль Таємної Ради – радити монарху по широкому колу питань.
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