Political Parties of Ukraine

More then 100 political parties are registered in Ukraine, but only a dozen or so have significant size and influence. After the last parliamentary election, parties have become stronger and more significant, the new electoral law, which gives the seats in the Verkhovna Rada to party lists, has forced parties to begin to play a role they did not play before and stimulated the growth of coalitions among parties. It means whatever parliament comes out of the election, it is dominated by the strong parties and coalitions.

It should be noted that the political scene in Ukraine is relatively one-dimensional. The main difference between parties is their pro-communist or anti-communist stance. As a rule, older people are more likely to vote for the Socialist or Communist parties, while younger people are more likely to vote for reformers. However, as in the United States, money plays a very large role in elections, and rich parties are more likely to be able to attract support than small parties.

Generally, the Communists and the so-called leftist ‘fellow travelers’ are stronger in Eastern Ukraine, in part because the economic crisis there is much worse, and in part because of the large Russian / Russianized population there, while rightist and nationalist parties are stronger in Western Ukraine. The parties organized around personalities are usually in the centre and as a rule reflect their own reformist views.

3. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:

to form the government; political position; left/right-wing; eager for political reforms; to give way to its successor; market economy; private ownership preferred to state control; to summon a special conference of trade unions; to look on as the foundation of the Labour party; at the expense of; to subordinate the power of the Crown to that of Parliament; to form an alliance with the Liberal party; some control over the economy; two-party system; groups of petty bourgeoisie; to be associated with labour; to tend to favour; social matters; doctrinal gulf; not bound to a party programme; subject to any discipline; to vote a ‘straight ticket’; candidate for one office; reasons for stability; to serve the interests of the people; specific wishes of their constituencies in mind; to have significant size; parliamentary election; party lists; to stimulate the growth; the political scene; relatively one-dimensional; pro-communist or anti-communist stance; to be more likely to vote for; leftist ‘fellow travelers’; reflect their own views.

4. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

Праві (ліві) партії; представляти південних плантаторів; знищити політичну владу; скасувати рабство; вільне підприємництво; приватна власність; за рахунок традиційної підтримки громадських служб; участь федерального уряду в громадському житті; прогалина в доктрині; не бути пов’язаним з програмою партії; не підкорятися партійній дисципліні; соціальні питання; не зовсім підходити американській системі; голосувати, пам’ятаючи особливі побажання своїх виборчих округів; нащадки північних європейців; двопартійна система; прокомуністична та антикомуністична позиція; виборчий закон; дозволити розквітати вільному підприємництву; відносно одновимірне; причини стабільності; голосувати за список кандидатів своєї партії; економічна криза; русифіковане населення; так звані ліві попутники; організовані навколо особистостей; стимулювати ріст коаліцій; слугувати інтересам людей; надавати місця у Верховній Раді згідно партійних списків.

5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.

Summoned, bound, oppose, significant, supported, eager,distinguish, tended, subordinated, vote, gulf,fits, alliance

1. Every member of the community should have a …. in electing those delegates. 2. The low prices still pull in crowds of.... buyers. 3. We were… to the director's office. 4. All other considerations had to be.... to the needs of the society. 5. Our state has decided to enter into the... to defend our territory against any invader. 6. The world does not... religion as such. 7. There is a growing… between rich and poor. 8. He cannot… between accentuated and non-accentuated words. 9. The theory… the facts. 10. Every county is…. to repair the highways which passed through it. 11. They to regard the Watergate affair as a factional plot (заколот). 12. We…. their seeking office. 13. It was… to note that the story did not appear in the newspapers.

B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.

1. The committee were equally divided, so the chairman voted …the suggestion to prevent it being passed. 2. They had to subordinate their own needs the needs … the group. 3. We have formed this alliance ...our neighbors… the common enemy. 4. They opposed ... the idea… summoning the meeting. 5. The Republican Party founded in 1854 was interested destroying the political power the South and abolishing slavery. 6. Democrats or Republicans are not bound … a party programme and they are not subject … any discipline when they disagree … their party. 7. It is usual for Democrats in Congress to vote …a Republican President’s legislation, and for few Republicans to vote …. it.

6. Match the definition in the right column to the word in the left.

1. constituency a. to choose in a formal way, e.g. by marking a ballot paper;
2. democracy b. the programme of action of a particular party or government;
3. vote c. a time of acute difficult, esp. on a national or international scale;
4. straight ticket d. economic activity or a unit of economic organization;
5. stance e. a political area whose inhabitants are represented by one MP;
6. politics f. faithfulness;
7. policy g. a system of government in which leaders are chosen by people;
8. crisis h. a ballot cast for the candidates of one party;
9. loyalty i. the art or science of government; the activities associated with government;
10. enterprise j. an emotional or intellectual attitude; a way of standing

7. Choose a word or phrase which best completes the unfinished sentence.

1. India gained …. from the UK in 1948.

a) republic; b) democracy; c) independence;

2. In the UK, when a political party wins a majority of …. in an election, they form the government.

a) candidates, b) seats; c) places;

3. People who believe in the system, where a state is governed by representatives, are called … .

a) republicans; b) monarchists; c) liberals;

4. An electoral district or the body of voter resident in it is called a…. .

a) constitution; b) constitutional district; c) constituency;

5. What is your country’s economic … ?

a) politics; b) policy; c) police;

8. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:

1. The Labour party goes back to the Tories, or Royalists. 2. Socialist parties are left-wing parties. 3. The Whigs were the party that supported the Church and the King. 4. The Conservative party believes that private ownership and enterprise should be allowed to flourish, but not at the expense of their traditional support of the public services. 5. The Liberal Democrats are the alliance of the Labour party with the Liberal party. 6. The two leading parties of the USA are the Liberal Democrats and the Republicans. 7. The Democrats are associated with labour and tend to oppose the greater involvement of the federal government in some areas of public life. 8. The Republicans tend to favour a more active role of the central government in social matters. 9. Voting a ‘straight ticket’ means casting a ballot for the candidates of one party. 10. The traditional European terms of ‘right’ and ‘left’ are accepted in the American system. 11. Congressmen will vote strictly in accordance with their party programme. 12. The new electoral law gives half of the seats in the Verkhovna Rada to party lists.

9. Answer the questions.

1. What are the main political parties in the UK? What are their origins? 2. What political priorities do the main political parties in Britain have? 3. What kind of political system has developed in the USA? 4. What were the purposes of the US leading parties at the time of their foundation? 5. What are the differences between the Democrats and the Republicans? 6. What does the term of ‘a straight ticket’ mean? 7. How do Congressmen vote in Congress? 8. What is the main difference between parties in Ukraine? 9. What is the composition of the Verkhovna Rada?

10. Translate into English.

1. В Об’єднаному Королівстві є три головних партії: Консервативна партія, Ліберально-демократична партія та Лейбористська партія. 2. Консерватори походять від партії Торі. Вони вважають, що вільне підприємництво та ринкова економіка з приватною власністю є їх головними пріоритетами. 3. Ліберальні демократи стверджують, що держава повинна мати контроль над економікою, але також повинна бути приватна власність. 4. В США, крім двох провідних партій, Демократичної та Республіканської партій, є ще кілька партій, але вони не грають значної ролі в суспільному житті країни. 5. Люди можуть просто оголосити себе членами однієї з головних партії, коли вони реєструються для голосування в своєму окрузі. 6. Американські партії вибрали свої власні назви, але не емблеми своїх партій. На початку 1870 років карикатурист (cartoonist) Томас Наст придумав слона республіканської партії та віслюка (donkey) демократичної партії. 7. Головною задачею партій в США – виграти вибори. Кожні чотири роки партії збираються на свої партійні з’їзди, щоб створити партійні програми та висунути кандидатів у президенти. Щойно президента вибрано, партії знову стають аморфними (amorphous) тілами. 8. Найвпливовішими політичними силами в сучасній Україні є наступні партії та блоки: Партія регіонів, «Блок Юлії Тимошенко», Блок «Наша Україна», Соціалістична партія України, Комуністична партія України


Grammar Section



1. Look at the following information and fill in the gaps with say or tellin the correct tense:

We can use say and tell both in direct and reported speech.

  • Tell is always followed by a personal object (e.g. told me): He told me, ‘I’m tired.’ - He told me (that) he was tired.
  • Say is used with or without a personal object. When used with a personal object it is always followed by the proposition to (e.g. said to me): 1) He said, ‘I’m tired.’ – He said(that) he was tired. 2) He said to me ‘I’m tired.’ – He said to me(that) he was tired.

Say and tell are also used with the following expressions:

say good morning/afternoon, etc.; something/nothing, etc., one’s prayers; so;. a few words
tell the truth, a lie, a secret, a story, the time, the difference, sb one’s name; sb the way, one from another, one’s fortune

a) Katie 1) ….. Dave that she had met a set of twins at a party. ‘They looked exactly the same,’ she 2) …. ‘I couldn’t 3) …. the difference between them.’ ‘I’ve got a twin brother, too’ 4)….Dave. ‘Are you 5)…. me the truth?’ asked Katie. ‘6)…. me his name.’ ‘His name is Stephen,’ Dave 7) …. her. ‘I’ll take you to meet him tomorrow.’

b) ‘You never listen to me,’ Tara 1)…. Jim. ‘I 2)…… good morning to you three times today and you didn’t answer,’ she 3)…. . ‘To 4)….. you the truth, it makes me really angry. Why don’t you listen to me?’ ‘Oh, hello Tara,’ 5)…. Jim. ‘Did you just 6)….. something?’

c) ‘Claire 1) ….. me that she and John are getting married,’ 2)…… Sue. ‘She 3)….. that they’re going to have a big wedding with lots of guests.’ ‘That’ll be expensive,’ 4)…. Tom. ‘I thought John 5)…… that they couldn’t afford a big wedding.’ ‘Well that’s what Claire 6)……. me,’7)….. Sue. ‘I don’t think she would 8)…… a lie.’

2. Fill in the gaps with the correct pronoun or possessive adjective.

1. James said, ‘My boss wants me to summon the director board tomorrow.’ - James said ….. boss wanted ….. to summon the director board the following day. 2. Mary said, ‘I’m waiting for our company to make the offer.’ - Mary said ….. was waiting for ….. company to make the offer. 3. George said, ‘I’ve taken out insurance for my mum’s property.’ - George said …. had taken out insurance for …. mum's property. 4. Julie said, ‘I need you to help me with obtaining divorce decree.’ - Julie said … needed …. to help …. with obtaining divorce decree. 5. John said, ‘I’d like to annul my marriage.’ - John said ….’d like to annul …..marriage. 6. Helen said to Jane, ‘They are charging me with negligence.’ - Helen said to Jane …were charging … with negligence.

3. Turn the following sentences into reported speech.

1. Robin said, ‘Law doesn’t punish theft by death.’ 2. ‘I can’t see you this afternoon because I’ve got to bring a lawsuit against the company,’ Ann told me. 3. The assistant came into the room holding some papers in her hand, ‘I found these while I was tiding the desk drawers.’ 4. Fiona said, ‘The police filed the criminal charges against the suspect.’ 5. ‘Those were good times for street criminals,’ my granddad said. 6. ‘The judge dismissed the action this morning, but I haven’t looked into it yet,’ Tom said. 7. ‘You mustn’t break the rule again,’ Mum said to Bob. 8. ‘These requirements are out-of-date. You’d better revise them,’ my scientific supervisor said to me. 9. He said, ‘’I’m going to the polling station.’ 10. Tina said, ‘You should prohibit such actions.’ 11. They said, ‘We had settled a case before we left.’ 12. Tom said, ‘This evidence is unacceptable.’ 13. ‘I’ve won the case,’ she said to her friend. 14. ‘We’ve resolved to work harder next term,’ they told us. 15. Jill said, ‘I’ll take advantage of the opportunity.’ 16. She said to him, ‘The army has been maintained by the government.’ 17. She told me, ‘People must contribute to government decisions.’ 18. ‘The police have provided testimony,’ the prosecutor said to me. 19. They said, ‘We may improve welfare of the nation.’ 20. She said, ‘The court will not hear this case.’ 21. Keith said, ‘We are taking the action against the rival firm for fraud.’ 22. ‘They won’t be exercising supervision over Tom this month,’ Sam told us. 23. Eric said, ‘They had been discussing these urgent issues for an hour before I interrupted them.’ 24. ‘He hasn’t committed any offence since last conviction,’ Gloria said. 25. ‘They delivered the contracts this morning,’ she said. 26. He said, ‘I have been afraid to drive since I was seriously injured in the last car accident.’ 27. ‘They aren’t going to dissolve their marriage’ he said. 28. Jane said, ‘The criminal has inflicted heavy injuries on the victim.’ 29. ‘All law-abiding citizens observe laws,’ Caroline said. 30. ‘We are going to take account of mitigating circumstances,’ I said. 31. ‘We want to set out the facts in our report tonight,’ thee said. 32. ‘We are to establish the cause of death,’ the coroner said. 33. She said, ‘We must prohibit and eliminate chemical and nuclear weapons.’

4. Translate into English.

Він сказав, що зустрічається з клієнтами двічі на тиждень. він зараз зустрічається з клієнтами. він зустрічається з цим клієнтом вже два тижня.
  зустрівся з двома клієнтами на цьому тижні. він ніколи не зустрічався з такими клієнтами. він зустрічався з клієнтом вчора.
  він зустрівся з клієнтом вчора до другої години. він зустрічався з клієнтом вчора в цей час. він зустрічався з клієнтом, коли я прийшов до нього.
  він зустрічався з клієнтом вже тиждень, коли я попросив його взяти цю справу. він зустрінеться з клієнтом завтра. він буде зустрічатися з клієнтом завтра о другій годині.
  в наступний понеділок буде вже місяць, як він зустрічається з клієнтом. він вже зустрінеться з клієнтом завтра до другої години. він зустрінеться з клієнтом завтра, якщо нічого не зміниться.

5. Translate into English.

1. Він сказав, що «ліві» та «праві» означають різні поняття в різних країнах. 2. Він розповів нам, що Торі була партією, яка підтримувала церкву та короля, а Віги була партія, яка бажала політичних реформ. 3. Викладач сказав, що в США протягом часу розвинулася двопартійна система. 4. Він сказав, що Демократична партія спочатку представляла південних плантаторів та частину північної буржуазії. 5. Я не знав, що демократи та республіканці не зв’язані партійною програмою. 6. Вони пояснили, що виборці в США можуть голосувати за список кандидатів своєї партії. 7. Вони сказали, що сімейна традиція є однією з причин стабільності двопартійної системи. 8. Ми думали, що партії стануть сильніше після наступних парламентських виборів. 9. Голова парламенту сказав, що вони сформують уряд до кінця наступного тижня. 10. Ми сподівалися, що депутати будуть голосувати, пам’ятаючи побажання виборців свого округу. 11. Вона розказала нам, яка є головна відмінність між політичними партіями в Україні. 12. Ми знали, що гроші грають велику роль у виборах.


Electoral System

Vocabulary Section

Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):

resident im΄partial im΄parti΄ality

΄eligible a΄ffect ,contro΄versial

΄΄politics e΄lection ex΄penditure

΄marginal in΄sist further΄more

΄boundary con΄ceal sig΄nificant

΄rival di΄ssolve moni΄nation

B) Complete the word building table.

Adjective Noun / Verb Verb Noun / Person
impartial to reside
controversial to affect
rival to distribute
marginal to determine
actual to nominate
equal to serve


Noun Adjective Noun Verb
resident resident
rival to affect
election election
president president
convention expenditure
president bribery
succession succession

D) Complete this word-building table.

Abstract noun Person Adjective


1. Look through the words and expression to make sure you know them. Learn those you don’t know.

to be eligible [´elidЗəbl] constitutionally eligible legally eligible 1); підходити; 2) мати право бути обраним; той, що підходить за конституцією; той що має юридичне право / має право за законом;
register [΄redЗistə] electoral register [´redЗistə] = register of electors a register of births, marriages and deaths court register офіційний список, реєстр, перелік; список виборців;   книга реєстрації актів громадянського стану (народження, шлюбу, смерті); судовий реєстр
resident[´resid(ə)nt] a resident of the UK local residents постійний мешканець; особа, яка постійно мешкає у Об’єднаному Королівстві; місцеві мешканці;
impartial[im´pα:∫(ə)l] / impartiality [im,pα:∫i´æliti] неупереджений / неупередженість;
controversial [,kontrə´və:∫(ə)l] спірний; суперечний;
marginal[΄ma:dЗin(ə)l] marginal seat marginal member of Parliament незначний, несуттєвий, неважливий; місце, яке отримується найменшою більшістю; член парламенту, обраний незначною більшістю;
boundary[΄baundəri] to draw/ fix/ set boundary state boundary natural boundary кордон, межа; провести кордон; державний кордон; природний кордон;
vice versa [΄vaisi΄və:sə] навпаки;
to affect [ə΄fekt] to affect smb. deeply / profoundly / strongly впливати; сильно впливати на когось;
rival[΄raivəl] business rivals without a rival rival firm суперник, конкурент; конкуренти у бізнесі; поза конкуренцією; конкуруюча фірма
election[i΄lek∫(e)n] general election by(e)-election [baii´lek∫(ə)n] to hold election to call election local elections presidential [,preziden∫(ə)l΄] election вибори; загальні вибори; позачергові вибори; проводити вибори; оголосити вибори; вибори до органів місцевого самоврядування; вибори президента;
to insist [in´sist] to insist on smth/ doing smth наполягати; наполягати на чомусь / наполягати, щоб зробити щось;
to launch [΄lo: nt∫] to launch a campaign to launch a program починати; запускати; пускати в хід; розпочати компанію; розробити програму;
expenditure [iks΄pendit∫ə] at his own expenditure to curtail / cut down (on) / reduce expenditures welfare expenditure витрати; за власний рахунок; скоротити витрати;   витрати на соціальне забезпечення;
expenses[iks´pensiz] legal expenses = expenses of litigation = law expenses to avoid expenses to bear expenses to cover expenses to pay expenses видатки; витрати; затрати; судові видатки;   уникати витрат; нести затрати; покрити затрати; виплатити видатки;
respectively[ris´pektivli] A traditional game was played between the Series A league champion and the Italian Cup winner, Juventus and Milan, respectively. відповідно; відповідним чином; у зазначеному порядку;
bribery [´braibəri] official bribery хабарництво; хабар посадовій особі;
to obtain [əb´tein] to obtain a reward to obtain the age of отримувати; отримати нагороду; досягнути віку;
(un)evenly [(Λn)´i:v(ə)nli] (не)рівно;
to distribute [dis´tribu:t] to distribute fairly to distribute expenses to distribute justice to distribute drugs розподілити; розподілити справедливо; розподілити видатки; відправляти правосуддя; розповсюджувати наркотики;
to accentuate[æk´sent∫ueit] підкреслювати; виділяти; робити наголос;
to cast to cast a vote to cast a non-vote to cast a ballot віддати, подати (голос); кидати (бюлетень); віддати голос; голосувати; подати незаповнений бюлетень; подати виборчий бюлетень;
to dissolve [di´zo:lv] розпустити;
poll[pəul]   by poll exclusion from the poll public opinion poll go to the polls голосування; підрахунок голосів; кількість голосів; виборча дільниця; голосуванням; позбавлення права голосу; соціологічне опитування; йти на вибори, голосувати;
booth[bu:θ] information booth telephone booth polling /voting booth кабінка; довідкове бюро; телефонна будка; кабінка для голосування;
to fold [fəuld] to fold a piece of paper to fold one's arms складати; скласти аркуш паперу; cхрестити руки на грудях;
to conceal [kən´si:l] The thieves thought that they had concealed the jewels from discovery. приховувати;
the Shadow Cabinet [´∫ædəu] тіньовий кабінет;
chamber[´t∫eimbə] Chamber of Commerce upper / higher chamber lower chamber палата; торгова палата; верхня палата; нижня палата;
to determine [di´tə:min] to determine the answer to the problem to determine guilt   to determine a controversy to determine a criminal cause 1. визначати; встановлювати; визначити відповідь на встановлене питання;   встановити винність, визнати винним; 2. вирішувати; вирішувати суперечку; винести рішення у кримінальній справі;
civic[´sivic] civic consciousness [΄kon∫əsnəs] громадянський громадянська свідомість;
drive to initiate, launch a drive for smb., smth. a drive to raise funds a charity drive (громадська) компанія (з прилучення нових членів, тощо) розпочати (ініціювати) кампанію на підтримку когось, чогось; кампанія по зібранню коштів; благодійна кампанія;
nomination [,nomi΄nei∫(ə)n] to place smb. in nomination to accept a nomination to reject a nomination a nomination to a committee presidential nomination висування кандидата; призначення; номінація; призначити на посаду; прийняти призначення на посаду; відмовитися від посади; призначення в комітет; висування кандидатів у президенти;
convention[kon΄ven∫(ə)n] constitutional convention national convention   партійний з’їзд; конституційний конвент; з’їзд політичних партій для висування кандидатів на вибори;
actual[´ækt∫uəl] actual and imagined conditions actual costs фактичний; дійсний; поточний; теперішній; реальні та уявні умови;   реальні витрати;
race presidential race race for power political race перегони; гонка; боротьба; президентські перегони; боротьба за владу; політична боротьба;
succession[sək´se∫(ə)n]   succession of events in succession the succession to the throne succession tax / duty послідовність; спадкоємність; наслідування; порядок наслідування; право наслідування; череда подій; поспіль; порядок наслідування королівської корони; податок на спадок;
primary [´praiməri] nominating primaries closed primary open primary первинні вибори у партійних організаціях; вибори кандидатів для балотування на загальних виборах; закрите голосування; відкрите голосування;
caucus [´ko:kəs] первинні вибори на партійних форумах;
leap year високосний рік
equal[´i:kwel] to be equal to equal rights рівний, однаковий, тотожній, рівносильний; дорівнюватися, бути рівним; рівні права;
electoral college колегія виборщиків; виборча колегія

2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.

Electoral System in the UK

Every British citizen aged eighteen years or over who is not serving a sentence of imprisonment and is not a peer is eligible to be placed on the electoral register in a constituency. Normally this involves residence in the constituency on a certain day (10 October) but members of the armed forces and now British citizens who live abroad but have been registered within the previous five years can be entered on the register. At the moment there are 650 constituencies, the boundaries being drawn by impartial Boundary Commissions whose recommendations need approval of both Houses of Parliament. Their impartiality has not prevented their recommendations from being highly controversial as the way the boundaries are drawn can profoundly affect the electoral prospects of a particular party. The parties draw their support from different sections of the electorate and the exclusion or inclusion of a particular area can turn a safe seat into a marginal one and vice versa.

The choice of candidates by the parties profoundly affects the extent to which the voters’ wishes are reflected in the House of Commons because the voter can only choose between rival candidates. Each party has its own method for choosing candidates. The Labour Party in 1980 insisted that all Labour MPs must undergo a reselection process if they wished to be candidates at the next General Election. Anyone can form a political party, as happened in 1981 when the Social Democratic Party (SDP) was launched. Though election law puts strict limits on expenditure during an electoral campaign, to prevent bribery and corruption, it is very expensive to fight an election, particularly as national propaganda does not count towards election expenses. The Labour and Conservative parties draw their financial support mainly from the trade unions and industry respectively.

Their main disadvantage is, however, the British electoral system. Electors vote in their constituency and whichever candidate obtains most votes is elected an MP; even if he or she obtains only one vote more than his or her nearest rival and only a small percentage of the total vote. This system works best when there are only two parties, though even then it is possible for a party to obtain more over the country as a whole but have fewer seats in the House of Commons because its support may be unevenly distributed, so that it obtains big majorities in some seats and loses narrowly in others. This result is accentuated when there are three or more parties. A third party like the Liberals or now the Social Democratic and Liberal Alliance, whose support is spread fairly evenly throughout the country, is likely to win few seats but come second in many. Thus in the General Election of 1983, the Alliance obtained 25 per cent of vote but only 4 per cent of the seats.

Elections in Great Britain

The general election means that the voters in the country cast their votefor the candidate from the political party of their choice to be the Member of Parliament for the constituency. The political party which wins the most seats in the House of Commons forms the Government. This is different from by-election, which occurs when a Member dies, retires or disqualified, and voting takes place only in the constituency without a member, not throughout the country.

The United Kingdom is divided into areas which are known as constituencies. You live in a constituency and will register to vote there. You have one vote which you cast for the person you wish to represent you in the Parliament. Through this you also vote for the party which you wish to be in power.

The time between general elections is 5 years. About the month before the election the Prime Minister meets a small group of close advisers to discuss the date which would best suit the party. The date is announced to the Cabinet. The Prime Minister formally asks the Sovereign to dissolve the Parliament. General elections are usually held 17 days after the dissolution of the Parliament. Thursdays are popular general election days. General elections are often held in either spring or autumn.

Each constituency is divided into a number of polling districts; each of them has a polling station. Most polling stations are in public buildings such as schools, town halls or council offices. Voting takes place on Election Day (polling day) from 7 am till 10 pm in each constituency. Voters are sent a polling card in advance. Voting is by secret ballot, and the only people allowed in the polling station are presiding officer, the polling clerks, the duty police officer, the candidates, their election agents and the voters.

Just before the poll opens, the presiding officer shows the ballot boxes to those at the polling station to prove they are empty. The boxes are then locked and sealed. Voting takes place in a booth. The voter marks the ballot paper with a cross in the box opposite the name of the candidate of his or her choice and folds the paper to concealthe vote before placing it in the ballot box.

The results from each constituency are announced as soon as the votes have been counted, usually the same night. The national result is known by the next morning.

When all the results are known, the Queen usually invites the leader of the party winning the most seats in the House of Commons to be the Prime Minister and to form a Government. The second largest party becomes the official Opposition with the small group of its MPs being chosen to form the Shadow Cabinet. Its leader is known as the Leader of the Opposition. A date is then announced for the State Opening of Parliament, when the Monarch officially opens the new Parliament.

The House of Lords is unelected Chamber so is not involved in the electoral process. It closes when the Parliament dissolves and reassembles for the State Opening of Parliament.

Elections in the USA

Anyone who is an American citizen, at least 18 years old, and is registered to vote may vote. Each state has the right to determine registration procedures. A number of civic groups, such as the League of Women Voters, are actively trying to get more people involved in the electoral process and have drives to register as many as possible. Americans who want to vote must register, that is, put down their names in register before the actual elections take place. There are 50 different registration laws in the US – one set for each state. In the South, voters often have to register not only locally but also at the county seat.

Another important factor is that there are more elections in the US at the state and local levels than in most countries. Certainly, Americans are much more interested in local politics than in those at federal level. Many of the matters, such as those concerning education, housing, taxes, and so on, are made close to home, in the state or county.

The national presidential elections really consist of two separate campaigns: one is for the nomination at national party conventions. The other is to win the actual election. The nominating race is a competition between members of the same party. They run in a succession of state primaries and caucuses (which take place between March and June). They hope to gain a majority of delegate votes for their national party conventions (in July and August). The party convention then votes to select the party’s official candidate for the presidency. Then follow several months of presidential campaigns by the candidate.

In November of the election year (years are divided by four – leap years, e.g. 2000, 2004, 2008), the voters across the nation go to the polls. If the majority of popular votes in a state go to the presidential (and vice-presidential) candidate of one party, then that person is supposed to get all of that state’s ‘electoral votes’. These electoral votes are equal to the number of Senators and Representatives each state has in Congress. The candidate with largest number of these electoral votes wins the election. Each state’s electoral votes are formally reported by the ‘Electoral College’. In January of the following year, in a joint session of congress, the new President and Vice President are officially announced.

3. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Use them in the sentences or situations of your own.

Impartial Boundary Commission; to be placed on the electoral register; to serve a sentence of imprisonment; residence in the constituency; to prevent their recommendations from being highly controversial; to affect the electoral prospects; to support from different sections of the electorate; exclusion or inclusion; a safe seat; vice versa; to choose between rival candidates; to put strict limits on expenditure; to undergo a reselection process; election campaign; national propaganda; to draw their financial support mainly from the trade unions and industry respectively; to obtain a small percentage of the total vote; unevenly distributed; to obtain big majorities in some seats; to lose narrowly in other seats; vote for the party in power; to dissolve the Parliament; the dissolution of the Parliament; polling districts; a polling station; limits on expenditure; to prevent a problem of bribery and corruption; to fold the ballot paper to concealthe vote; a profound effect; to choose to form the Shadow Cabinet; to determine registration procedures; to involve in the electoral process; to have drives; the nominating race; a succession of state primaries and caucuses; to gain a majority of delegate votes; the party convention; electoral votes; the Electoral College; a joint session of congress.

4. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions.

відбувати строк тюремного ув’язнення; мати право бути обраним; включати постійних мешканців виборчого округу; збройні сили; схвалення обох палат парламенту; бути внесеним у списки виборців (2); включення та виключення; впливати на виборчі перспективи певної партії; електорат; місце, яке отримується найменьшою більшостю голосів; залучати фінансову підтримку; витрати на вибори; здобувати більшість голосів; загальні вибори; завадити хабарництву та корупції; вибирати між конкуруючими кандидатами; нерівномірно розподілений; віддати голос за кандидата партії; формувати уряд; партія їхнього вибору; позачергові вибори; йти у відставку (на пенсію); партія при владі; близький радник; розпускати парламент; проводити загальні вибори; день голосування (2); голосування (2); виборчий район; виборча дільниця; виборча скринька; кабіна для голосування; виборець; приховувати; тіньовий кабінет; бюлетень; президентські вибори; президентство; визначати процедуру реєстрації; залучати все більше людей у виборчий процес; реєстраційні закони; послідовність первинних виборів у партійних організаціях та первинних виборів на партійних форумах; висування кандидата на партійних з’їздах; голоси виборщиків; колегія виборщиків.

5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.

Launched,conceal, succession, residents, evenly, insisted, affect, distributed, marginal, respectively, vice versa

1. The hotel bar was only open to … . 2. He regards violence as a …. rather than a central problem. 3. I like her and …. 4. Throughout the trial, the prisoner… on his lack of guilt. 5. The police have …. an investigation into the incident. 6. The company's chief executive and chief financial officer were asked to retire and resign, … . 7. The paste should be spread …. upon the table to an exact depth. 8. The money that has been collected will be …. among all the children's hospitals in the area. 9. You cannot …. your guilt from the police. 10. She is now seventh in line of … to the throne. 11. The term …. denotes the emotional aspect of all mental activity.

B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.

1. I'm afraid I have to insist … the return of my book at once. 2. The books will be distributed free … local schools. 3. The race …. the presidency was run between well qualified candidates. . 4. A person who is serving a sentence …imprisonment is ineligible to be placed … the electoral register in a constituency. 5. Nothing will prevent us …. reaching our aim! 6. Our party tries to draw the support …. different sections of the electorate. 7. Will the changes in taxation affect …. you personally? 8. The United Kingdom is divided into constituencies. 9. Voters are sent a polling card … advance. 10. Voting is held … secret ballot. 10. The voter marks the ballot paper … a cross … the box opposite the name … the candidate … his or her choice. 11. The nominating race is a competition between members of the same party. 12. The nominees hope to gain a majority … votes … their national party conventions. 13. The party convention then votes to select the official candidate … the presidency. 14. The electoral votes are equal … the number … Senators and Representatives each state has … Congress.

6. Read and say whether these statements are true or false.

1. People serving sentences of imprisonment cannot take part in elections. 2. British citizens who live abroad cannot be placed on the electoral register. 3. Before elections Parliament forms Boundary Commissions. 4. A voter can choose only between rival candidates. 5. According to the election law there are no strict limits on expenditure during an election campaign. 6. All political parties have firm financial base. 7. An MP is elected even if he obtains only one vote more than his rival. 8. The British government is elected for five years. 9. The Queen chooses the date of the next general election. 10. The place where people go to vote in the election is called a polling station. 11. The political party which wins the most seats in the House of Lords forms the Government. 12. The United Kingdom is divided into areas which are known as constituencies. 13. Each constituency is divided into a number of polling districts. 14. The Queen appoints MPs to become the Cabinet. 15. The Prime Minister opens the new Parliament. 16. The House of Lords is an unselected Chamber. 17. The federal government determines registration procedures in the USA. 18. Americans must register before the actual elections take place. 19. The registration law is common and obligatory throughout the US.

7. Word Choice. Choose word or phrase (a, b or c) which best complete the unfinished sentence:

1. The Boundary Commissions…. . a) decide the exact boundaries of constituencies; b) draw their support from different sections of the electorate; c) make recommendations about constituency boundaries which people do not always agree with.

2. Party candidates….. a) are chosen by the voters; b) are chosen differently in each party; c) reflect voters’ wishes in the Commons.

3. Expenditure during an election campaign …… a) officially includes national propaganda; b) encourages corruption; c) is strictly limited by law.

4. The money needed by political parties in Britain comes from …… a) different sources; b) industry; c) trade unions.

5. A ….. occurs when a Member dies, retires or disqualified. a) presidential election; b) general election; c) bye-election;

6. The second largest party becomes the official …. . a) Opposition; b) Cabinet: c) close advisers;

7. An election in the USA, in which qualified voters nominate or express preference for a particular candidate for political office, is called a ……… . a) presidential election; b) primary; c) caucus;

8. A meeting of the members of a political party to choose an official candidate for the presidency is …. . a) presidential election; b) primary; c) caucus;

9. The …. is a body of persons representing the states of the US, who cast votes for the election of the President. a) electoral college; b) electorate; c) electoral vote;

8. A. Match the definitions in the right column to the words given in the left.A):

1. eligible a) a seat which an MP obtains if elected by only a small majority;
2. impartial b) suitable, with the right qualifications; having right to be chosen;
3. chamber c) a seat which it is certain to be obtained by a candidate of one particular party;
4. safe seat d) dividing line that marks the limit between two areas;
5. boundary e) a hall used by a group of legislators;
6. marginal seat f) fair, not favouring one more than another;
7. cabinet g) members of parliament who do not belong to the party in power;
8. candidate h)someone who stands in an election;
9. by-election i) an election in one constituency in contrast to a general election;
10. the opposition j) to be a candidate in an election;
11. elect k) to choose someone by voting;
12. stand / run for Parliament l) a committee of the most important ministers in the government;

B): Find words and expressions in the text which mean:

1. an election in the whole country to elect a new Parliament; 2. an area of the UK for which a representative is elected to the House of Commons; 3. voting at the election; 4. a group formed by the Opposition, i.e. those who might form a new Cabinet if there is a change of government after a general election; 5. a locked box there ballots are deposited; 6. the place where people go to vote in the election; 7. to end the life of a Parliament by public announcement of the Sovereign, leading to the general election; 8. a body of persons entitled to vote; 9. a member of electoral college.

9. Choose a suitable word from the list below to complete each of the following sentences.

A.to appoint, prominent, local councils, minority, to elect(2), proportion(3), to appeal

Some people suppose that there are few women and members of the ethnic 1)__________ in Parliament. In 1979, Margaret Thatcher became the first Prime Minister, yet she never 2) ___________ a woman to her Cabinet, and until 1983 the 3) _____________ of women 4) ____________ to the House of Commons was under 5%. In the election in 1992, 59 women 5) ______________ to the House of Commons. This total is still below the 6) ____________ in other European countries.

Although the Conservatives choose few women as their candidates for the House of Commons’ seats, women are very active in the affairs of the party as a whole. The Labourites have also tried to 7) _____________ to women voters by giving women 8) _______________ positions. In all parties, a higher 9) _____________ of women is elected to 10) ____________ than the House of Commons.

B. constituency, private sector, opposition, inflation, manifesto, unemployment, general election

1. The United Kingdom is divided into 650 parliamentary ______________. 2. A ______________ takes place every four or five years. 3. Before an election, each party prepares a ______________ which outlines their policy. 4. An important Conservatives’ policy was the return of state industry to the _______________. 5. During the period of Conservative government ______________ fell to 4% for the first time in nearly thirty years. 6. However, ______________ continued to be unacceptably high. 7. While the Conservatives were in power, Labour formed the official _________________ .

C. election campaign, support, polling day, ballot box, vote, predict, opinion poll, polling station, candidate.

People sometimes try to 1) ______________ the result of an election weeks before it takes place. Several hundred people are asked which party they prefer, and their answers are used to guess the result of the coming election. This is called an 2) ______________. Meanwhile each party conducts its 3) _______________ with meetings, speeches, television commercials, and party members going from door to door encouraging people to 4) _________________ their party. In Britain, everyone over 18 is eligible to 5) _____________. The place where people go to vote in an election is called a 6) __________________ and the day of the election is often known as 7) _____________________. The voters put their votes in a 8) ________________and later they are counted. The 9) ____________________ with the most votes is then declares the winner.

9. Study the text more carefully and answer the following questions:

1. Do all British citizens aged 18 and over have the right to vote in the UK? 2. What is the role of Boundary Commissions in an election campaign? 3.Which candidates are elected at UK parliamentary elections? 4. What do the results of elections depend on? 5. What are the disadvantages of the British electoral system? 6. If there are two parties in Britain, when can the one which gains more than 50 per cent of the votes obtain less that 50 per cent of the seats in the House of Commons? 7. What are General Elections? 8. What are bye-elections? 9. How is the date of the election decided? 10. What is the procedure of voting in Britain? 10. What happens when all the results are known?

10. Fill in the gaps to complete this text about the political system in the United Kingdom. One word in each gap.

In the UK (1) ________ are held every five years. The (2) ____________ may decide to hold one after four years, but five years is maximum.

Some countries have a system of proportional representation: this means in theory, that a political party with 30% of the (3) __________ should get 30% of the seats in (4) ____________. In the UK, the political system is different: here the winner takes all. This means that the person with the most votes in each (5) ________ wins the seat; and the political (6) __________ which wins a (7) ____________ of the seat will (8) ____________ the government on their own. As a result of this system, it is possible for a party to be in (9) _________ with only 40% of the total vote. Some people think this system is unfair. What do you think? What possible reasons to justify this system?

11. Fill in a correct word or phrase from the list below:

Fourteen; electors(2); qualification; natural-born; senators; thirty-five; representatives; January 6; electoral collage; December; electoral(5); second Wednesday; President of the Senate; Monday(2); both houses; four; majority; November; three; Tuesday; two; Senate;

Voters do not vote directly for President and Vice President. They vote for (1)_______, who vote for them. A state has as many (2) _____ as it has (3)______ and (4)______ combined. They make up what we call (5) ______ _____. The (6)______ votes are counted and certified in the states and are then sent to the (7) _____ of the _______. They are then counted in the presence of (8)_______ ______ of Congress. If a presidential candidate does not get a (9)_______ of (10) ______ votes, the House of Representatives elects a President from among the (11)_______ candidates with the most (12)______ votes. If a vice-presidential candidate does not get a (13)_______ of (14)______ votes, the (15)_______ elects a Vice-President from the (16)_____ with the most (17) ______ voters.

The day electors are elected is the (18)______ after the first (19) _____ in (20)______ every (21) _____ years. The day the electors vote for President and Vice-President is the first (22)______ after the (23)______ _______ in (24) _____, and the day these votes are counted by Congress is (25)______ _______.

The President must be at least (26) ______ years old, a (27)_____ - _____ citizen, and have lived in the United States for (28)____ years. The Vice-President must meet the same (29) ______ .

12. Translate into English using the active vocabulary:

A. 1. Якщо електорат не схвалює політики кабінету міністрів, він може обрати опозицію. 2. Всі були здивовані, коли кандидата партії зелених було обрано, адже це місце вважалось забезпеченим для партії консерваторів. 3. Уряд втратив довіру палати громад, парламент було розпущено, і загальні вибори було оголошено. 4. Роль опозиції - критикувати міністрів і запропонувати виборцям обрати новий уряд. 5. У багатьох

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