GREAT BRITAIN, ITS CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS


GREAT BRITAIN, ITS CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS

SPEECH PATTERNS

As far as I am concerned - Насколько я знаю

By and large – В общем и целом

You may not believe it but – Вы можете не поверить, но

It may sound strange but – Это может звучать странно, но

Never in a million years! – Ни за что на свете!

Not for all the tea in China! – Ни за какие коврижки!

I’d so much like to go … - Мне бы так хотелось поехать …

It proved to be true – Это подтвердилось

Exercise 1.Translate the following sentences into English using Speech Patterns.

1. Насколько я знаю, поезд в Лидс отправляется в 10 утра. 2. Вы можете мне не верить, но все театры в воскресенье закрыты. 3. Ни за что на свете я не поверю в Санта Клауса. 4. Мне бы так хотелось отметить Рождество в Англии. 5. В общем и целом каждая нация имеет свои обычаи и традиции.

Exercise 2.Read the short dialogues translating answers into English. Use Speech Patterns.

1. - What are you going to do with all your Christmas presents?

- В общем и целом я об этом еще не думал.

2. - Where would you like to spend the New Year’s Day?

- Вы можете не поверить, но я собираюсь в Финляндию к Деду Морозу.

3. - Would you like to spend the New Year’s Eve alone?

- Ни за какие коврижки!

4. - Did you know that the Lord Chancellor sits on the woolsack?

- Насколько я знаю, это правда.

Exercise 3.Make similar short dialogues using Speech Patterns.

VOCABULARY

Nouns and phrases with them

1. a costume ball – костюмированный бал

2. a fancy-dress party – маскарад

3. aircraft – самолетостроение

4. All Saints’ Day – День всех святых

5. an evil spirit – злой дух

6. Boxing Day – день подарков

7. branch of industry – отрасль промышленности

8. candy floss – сахарная вата

9. chimney – труба

10. cockles, mussels, shrimps – моллюски, мидии, креветки

11. cotton manufacture – хлопчатобумажная промышленность

12. coalfields – каменноугольные бассейны

13. crossways – перекресток

14. Easter Monday – понедельник после пасхи

15. egg-rolling - катанье крашеных яиц с горки (на пасху)

16. elaborately adorned – искусно украшенный

17. fixed date – установленный день

18. food industry – пищевая промышленность

19. for a small fee – за небольшой гонорар

20. Good Friday – пятница перед пасхой

21. holly – остролист

22. hot cross buns - (горячая) булочка с изображением креста (которую едят в великую пятницу и во время великого поста)

23. ill-luck – невезение, неудача

24. lace, feathers and moss – кружево, перья и мох

25. majority of seats – большинство мест

26. mining centre – центр угледобычи

27. public (bank) holiday – официальный праздник

28. sea routes – морские пути

29. ship-building centre – центр кораблестроения

30. shop-made valentines – готовые валентинки

31. Shrove Tuesday – Страстной вторник, вторник на масленой неделе (последний день масленицы)

32. steel – сталь

33. the Fasting of Lent – Великий пост

34. townsfolk – горожане

35. trade – ремесло, профессия, торговля

36. treat – угощение

36. trippers – туристы

37. weirdest mixture of stuff – фантастическая смесь продуктов

38. wireless – радио

39. with an eye to - с целью, в расчете на, для того, чтобы

Verbs

1. to be held – проводиться

2. to be marked by smth – отмечаться чем-либо

3. to be more precise – чтобы быть более точным

4. to be observed – праздноваться, соблюдаться

5. to be situated – находиться, располагаться

6. to be washed by – омываться

7. to believe in devils, witches and ghosts – верить в чертей, ведьм и привидения

8. to confess one’s sin to a priest – исповедаться в грехе перед священником

9. to connect – связывать



10. to consist of – состоять из

11. to date back to – относиться к (о времени)

12. to do all kinds of damage to property – нанести вред имуществу

13. to eat pancakes – есть блины

14. to elect – выбирать, избирать

15. to exchange greetings – обменяться поздравлениями

16. to export – экспортировать

17. to fall on – приходиться на (какой-либо день)

18. to freeze (froze, frozen) – замерзать

19. to glitter – блестеть, сверкать

20. to join – соединять

22. to light a candle inside – зажечь свечу внутри

23. to nail a horseshoe – прибить подкову

24. to paint magic signs – нарисовать магические знаки

25. to play a trick on smb – сыграть шутку с кем-либо

26. to put smb to death – казнить кого-либо

27. to revive – возрождаться

28. to scare one’s friends – пугать друзей

29. to scrape out a pumpkin – выдолбить тыкву

30.to ward off witches – отпугивать ведьм

Adjectives

undamaged - неповреждённый

PHONETIC EXERCISES

Exercise I. Pronounce the following words correctly paying attention to the way of pronunciation of the vowels and combinations of vowels

[۸] public, Monday, buns, stuff, mussels, luck, pumpkin, southern, other, country,

[]] holiday, Boxing, cross, cockles, floss, holly, moss, property, costume, continent, crossway,

[ou] rolling, folk, Shrove, ghost, flow

[iə] weirdest

[æ] Valentine, candy, candle, fancy, magic, damage, pancake, narrowest, ca’nal, parallel

[e] head, eUlect

[ei] day, date, exchange, Saint, paint, nail, play, scrape

[eə] scare, aircraft

[ai] island, lie, high, mild, climate

[aiə] wireless

[i:] kilometers

[u:] route

[au] mountain

[a:] branch

Exercise 2.Read the words paying attention to the way of reading of the consonants and combinations of consonants.

[k] candle, trick, scrape, costume, mark, magic, kind, confess, exchange, cockles, ill-luck, coal, chemical, queen, practice

[d¥] geographical, region, majority

[t∫] chain, temperature, agriculture, manufacture

[s] centre

Exercise 3.Read the words paying attention to the change of the place of the stress in different parts of speech.

Uexport – to exUport Uindustry – inUdustrial

Uimport – to imUport Uproduct – to proUduce

Exercise 4.Read the following proper names and remember their pronunciation.

Great Britain [Ugreit U britən]

the British Isles [Ubriti∫ Uailz]

England [Uiŋglənd]

Scotland [Usk]tlənd]

Wales [weilz]

Northern Ireland [Un]:ðәn Uailənd]

the Irish Republic [Uairi∫ riUpžblik]

the Atlantic Ocean [әtUlæntik Uou∫n]

the English Channel [Uiŋgli∫ Ut∫ænәl]

the Straight of Dover [Ustreit әv Udouvә]

the United Kingdom [ju:Unaitid Ukiŋdәm]

the Netherlands [Uneðələndz]

Denmark [Udenma:k]

Norway [Un]:wei]

the Grampians [Ugræmpiәnz]

the Cheviot Hills [Ut∫eviәt Uhilz]

the Pennine Chain [Upenain Ut∫ein]

Snowdon [Usnoudәn]

the Cambrian Mountains [Ukæmbriәn Umauntәnz]

Ben Nevis [Uben Unevis]

the Severn [Usevә:n]

the Clyde [klaid]

the Gulf Stream [Ugžlf Ustri:m]

Sheffield [U∫efild]

Birmingham [Ubə:miŋəm]

Manchester [Umænt∫əstə]

Liverpool [Ulivəpu:l]

Bristol [Ubristl]

LEXICAL EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Read and translate the following sentences using active vocabulary.

1. The term “bank holiday” dates back to the 19th century.

2. Christmas Day and Boxing Day are observed on the 25th and 26th of December respectively.

3. Besides public holidays there are other days, which are marked by centuries-old traditions. These are different festivals and anniversaries.

4. February, 14 is St. Valentine’s Day, it is a day for choosing sweethearts and exchanging signs of love.

5. Valentine was a colourful card with a short love verse composed by the sender.

6. Shop-made valentines are cards with ready-made congratulations and decorations.

7. On Shrove Tuesday Christians confessed their sins to a priest.

8. The customs of Halloween, the eve of All Saints’ Day, date back to a time, when people believed in evil spirits.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions.

1. There are several bank holidays … the United Kingdom.

2. Most … the holidays are of religious origin.

3. Certain customs and traditions are connected …most bank holidays, because many … them are part … holiday seasons like Easter and Christmas seasons.

4. Great Britain consists … 3 parts.

5. Public holidays do not fall … the same date each year.

6. Only Christmas Day and Boxing Day are observed … the 25th and 26th of December accordingly.

7. Great Britain is washed all round ... water.

8. Many rivers are joined … canals.

9. Good Friday and Easter Monday depend … Easter Sunday which falls … the first Monday .. May.

Exercise 5. Read the sentences, using the English phrases instead of the Russian ones.

1. A bank holiday is (официальный праздник) when all banks and post offices are closed.

2. (Рождество, 25 декабря) is the day which the families traditionally spend together.

3. People usually give some small presents or money to postmen or servants (в день подарков).

4. Scotland (находится)in the north of the island.

5. (В пятницу перед Пасхой) people usually eat (особые булочки с крестом наверху).

6. (Некоторые традиции и обычаи англичан) are famous all over the world.

7. The main industries in Great Britain are (кораблестроение, угледобыча хлопчатобумажное производство и пищевая промышленность).

8. St. Valentine’s Day (празднуется) on the 14th of February.

Exercise 6. Translate the phrases below into English and use them in sentences of your own:

а) самый популярный официальный праздник, новогодние вечеринки, канун Нового года, отмечать смерть Христа, чай и разговор о погоде, быть известным во всем мире, посылать валентинки, перед Великим постом, не верить в злых духов;

b) находиться на перекрестке морских путей, реки не замерзают, он знает много ремесел, много отраслей промышленности, чтобы быть более точным, большинство мест в Парламенте, производство стали.

Text 1

Exercise 1.Read and translate the text.

GREAT BRITAIN

To the west of the continent of Europe there lie two large islands called the British Isles. The larger of these islands is known as Great Britain and it consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The smaller island is Ireland with Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic.

Great Britain is washed all around by water. It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea in the west and the eastern coast is washed by the North Sea. The southern coast is washed by the English Channel. The narrowest part of the Channel, the Straight of Dover, is only 32 kilometers wide.

England is the southern and the central part of Great Britain. Scotland is in the north of the island and Wales is in the west. Northern Ireland is situated in the north-east part of Ireland. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Great Britain has a very good geographical position as it lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other parts of the world. The sea connects Great Britain with most European countries such as the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway and many other countries.

The British Isles have no high mountains. Scotland is a mountainous country. Here there is the main chain of mountains which is called the Grampians and its highest peak is Ben Nevis which is 4 400 feet high. Mountains which separate Scotland and England are called the Cheviot Hills. In England the Pennine Chain runs down from the north through the centre. In Wales there are the Cambrian Mountains. Its peak Snowdon is in the North Wales. Ireland is covered with mountains and hills.

The British Isles have a lot of rivers, but they are not very long. The longest river is the Severn which flows south-west into the Irish Sea. The other important rivers are the Thames in England on which London stands and the Clyde in Scotland where Glasgow is situated. Many rivers in England and Scotland are joined by canals. There are a lot of lakes in Great Britain and the most famous lakes are in the Lake District in the north-west of England. There are not great woods in the British Isles now. Historically the most famous forest is Sherwood Forest in the east of England. It was the home of Robin Hood.

The climate of the British Isles is not very cold in winter and never very hot in summer. The rivers do not freeze in winter and snow never lies on the ground for long. In winter thick fogs cover Britain. The British Isles are warmed by the Gulf Stream, as a result the temperature in Britain is higher than in Moscow and St. Petersburg which are between the same parallels. It often rains in Great Britain in all seasons. The mild and damp climate is very good for agriculture.

Great Britain has a highly developed industry. It is rich in coal, iron and other metals. The main industrial centres are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow and Bristol. Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool and Sheffield make up the industrial area called the “Black Country” situated in the middle of the country near coalfields. Its centre is Birmingham which is called the “City of 1500 Trades”. Sheffield is the city of steel. Manchester is the chief cotton manufacturing city. Liverpool is the first port exporting the products of the “Black country”. Bristol is a large port and the centre of aircraft and food industry. In Scotland Glasgow is the largest shipbuilding and mining centre. New industries are developing in the regions which were agricultural and the old industrial centres have developed new branches of industry – electronics, wireless, chemical industry and others.

At the head of the state there is the Queen but in practice state power is in the hands of the Parliament and, to be more precise, in the hands of the Prime Minister. Parliament has two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The members of the House of Lords are not elected. The Commons are elected. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party which has the majority of seats in the House of Commons.

Exercise 2.Agree or disagree.

1. The British Isles consist of 3 large islands.

2. The UK includes 3 parts.

3. Gr. Britain is washed by water.

4. England is the northern part of Gr. Britain.

5. Wales is in the west of the island.

6. The Gulf Stream warms the British Isles.

7. The UK isn’t a highly developed industrial country.

8. The main industries in Gr. Britain are: shipbuilding, electronics, coal mining, chemical and food industries.

9. In practice state power is in the hands of the Queen.

10. There are two houses in the Parliament of Gr. Britain.

Exercise 3.Choose the right variant.

1. To the (west, east) of Europe there lie the British Isles.

2. Gr. Britain is washed by (the Pacific, the Atlantic ) ocean.

3. Scotland is in the (north, south) of the island.

4. (The North Sea, the English Channel) connects Gr. Britain with the continent.

5. (Ben Nevis, Snowdon ) is the highest peak of the Grampians.

6. London is situated on (the Severn, the Thames).

7. The climate of Gr. Britain is (cold, mild).

8. The UK (has, hasn’t) got a highly developed industry.

9. People elect members of (the House of Lords, the House of Commons).

Exercise 4.Read the sentences translating Russian word-combinations.

1. To the west of the continent there lie two islands (называемые Британскими островами)

2. The British Isles (омываются) the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the Atlantic Ocean.

3. The official name of Gr. Britain is (Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии ).

4. The UK consists of (Англии, Уэльса, Шотландии, Северной Ирландии).

5. The mountains of the British Isles are (Грампианские, Шевиотские, Кембрийские и Пенинские).

6. (Самые важные реки ) are the Severn, the Thames, the Clyde.

7. The climate of Gr. Britain is (мягкий, влажный).

8. The UK is a (высокоразвитая индустриальная страна).

9. The Parliament in Gr. Britain consists of (Палаты Лордов и Палаты Общин ).

Exercise 5.Put the points of the plan in the correct order.

1. Industries.

2. Political structure.

3. Geographical position.

4. Climate.

5. Seas washing the British Isles.

6. Mountains.

7. Rivers and lakes.

8. Parts of the UK.

Exercise 6.Answer the questions.

1. Where are the British Isles situated?

2. What is Gr. Britain washed by?

3. What is the official name of Great Britain?

4. How many parts are there in the UK? What are they? What are their capitals?

5. Are there high mountains in Great Britain? What mountains in Great Britain do you know?

What are the highest peaks?

6. Are the rivers in Great Britain long? What is the deepest river? What is the longest one?

7. What are the main characteristic features of the climate in Great Britain?

8. What are the main industries in the UK?

9. How many parts does the British Parliament include? What are they?

Exercise 7.Prove that : a) the British Isles have got a good geographical position;

b) the UK is very suitable for agriculture;

c) Gr. Britain is a highly developed industrial country;

d) the UK is a parliamentary monarchy.

Text 2

PUBLIC HOLIDAYS

Exercise 1.Read and translate the text.

Notes:

Good Friday - Великая пятница, пятница на страстной неделе, является официальным выходным днем. В этот день по традиции едят горячие крестовые булки.

Boxing Day - день рождественских подарков, второй день рождества, 26 декабря, официальный выходной день. В этот день принято дарить подарки. Состоятельные люди делают небольшие денежные подарки прислуге, почтальону и т.д.

the Battle of the Boyne – битва на реке Бойн (1690), принесла победу королю Вильгельму III над войсками Якова II, завершила процесс покорения Ирландии Великобританией (по названию реки в Ирландии, на которой проходило сражение).

England and Wales. Most public holidays in the United Kingdom are also known as “Bank Holidays’. These holidays are: New Year’s Day (January 1st), Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day (first Monday in May), Spring Bank Holiday (last Monday in May), August Bank Holiday (last Monday in August), Christmas Day (December 25th), Boxing Day (December 26th).

Scotland. The Scots do not usually celebrate Good Friday or Boxing Day. In the winter they concentrate instead on Hogmanay, their version of New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day, which is even more of a festive occasion than Christmas. Their bank holidays can also be more variable than to the south of the border, with Spring and Autumn Holidays replacing some of the fixed date bank holidays in England. Scotland has also a number of its own festivals, celebrating the birthday of their national poet with Burns suppers on January 25th, and their national saint on St. Andrew’s Day, November 30th.

Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland has several additional festivals of its own, namely, St. Patrick’s Day in Catholic communities (March 17th) and Orange Day, in Protestant communities, celebrating the Battle of the Boyne (July 12th).

Besides public holidays, there are other festivals, anniversaries and simply days, for example, St. Valentine’s Day, Pancake Day, on which certain traditions are observed, but unless they fall on a Sunday, they are ordinary working days.

EASTER

At Easter the British celebrate the idea of the new birth by giving each other chocolate Easter eggs, which are opened and eaten on Easter Sunday. On Good Friday bakers sell hot cross buns, which are toasted and eaten with butter. Easter Monday is a holiday and many people travel to the seaside for the day or go and watch one of the many sporting events as football or horse-racing.

Egg-rolling is a traditional Easter pastime which still flourishes in Northern England, Scotland, Ulster, and the Isle of Man. It takes place on Easter Sunday or Monday, and consists of rolling coloured, hard-boiled eggs down a slope until they are cracked and broken after which they are eaten by their owners. In some districts, this is a competitive game, the winner being a player whose egg remains longest undamaged, but usually, the fun consists simply of the rolling and eating.

AUGUST BANK HOLIDAY

On Bank Holiday the town folk usually flock into the country and to the coast. If the weather is fine many families take a picnic-lunch or tea with them and enjoy their meal in the open. Seaside towns near London, such as Southend, are invaded by thousands of trippers who come in cars and coaches, trains, motor cycles and bicycles. Trippers wear comic paper hats with slogans such as: “ Kiss Me Quick” and they eat and drink the weirdest mixture of stuff you can imagine, sea food like cockles, mussels, shrimps and fried fish and chips, candy floss, beer, tea, soft drinks, everything you can imagine. Bank Holiday is also an occasion for big sports meetings, mainly all kinds of athletics, there are also horse race meetings all over the country. There is much boating activity on the Thames and other rivers.

CHRISTMAS

For most British families this is the most important festival of the year. They decorate their houses with brightly-coloured paper or holly, and they usually have a Christmas tree in the corner of the front room, glittering with coloured lights and decorations. There are a lot of traditions connected with Christmas but perhaps the most important one is the giving of presents. Children leave a long sock or stocking at the end of their bed on Christmas Eve, December 24th, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and bring them small presents, fruits and nuts. On Christmas Day the family sits down to a big turkey dinner followed by Christmas pudding. Later in the afternoon they may watch the Queen on television as she delivers her traditional Christmas message to the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth.

FIRST-FOOTING

In parts of Northern England and in Scotland the old custom of first-footing is still observed. Tradition says that the first person to enter a house on New Year’s Day should be a dark-haired man, otherwise ill-luck will follow. It is also advisable that the person should bring with him a gift – a piece of coal, a fish, a bottle of whisky or a piece of bread – they are traditional gifts. Curiously enough, in a few other parts of the country, the First-Footer is required to be a fair-haired man! In the past, young men of the right colouring and with an eye to business would offer their service as First-Footer to households in the district – for a small fee.

FEBRUARY 14th

It’s here again, the day, when boys and girls, sweethearts and lovers, and even the office staff will exchange greetings of affection, undying love or satirical comment. And the quick modern way to do it is a Valentine’s card. Valentines as we know them first appeared in the 18th century and were cards with drawings and verses made by the sender. In the 19th century shop-made valentines appeared and became increasingly elaborately adorned with lace, real flowers, feathers and moss. Valentine-sending revives from time to time.

The first Valentine of all was a bishop, a Christian martyr, who before he was put to death by the Romans, sent a note of friendship to his jailer’s blind daughter.

One of the older versions of a rhyme:

The rose is red, the violets are blue, the honey’s sweet, and so are you.

Thou art my love and I am thine, I drew thee to my Valentine.

One of the modern versions:

I’ll be your sweetheart, if you’ll be mine,

All of my life I’ll be your Valentine.

PANCAKE DAY

Pancake Day is a popular name for Shrove Tuesday – the last day of enjoyment before the fasting of Lent. On Shrove Tuesday Christians confessed their sins to a priest. Many people still traditionally eat pancakes on that day. One of the main events of Shrove Tuesday is the pancake race at Olney in Buckinghamshire. The competitors in the race are housewives from Olney; they have to make their pancakes and run from the village square to the church.

HALLOWEEN

Another popular British tradition is Halloween, celebrated on October, 31, the eve of All Saints’ Day. Halloween customs date back to a time when people believed in devils, witches and ghosts. They thought that they could do all kinds of damage to property. Some people tried to ward off witches by painting magic signs or nailing a horseshoe. Now most people do not believe in evil spirits. Today the day is usually marked by costume balls or fancy-dress parties and is a popular tradition with young people and children. On the night of Halloween children or grown-ups visit houses and ask the residents if they want “trick” or “treat”. If the people in the house give the children a “treat” (usually money or sweets), then the children will not play a trick on them. Another Halloween custom is to scrape out a pumpkin, cutting eyes, nose and mouth and lighting a candle inside, this is made to scare their friends.

Exercise 2. What is this? (Find the definitions in the key).

1. Rest from work

2. The day before Easter Sunday

3. Anniversary of the Resurrection of Christ

4. First weekday after Christmas Day

5. People living in towns and cities

6. With a purpose of doing smth

7. Day before the beginning of Lent

8. Mixture of flour, eggs, milk, etc., fried on both sides until brown

9. To keep away, to avoid

10. To frighten

Key: with an eye to, Easter, Shrove Tuesday, townsfolk, pancake, Good Friday, to ward off, to scare, Boxing Day, bank holiday

Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences according to the text:

1. The bank holidays in the United Kingdom are…..

2. At Easter the British have the traditions of ….

3. Christmas is …

4. At Christmas the British families decorate their houses with …

5. The first person who enters a house on New Year’s Day must bring …

6. To show their love and affection people ….

7. Halloween is celebrated on …

Exercise 4. Contradict to the following, using the phrases: That’s wrong, I can’t agree with you, According to the text, As far as I know.

1. British people do not observe any traditions.

2. The Scots celebrate New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day instead of Hogmanay.

3. Northern Ireland has only several own specific festivals.

4. On August Bank Holiday the town folk usually stay in town.

5. The traditional Christmas dishes are pizza and Christmas cake.

6. The 14th of February is a simple ordinary day.

7. The competitors in the pancake race on Shrove Tuesday are gentlemen.

8. The eve of All Saints’ Day is usually marked by meetings and demonstrations.

Exercise 5. Answer the questions:

1. Are the bank holidays and traditions different or the same in different parts of the United Kingdom?

2. What do people usually do on Good Friday and Easter Monday?

3. How do the British spend August Bank Holiday?

4. What do you know about the old custom of first-footing?

5. The holiday of St. Valentine is popular now all over the world, isn’t it?

6. What is the origin of Halloween Day and how do people celebrate it nowadays?

Text 3

Exercise 1.Read the text and get ready to do the exercise given after the text.

TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS

Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Britain traditions play a more important part in the life of people than in other countries.

Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. It has been the law for about three hundred years that all the theatres are closed on Sundays. No letters are delivered, only a few Sunday papers are published.

To this day an English family prefers a house with a garden to a flat in a modern house with central heating. English people like gardens. Sometimes the garden in front of the house is a little square covered with cement painted green imitating grass and a box of flowers.

Holidays are especially rich in old traditions and are different in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and England. Christmas is a great English national holiday, and in Scotland it is not kept at all, except by clerks in banks; all the shops, mills and factories are working. But six days later, on New Year's Eve the Scotch begin to enjoy themselves. All the shops, mills and factories are closed on New Year's Day.

People invite their friends to their houses and "sit the Old Year out and the New Year in". When the clock begins to strike twelve, the head of the family goes to the entrance door, opens it wide and holds it until the last stroke. Then he shuts the door. He has let the Old Year out and the New Year in. Now greetings and small presents are offered.

A new national tradition was born in Britain. Every year a large number of ancient motor-cars and motor-cycles — sometimes described as Old Crocks — drive from London to Brighton. "Crocks" means something or someone who is "crocked up" - broken down and in bad condition. Englishmen keep up the old veterans. Veteran cars are those which were made before the year 1904. Some cars look very funny, some are steered by a bar, like a boat. Some cars are driven by steam-engines (by boiling water and not by petrol). This run from London to Brighton is a colourful demonstration. People are dressed in the clothes of the time. The cars start from Hyde Park early in the morning, the oldest cars are leading. It is not a race, and most of the cars come to Brighton, which is sixty miles from London, only in the evening. This demonstration takes place on the day of the announcement of the law in 1896 which said that a man with a red flag must walk in front of every motor-car when it moved along the streets. These were the early days of motor-cars and people were afraid of them.

Exercise 2.Say if these sentences are true or false:

1. Traditions are not quite important in Britain.

2. A house with a garden is far better for an Englishman than a flat with central heating.

3. All the shops, mills and factories are close on holidays.

4. When the clock begins to strike twelve at Christmas, all people rush outside.

5. People driving Old Crocks look very funny.

Text 4

Exercise 1.Read the text and be ready to do exercise 2.

Notes:

Duncan [`dΛnkən]

Macbeth [mæk`bəθ]

Malcolm [`mælkəm]

oak – дуб

It proved to be true — Это подтвердилось

not on it alone - не только на нем (на камне)

In Westminster Abbey there is a large stone which has an interesting history. Legend says the stone was brought from Scotland. It was for a long time the seat on which the kings of Scotland sat when they were crowned. Duncan, Macbeth and Malcolm sat on this stone at their coronations. Edward I of England invaded Scotland many times and once he brought the Stone of Destiny to England.

The legend says wherever this stone goes, a Scottish king rules. It proved to be true after the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603 when King James of Scotland became king of England and Wales too. The kings and queens of Britain still sit on this stone, but not on it alone. In the 13th century King Edward I ordered to make an oak chair as a throne for the English coronations. The Stone of Destiny was fitted into the seat of the chair, and the king could sit on both the English throne and the Scottish stone at the same time. This stone is now in Westminster Abbey.

Exercise 2.Prove that:

1. The Stone of Destiny has an interesting story.

2. The Stone of destiny was used for coronations.

3. Wherever the stone goes, a Scottish king rules.

4. Kings and queens sit not on the stone alone.

Text 5

Exercise 1. Look through the text and get ready to do the task.

CELEBRATIONS IN SCOTLAND

Notes: Halloween – Хеллоуин (праздник)

Druid – друид

witch – ведьма

to play a trick – разыграть, подшутить

Hogmanay – хогманей, канун нового года в Шотландии

first foot – шот. первый новогодний гость

Halloween was first celebrated many centuries ago in Ireland and Scotland by Celtic priests called Druids. They observed the end of autumn and the beginning of winter. The Druids thought that Halloween was the night when the witches came out. As they were afraid of witches they put on different clothes and painted their faces to deceive the evil spirits. They also placed food and small gifts near the door of their houses for the witches. This was, as people say now, the beginning of the expression "trick or treat" (meaning "give me something or I'll play a trick on you").

Hogmanay is the Scottish name for New Year's Eve (December 31). For Scottish people Christmas (December 25) is not so important as it is for the English. On this day people in Scotland give each other presents, and some people go to the kirk (the Scottish word for "church").

On New Year's Eve the Scottish celebrate Hogmanay. Nobody knows what that word means, but everybody knows what to do on Hogmanay. At midnight they welcome in the New Year. They all join arms together and sing Burns's song "Auld Lang Syne" - that means "For old times' sake". Then they kiss everybody and wish them a Happy New Year.

In Scotland “first footing” is a common custom. It is considered lucky if a dark-haired man is the first to set foot in the house after midnight on Hogmanay, bringing a coin, a piece of bread, or a lump of coal as a symbol of plenty for the coming year.

Exercise 2.Put the sentences in the right order:

1. At midnight the Scottish sing “Auld Lang Syne”.

2. The Druids were the first to celebrate Halloween.

3. In Scotland “first foot” is a common custom.

4. Halloween was the night when the witches came out.

5. Hogmanay is the Scottish name for New Year’s Eve.

Exercise 3.Explain why:

1. The Druids put on different clothes and painted their faces.

2. The Druids placed food near the door.

3. People put arms together and sing at Hogmanay.

4. It’s lucky to have a dark-haired man in the house.

Text 6

Exercise 1. Read the texts about some British customs and traditions. Say what customs are described in the text.

How They Relax

English people relax in many different ways. Some young people enjoy going to pubs or to night clubs. Some others prefer to play different kinds of sport and games.

Many Englishmen like to go abroad for their holidays because of the English weather that is rarely sunny. People want to have good rest; they want to lie in the sun and swim in the sea. So they cross the Channel and go to France, Spain, Italy, to the beaches of Southern Europe.

Some other people prefer to stay in Britain and visit other regions of their own country. A lot of people go to the southern sea-side of England. Some others go to the North to spend their spare time in the Lake District or Scotland.

It doesn't matter where people like to go. What is more important they prefer to get away from the noise and the traffic of the big city, go out of the country (or the place where they live) and relax there.

Pastime

One of the commonest everyday pastimes in Britain is a walk round the shops or through the park. Wives especially, and many husbands too, love "window-shopping" in a busy commercial district. It means that they like to look at the things which are displayed in the shop-windows. And they wish they had enough money to buy them. Window display is an art, and big stores have special "window-dressers".

Hobbies

Perhaps the commonest hobby of all is gardening. Most British houses have a small garden at the back. And many people, particularly men, are fond of gardening.

As well as gardening, many men enjoy repairing the house or the family car — particularly if it is an old one.

Schoolboys' Hobbies

Most British schoolboys have a hobby of some kind. It is often something technical. They are interested, for example, in motor cars, aeroplanes and rockets, or ships, or trains. Others are more interested in nature, especially birds. Bird-watching is another hobby in Britain.

Conservatism

The English are said to be very conservative. Their theatres are closed on Sundays. This was decided by the law in the days of Shakespeare and since that time the law has been in force. But the cinemas are not closed on Sundays. They are open simply because there were no cinemas when the law was made.

Traffic

Traffic in London and other large cities in Britain differs from that of the Continent. In Britain they keep to the left but not to the right. English people say: "If you go left, you go right. If you go right, you go wrong."

They say that once upon a time people kept to any side of the road they liked. But then they decided to make it a rule to keep to the left. As Napoleon hated the British very much, he decided that in France the people should keep to a different side. And later on in all the coun­tries which he conquered he made the traffic keep to the right.

Text 7

Exercise 1.You will listen to 3 texts. While listening get ready to do the exercises. You will hear the texts twice.

Exercise 2.Define the topic of the texts. Choose one for each text from the suggested below:

1. British society.

2. Inhabitants of Ontario.

3. The English language.

4. The day of the Saint.

5. Spirit of raven.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions using the information from the texts:

1. Where is Gaelic language spoken?

2. Has Ireland great writers famous all over the world?

3. What is the richest province in Canada?

4. What is Canada’s largest city?

5. Why do Canadians believe in Spirit of Raven?

Text 8

Exercise 1.Read the text and get ready to do the test.

SPEECH EXERCISES

Exercise 1.Speak on the topics:

a) What British holidays do you know? What holidays do you like best of all and why?

b) What British holidays are observed in our country? Why? In what way?

WRITTEN TASKS

Exercise 1.Write a letter to your friend from Germany. Here is a part from her letter.

“ … I am very glad that your report on holidays in Britain was highly estimated. Could you tell me about the most ancient ones and I will tell you about our holidays in my next letter.

Looking forward to getting your letter.

Much love,

Greta”

Observe the rules of letter writing.

Exercise 2.Different nations have similar myths and legends. What about holidays? Can we find similar holidays in different countries? You can use your knowledge about holidays in other countries besides Great Britain and Russia (for example, the USA, Australia, Germany, France, etc).

TEST “Great Britain”

Choose the correct answer.

The Union Flag, popularly known as … , symbolizes the union of the countries of the UK. It is made up of the individual flags of three countries in the Kingdom

A. the Union Jack; B. the Union Patrick ; C. the Union Nick; D. the Union Andrew ;

Choose the right answer.

1. England - The capital is A. Edinburgh
2. Scotland - The capital is B. Cardiff.
3. Wales - The capital is C. London
4. Northern Ireland -The capital is D. Belfast

Choose the right answer

A. Snowdon B. the Pennine Chain С. the Highlands D. the Cheviot Hills E. the Cambrian Mountains

1) Mountains which separate Scotland and England are called … . 2) In England … runs down from North through the centre. 3) … occupies the greater part of Wales 4) Its peak … is in the North Wales. 5) … are in the north of the country

GREAT BRITAIN, ITS CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS

SPEECH PATTERNS

As far as I am concerned - Насколько я знаю

By and large – В общем и целом

You may not believe it but – Вы можете не поверить, но

It may sound strange but – Это может звучать странно, но

Never in a million years! – Ни за что на свете!

Not for all the tea in China! – Ни за какие коврижки!

I’d so much like to go … - Мне бы так хотелось поехать …

It proved to be true – Это подтвердилось

Exercise 1.Translate the following sentences into English using Speech Patterns.

1. Насколько я знаю, поезд в Лидс отправляется в 10 утра. 2. Вы можете мне не верить, но все театры в воскресенье закрыты. 3. Ни за что на свете я не поверю в Санта Клауса. 4. Мне бы так хотелось отметить Рождество в Англии. 5. В общем и целом каждая нация имеет свои обычаи и традиции.

Exercise 2.Read the short dialogues translating answers into English. Use Speech Patterns.

1. - What are you going to do with all your Christmas presents?

- В общем и целом я об этом еще не думал.

2. - Where would you like to spend the New Year’s Day?

- Вы можете не поверить, но я собираюсь в Финляндию к Деду Морозу.

3. - Would you like to spend the New Year’s Eve alone?

- Ни за какие коврижки!

4. - Did you know that the Lord Chancellor sits on the woolsack?

- Насколько я знаю, это правда.

Exercise 3.Make similar short dialogues using Speech Patterns.

VOCABULARY

Nouns and phrases with them

1. a costume ball – костюмированный бал

2. a fancy-dress party – маскарад

3. aircraft – самолетостроение

4. All Saints’ Day – День всех святых

5. an evil spirit – злой дух

6. Boxing Day – день подарков

7. branch of industry – отрасль промышленности

8. candy floss – сахарная вата

9. chimney – труба

10. cockles, mussels, shrimps – моллюски, мидии, креветки

11. cotton manufacture – хлопчатобумажная промышленность

12. coalfields – каменноугольные бассейны

13. crossways – перекресток

14. Easter Monday – понедельник после пасхи

15. egg-rolling - катанье крашеных яиц с горки (на пасху)

16. elaborately adorned – искусно украшенный

17. fixed date – установленный день

18. food industry – пищевая промышленность

19. for a small fee – за небольшой гонорар

20. Good Friday – пятница перед пасхой

21. holly – остролист

22. hot cross buns - (горячая) булочка с изображением креста (которую едят в великую пятницу и во время великого поста)

23. ill-luck – невезение, неудача

24. lace, feathers and moss – кружево, перья и мох

25. majority of seats – большинство мест

26. mining centre – центр угледобычи

27. public (bank) holiday – официальный праздник

28. sea routes – морские пути

29. ship-building centre – центр кораблестроения

30. shop-made valentines – готовые валентинки

31. Shrove Tuesday – Страстной вторник, вторник на масленой неделе (последний день масленицы)

32. steel – сталь

33. the Fasting of Lent – Великий пост

34. townsfolk – горожане

35. trade – ремесло, профессия, торговля

36. treat – угощение

36. trippers – туристы

37. weirdest mixture of stuff – фантастическая смесь продуктов

38. wireless – радио

39. with an eye to - с целью, в расчете на, для того, чтобы

Verbs

1. to be held – проводиться

2. to be marked by smth – отмечаться чем-либо

3. to be more precise – чтобы быть более точным

4. to be observed – праздноваться, соблюдаться

5. to be situated – находиться, располагаться

6. to be washed by – омываться

7. to believe in devils, witches and ghosts – верить в чертей, ведьм и привидения

8. to confess one’s sin to a priest – исповедаться в грехе перед священником

9. to connect – связывать

10. to consist of – состоять из

11. to date back to – относиться к (о времени)

12. to do all kinds of damage to property – нанести вред имуществу

13. to eat pancakes – есть блины

14. to elect – выбирать, избирать

15. to exchange greetings – обменяться поздравлениями

16. to export – экспортировать

17. to fall on – приходиться на (какой-либо день)

18. to freeze (froze, frozen) – замерзать

19. to glitter – блестеть, сверкать

20. to join – соединять

22. to light a candle inside – зажечь свечу внутри

23. to nail a horseshoe – прибить подкову

24. to paint magic signs – нарисовать магические знаки

25. to play a trick on smb – сыграть шутку с кем-либо

26. to put smb to death – казнить кого-либо

27. to revive – возрождаться

28. to scare one’s friends – пугать друзей

29. to scrape out a pumpkin – выдолбить тыкву

30.to ward off witches – отпугивать ведьм

Adjectives

undamaged - неповреждённый

PHONETIC EXERCISES

Exercise I. Pronounce the following words correctly paying attention to the way of pronunciation of the vowels and combinations of vowels

[۸] public, Monday, buns, stuff, mussels, luck, pumpkin, southern, other, country,

[]] holiday, Boxing, cross, cockles, floss, holly, moss, property, costume, continent, crossway,

[ou] rolling, folk, Shrove, ghost, flow

[iə] weirdest

[æ] Valentine, candy, candle, fancy, magic, damage, pancake, narrowest, ca’nal, parallel

[e] head, eUlect

[ei] day, date, exchange, Saint, paint, nail, play, scrape

[eə] scare, aircraft

[ai] island, lie, high, mild, climate

[aiə] wireless

[i:] kilometers

[u:] route

[au] mountain

[a:] branch

Exercise 2.Read the words paying attention to the way of reading of the consonants and combinations of consonants.

[k] candle, trick, scrape, costume, mark, magic, kind, confess, exchange, cockles, ill-luck, coal, chemical, queen, practice

[d¥] geographical, region, majority

[t∫] chain, temperature, agriculture, manufacture

[s] centre

Exercise 3.Read the words paying attention to the change of the place of the stress in different parts of speech.

Uexport – to exUport Uindustry – inUdustrial

Uimport – to imUport Uproduct – to proUduce

Exercise 4.Read the following proper names and remember their pronunciation.

Great Britain [Ugreit U britən]

the British Isles [Ubriti∫ Uailz]

England [Uiŋglənd]

Scotland [Usk]tlənd]

Wales [weilz]

Northern Ireland [Un]:ðәn Uailənd]

the Irish Republic [Uairi∫ riUpžblik]

the Atlantic Ocean [әtUlæntik Uou∫n]

the English Channel [Uiŋgli∫ Ut∫ænәl]

the Straight of Dover [Ustreit әv Udouvә]

the United Kingdom [ju:Unaitid Ukiŋdәm]

the Netherlands [Uneðələndz]

Denmark [Udenma:k]

Norway [Un]:wei]

the Grampians [Ugræmpiәnz]

the Cheviot Hills [Ut∫eviәt Uhilz]

the Pennine Chain [Upenain Ut∫ein]

Snowdon [Usnoudәn]

the Cambrian Mountains [Ukæmbriәn Umauntәnz]

Ben Nevis [Uben Unevis]

the Severn [Usevә:n]

the Clyde [klaid]

the Gulf Stream [Ugžlf Ustri:m]

Sheffield [U∫efild]

Birmingham [Ubə:miŋəm]

Manchester [Umænt∫əstə]

Liverpool [Ulivəpu:l]

Bristol [Ubristl]

LEXICAL EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Read and translate the following sentences using active vocabulary.

1. The term “bank holiday” dates back to the 19th century.

2. Christmas Day and Boxing Day are observed on the 25th and 26th of December respectively.

3. Besides public holidays there are other days, which are marked by centuries-old traditions. These are different festivals and anniversaries.

4. February, 14 is St. Valentine’s Day, it is a day for choosing sweethearts and exchanging signs of love.

5. Valentine was a colourful card with a short love verse composed by the sender.

6. Shop-made valentines are cards with ready-made congratulations and decorations.

7. On Shrove Tuesday Christians confessed their sins to a priest.

8. The customs of Halloween, the eve of All Saints’ Day, date back to a time, when people believed in evil spirits.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions.

1. There are several bank holidays … the United Kingdom.

2. Most … the holidays are of religious origin.

3. Certain customs and traditions are connected …most bank holidays, because many … them are part … holiday seasons like Easter and Christmas seasons.

4. Great Britain consists … 3 parts.

5. Public holidays do not fall … the same date each year.

6. Only Christmas Day and Boxing Day are observed … the 25th and 26th of December accordingly.

7. Great Britain is washed all round ... water.

8. Many rivers are joined … canals.

9. Good Friday and Easter Monday depend … Easter Sunday which falls … the first Monday .. May.

Exercise 5. Read the sentences, using the English phrases instead of the Russian ones.

1. A bank holiday is (официальный праздник) when all banks and post offices are closed.

2. (Рождество, 25 декабря) is the day which the families traditionally spend together.

3. People usually give some small presents or money to postmen or servants (в день подарков).

4. Scotland (находится)in the north of the island.

5. (В пятницу перед Пасхой) people usually eat (особые булочки с крестом наверху).

6. (Некоторые традиции и обычаи англичан) are famous all over the world.

7. The main industries in Great Britain are (кораблестроение, угледобыча хлопчатобумажное производство и пищевая промышленность).

8. St. Valentine’s Day (празднуется) on the 14th of February.

Exercise 6. Translate the phrases below into English and use them in sentences of your own:

а) самый популярный официальный праздник, новогодние вечеринки, канун Нового года, отмечать смерть Христа, чай и разговор о погоде, быть известным во всем мире, посылать валентинки, перед Великим постом, не верить в злых духов;

b) находиться на перекрестке морских путей, реки не замерзают, он знает много ремесел, много отраслей промышленности, чтобы быть более точным, большинство мест в Парламенте, производство стали.

Text 1

Exercise 1.Read and translate the text.

GREAT BRITAIN

To the west of the continent of Europe there lie two large islands called the British Isles. The larger of these islands is known as Great Britain and it consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The smaller island is Ireland with Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic.

Great Britain is washed all around by water. It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea in the west and the eastern coast is washed by the North Sea. The southern coast is washed by the English Channel. The narrowest part of the Channel, the Straight of Dover, is only 32 kilometers wide.

England is the southern and the central part of Great Britain. Scotland is in the north of the island and Wales is in the west. Northern Ireland is situated in the north-east part of Ireland. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Great Britain has a very good geographical position as it lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other parts of the world. The sea connects Great Britain with most European countries such as the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway and many other countries.

The British Isles have no high mountains. Scotland is a mountainous country. Here there is the main chain of mountains which is called the Grampians and its highest peak is Ben Nevis which is 4 400 feet high. Mountains which separate Scotland and England are called the Cheviot Hills. In England the Pennine Chain runs down from the north through the centre. In Wales there are the Cambrian Mountains. Its peak Snowdon is in the North Wales. Ireland is covered with mountains and hills.

The British Isles have a lot of rivers, but they are not very long. The longest river is the Severn which flows south-west into the Irish Sea. The other important rivers are the Thames in England on which London stands and the Clyde in Scotland where Glasgow is situated. Many rivers in England and Scotland are joined by canals. There are a lot of lakes in Great Britain and the most famous lakes are in the Lake District in the north-west of England. There are not great woods in the British Isles now. Historically the most famous forest is Sherwood Forest in the east of England. It was the home of Robin Hood.

The climate of the British Isles is not very cold in winter and never very hot in summer. The rivers do not freeze in winter and snow never lies on the ground for long. In winter thick fogs cover Britain. The British Isles are warmed by the Gulf Stream, as a result the temperature in Britain is higher than in Moscow and St. Petersburg which are between the same parallels. It often rains in Great Britain in all seasons. The mild and damp climate is very good for agriculture.

Great Britain has a highly developed industry. It is rich in coal, iron and other metals. The main industrial centres are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow and Bristol. Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool and Sheffield make up the industrial area called the “Black Country” situated in the middle of the country near coalfields. Its centre is Birmingham which is called the “City of 1500 Trades”. Sheffield is the city of steel. Manchester is th









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