Charge the price встановлювати ціни

Price emphasis продаж товарів за низькою


Extra services додаткові послуги

Loss-leader товар, який продається за

Низькою ціною

Для приваблення клієнтів

Off-even pricing ціна, яка не доходить до круглої


Для приваблювання покупця

Favorable psychological effect благоприємний психологічний


Start with especially low prices почати з особливо низьких цін

New brand новий бренд

High quality expensive item високоякісний дорогий товар

Price de-emphasis висока ціна, яка залежить від

Високоякісного товару (бренд,

Якість обслуговування і ін.)

Exercise 4. Give the English for:

додаткові послуги, місцезнаходження, продаж товарів за низькою ціною, високоякісний дорогий товар, ціна, яка не доходить до круглої цифри для приваблювання покупця, встановлювати ціни, кредитні умови, вести нерозумну політику, попит та пропозиція, почати з низьких цін, конкуренція в ціноутворенні.


Exercise 5. Answer the following questions:

1. What is your idea of the market price?

2. What type of pricing policy do work with the majority of consumer goods? (price emphasis, price de-emphasis)

3. What is more preferable for you in pricing: low prices with no extra services or high prices with home delivery, repair and other services?

4. Why is it so important to have loss-leader item in a shop?

5. What is the off-even pricing made for?

6. How can pricing policy help to compete with well-known products?

Exercise 6. Translate into English:

1. Цей магазин надає покупцям вигідні кредитні умови.

2. Продукт має низьку ціну.

3. Ця фірма веде нерозумну цінову політику.

4. Перш ніж випускати товар, необхідно вивчити попит і пропозицію.

5. Держава встановлює ціни на цілий ряд продуктів.

6. Магазин має чудове місце розміщення.

7. Супермаркет надає покупцю багато додаткових послуг: доставку товарів, кредит, установлення і т. д.

8. Нова марка без сумніву привабить клієнтів.

9. Починайте з низької ціни.

10. Продаж за рахунок низької ціни діє при продажу товарів народного споживання.


Exercise 7. Set tour imagination free:

You are a journalist and you are to interview the finance consult. What questions would you ask?

Unit 18. Successful Marketing

Active Vocabulary

Competitors конкуренти

Target market цільовий ринок

Product awareness обізнаність продукту

market research дослідження (огляд) ринку

Market share ринок в цілому (доля ринку)

Strategy стратегія

Promotion продаж

Launch випустити новий товар

Marketing is finding out about your customers and competitors so that you can provide the right product at the right price. Think about the people you want to sell to: your target market. Different products have different target markets, for example, Swatch and Rolex watches. Questions to ask are:

§ who are my customers - age, sex, income?

§ what is the size of the market?

§ is it possible for the market to get bigger?

§ what about product awareness people know about my company's

§ products?

You find out this information through market research uses interviews to find out about people's attitudes and questionnaires to find out about their shopping habits. When you know who your customers are and how big your market is, the next step is to set your objectives. Do you want to increase sales? To increase market share?Orto make your product different from the competition?

Next, think about your strategy formeeting your objectives. If your objective is to increase market share, you could:

§ find new customers by making your product more attractive;

§ take customers from your competitors;

§ persuade your customers to use more of your product.

How will you make your strategy work? What message do you want to send? There are many types of promotion and it's important to choose the right one, e.g.:

¨ advertising on TV, in newspapers, etc.;

¨ direct marketing by post;

¨ telesales - selling to customers on the phone;

¨ point-of-sale material in shops - free samples or special offers.

Now you are ready to launch your product in the market. Good luck!


Exercise 1. Give the English for:

цільовий ринок, запуск нових продуктів, конкуренти, дослідження ринку, стратегія, доля ринку, обізнаність продукту, переманювати клієнтів, збільшити продаж.


Exercise 2. Math the words in the text with definitions:

strategy, market research, competitors, target market, product awareness, promotion, market share, launch;

1) ways of telling people about your products;

2) the part of the total market that buys your products;

3) knowledge of your company's products;

4) other companies that sell similar products;

5) finding out about the market;

6) to introduce a new product to the market;

7) the kind of people you are interested in selling to;

8) a plan you use in order to achieve something.

Exercise 3. Work in pairs. Take turns to describe the marketing process. Use these phrases:

First you have to ... ■ Then ... ■ Next ■ After that... ■ Finally...


Exercise 4.Work in groups. Think of a product you would like to produce and sell. It could be any kind of product, using marketing elements: Product name; Target market; Objective; Strategy; Promotion.

Exercise 5.Do some research. Think of a product you know or buy regularly, and about how the company markets it. Who is their target market? What are their objectives? Find out what you can about the company. What is their market share? Who are their competitors? Tell the class.

Exercise 6. Answer the following questions:

1 What is the marketing? Why is it important?

2. What are the main elements of marketing?

3. What sort of promotion do you know?

4. Why is it necessary to know target market?

5. Why is it necessary to have strategy?

6. What is the correlation between advertising and marketing?


Unit 19. Wholesaling

Active Vocabulary

wholesaling provide channels indirect channels wholesaling middleman retailer complicated channels chain movement wholesale unit to earn salary merchant wholesaler оптова торгівля забезпечувати систему збуту непряма система збуту оптовий покупець (посередник) роздрібний торговець складна система збуту система об’єднання оптове підприємство заробляти зарплату оптовий покупець
to require the goods as ownership придбати товари у власність
agent middle negotiate purchase or sales receive the commission grocery handle assortment total sales middleman посередник між виробником і покупцем вести переговори з питання купівлі або продажу отримувати процент від продажу бакалія управляти асортимент загальний продаж посередник

Wholesalingis a part of marketing system. It provides channels

of distribution which help to bring goods to the market. Generally, indirect channelsare used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailerto the consumer or through more complicated channels.A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer.

Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing chain movementin the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling unitsaccount for the one-third of total sales.

Two-third of the wholesaling middlemenare merchant wholesalerswho require the goods as ownership they deal in. There are also agent middlemenwho negotiate purchases or salesor both. They don't take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don't earn salaries.They receive commissions.This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell.

Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example, the average supermarket stocks 5,000 items in groceriesalone, a retail druggist can have more than 6,000 items. As a wholesaler handlesa large assortmentof items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The store keeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually hasa well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.



Exercise 1. Give the English for:

оптова торгівля, забезпечувати систему збуту, непряма система збуту, оптовий посередник, роздрібний торговець, система об’єднання, оптове підприємство, придбати товар у власність, отримувати процент від продажу, управляти, загальний продаж, посередник.



Exercise 2. Put the necessary word in the sentence:

wholesalers, require ownership, retailer, stock, channels, assortment, receive the commissions, middleman.

1. They use both direct and direct … of distribution.

2. Agent middleman do not … to the goods they deal in.

3. Usually wholesaling … stands between the producer and retailer.

4. A supermarket may … thousands of commissions items.

5. Usually a wholesaler handles a large … of items of numerous manufactures.

6. Agent middleman don’t earn salaries, they … .

7. A wholesaler doesn’t deal with the customer, he does with … .

8. … simplify the problems of manufactures.

Exercise 3. Translate the following questions:

1. Оптова торгівля – важливий елемент ринкової системи.

2. Товари ідуть від оптового посередника до споживача через роздрібного торговця.

3. Непряма система збуту більш прийнятна.

4. Оптові покупці купують товар.

5. Посередник отримує відсоток від продажу.

6. Посередник звичайно веде переговори на предмет купівлі або продажу.

7. В цьому магазині гарний асортимент товару.

8. Ми змушені дорого платити за доставку.

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the aim of the wholesaling?

2. How can you describe a direct channel distribution?

3. What is an indirect channel of distribution?

4. What channel of distribution is preferable?

5. Is there any difference between a merchant wholesaler and an agent middleman? What is the difference?

6. How does a wholesaler simplify the process of distribution?

Unit 20. Retailing

Active Vocabulary

retailing ultimate consumer link mail-order house stall discount house cooperative single line retailer perform functions extending credit outlet discount роздрібна торгівля кінцевий споживач зв'язок, елемент торгівля поштою кіоск магазин з низькими цінами кооператив роздрібний торговець, який продає один товар виконувати функції довгостроковий кредит торгова точка знижка

Retailingis selling goods and services to the ultimate consumer.

Thus, the retailer is the most expensive linkin the chain of distribution. Being middlemen, they make their profit by charging the customer 25 to 100 per cent more than the price they paid for the item.

The retailers operate through stores, mail-order houses, stall.There are different types of retail stores: department stores, discount houses, cooperatives, single line retailers.

The major part (over 95 per cent) of retail establishments concentrate on a single line of merchandise for example, food hardware, etc. But nowadays there is a trend for many single line stores to take on a greater variety of supplies.

The retailer performsmany necessary functions.First, he may provide a convenient location. Second, he often guarantees and services the merchandise he sells. Third, the retailer helps to promote the product through displays, advertising or sales. Fourth, the retailer can finance the customer by extending credit.Also the retailer stores the goods in his outletby having goods available.

Exercise 1. Give the English:

роздрібна торгівля, потенційний споживач, торгівля поштою, кіоск, торгова точка, знижка, роздрібний торговець, магазин зі знижками, елемент, роздрібний торговець, який продає один товар, виконувати функції, кооператив.


Exercise 2. Put the necessary word in the sentence:

mail-delivery, discount, stall, guarantees, retailer, extending credit, link.

1. … is one function a retailer may perform.

2. You can buy newspapers, cigarettes, cookies from a … .

3. … is the most expensive link in the chain between a producer and a consumer.

4. The firm … good quality of the product.

5. She doesn’t like to go shopping, she prefers to do it by … .

6. The department store is having a sale and there is a 20 per cent … on all light dressers.

7. Wholesaler is an important … between a producer and a customer.


Exercise 3. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Роздрібна торгівля – це продаж товару кінцевому споживачу.

2. В країнах заходу існують різні типи торгових установ: універмаги, супермаркети, магазини зі знижками, і т.д.

3. На цей товар можна придбати 10% знижки.

4. Роздрібна торгівля може надавати покупцю довгостроковий кредит.

5. Ця фірма має багато торгових точок по всій країні.

6. Роздрібний торговець виконує багато важливих функцій.

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